Qahtan redirects here. For other uses, see Qahtan (disambiguation)

The terms Qahtanite and Qahtani (Arabic: قَحْطَانِي‎; transliterated: Qahtani) refers to Arabs who originate from the southern region of the Arabian Peninsula, especially from Yemen.[1][2]

According to Arab tradition, the Qahtanites are pure Arabs, unlike the Adnanites who are "Arabized Arabs", descended from Ishmael through Adnan.[3] The Qahtani people are divided into the two sub-groups of Himyar (Himyartes) and Kahlan (Kahlanis).[2]

Banu Qahtan
(بنو قحطان)
Qahtanite, Children of Qahtan, Joktan
Map of Arabia 600 AD
NisbaQahtani, Qahtaniyyah
LocationThe southern region of the Arabian Peninsula, e.g. Yemen.[1]
Descended from(Qahtan)
Branches(See § Qahtani origins, below.)
ReligionArabian mythology, Nestorian Christianity, Judaism, later mostly Islam and Druze

Traditional Arab genealogy

A family tree of the Qahtanites

Arab tradition maintains that a semi-legendary ancestral figure named Qahtan[1][2] and his 24 sons are the progenitors of the southern inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula known as Qahtani.

Early Islamic historians identified Qahtan with the Yoqtan (Joktan) son of Eber in the Hebrew Bible (Gen. 10:25-29). James A. Montgomery finds it difficult to believe that Qahtan was the biblical Joktan based on etymology.[4][5]

Among the sons of Qahtan are noteworthy figures like A'zaal (believed by Arabs to have been the original name of Sana'a), Hadhramaut and Jurhum who his descendents formed the second Jurhum tribe which Ishmael learned Arabic from.[6][7][8] Another son is Ya'rub, and his son Yashjub is the father of 'Abd Shams, who is also called Saba. All Yemeni tribes trace their ancestry back to this "Saba", either through Himyar or Kahlan, his two sons.

The Qahtani people are divided into the two sub-groups of Himyar and Kahlan, who represent the settled Arabs of the south and their nomadic kinsmen (nomads).[2] The Kahlan division of Qahtan consists of 4 subgroups: the Ta' or Tayy, the Azd group which invaded Oman, the 'Amila-Judham group of Palestine, and the Hamdan-Madhhij group who mostly remain in Yemen.[2]

The Kahlan branch includes the following tribes: Azd (Aus and Khazraj, Bariq, Ghassan, Khuza'a and Daws), Hamdan, Khath'am, Bajilah, Madhhij, Murad, Zubaid, Ash'ar, Lakhm, Tayy (Shammar), and Kindah.[9]

Early linguistic connection

The first groups of Semitic speakers that moved northward already developed the early Semitic names derived from triliteral, and sometimes a quadriliteral verb root. These appellations first appeared in early (now extinct) East Semitic languages, especially Akkadian, Assyrian, and Old Babylonian. A closer examination reveals connections with the Central Semitic language family including: Aramaic, Phoenician, Hebrew, and Nabatean, which is closely related to the Southern Semitic languages Minaean, Sabaean, Qatabanian, Awsanian, Hadhrami, and Himyarite.

Ancient Semitic villages

Biblical and historiographical place names that correspond with modern place names in Yemen and Asir include:

  • Adeem, Yadoom, Damt (from the verb D/a/m meaning "to last")
  • Aram, Arm, Yareem, Maryama (from the verb A/r/m meaning "to stand above")
  • Yafe'e, Mayfa'a, Ayfo'o (from the verb Y/f/a "to grow")
  • Aden "settled", Yahosn "lost"
  • Thobhan, Mathbah "slaughtered"
  • Yomin "south", Yamant "blessed"
  • Yahir "to destroy"
  • Yaghshom, Ghashm "to rain"
  • Yaslih "to fix"
  • Marbad, Arbad (from the verb R/b/d meaning "to spread")

Pre-Islamic Qahtani migration out of Arabia

Early Semites who developed civilizations throughout the Ancient Near East gradually relinquished their geopolitical superiority to surrounding cultures and neighboring imperial powers, usually due to either internal turmoil or outside conflict. This climaxed with the arrival of the Chaldeans, and subsequently the rivaling Medes and Persians, during the 7th and 6th centuries BCE respectively. Though the Semites lost geopolitical influence, the Aramaic language emerged as the lingua franca of much of the Near East. However, Aramaic usage declined after the defeat of the Persians and the arrival of the Hellenic armies around 330 BCE.

The Ghassanids (ca. 250 CE) were the last major non-Islamic Semitic migration northward out of Yemen. They revived the Semitic presence in the then Roman-controlled Syria. They initially settled in the Hauran region, eventually spreading to modern Lebanon, Israel & the Palestinian Territories and Jordan, briefly securing governorship of Syria away from the Nabataeans.

Modern historiography

According to Parolin, the traditional distinction between Adnanites and Qahtanites lacks evidence and may have developed out of the later faction-fighting during the Umayyad period.[3]

After Islam

Between the 7th and the 14th centuries, the Arabs had forged an empire that extended their rule from most of Spain, to western China in the east. During this period of expansionism, the Arabs, including Qahtanite tribes, overspread these lands, intermingling with local native populations while yet maintaining their cultural identity. Although you can find the largest number of Qahtanite Arabs in Yemen and Saudi Arabia, It is not unlikely to find Arabs of Qahtanite descent as far away as Morocco or Iran, and many can trace their heritage with profound accuracy. Among the most famous examples of Qahtanite Arabs are the social scholar Ibn Khaldun who was born in Tunisia to a family that immigrated from Islamic Spain (Al-Andalus), Al Kindi, Ibn al-Baitar.

See also


  1. ^ a b c Qahtan, Britannica Online Encyclopedia, 2009.
  2. ^ a b c d e De Lacy O'Leary (2001). Arabia Before Muhammad. p. 18. notes "Qahtan are divided into the two sub-groups of Himyar and Kahlan".
  3. ^ a b Parolin, Gianluca P. (2009). Citizenship in the Arab World: Kin, Religion and Nation-State. p. 30. ISBN 978-9089640451. "The ‘arabicised or arabicising Arabs’, on the contrary, are believed to be the descendants of Ishmael through Adnan, but in this case the genealogy does not match the Biblical line exactly. The label ‘arabicised’ is due to the belief that Ishmael spoke Hebrew until he got to Mecca, where he married a Yemeni woman and learnt Arabic. Both genealogical lines go back to Sem, son of Noah, but only Adnanites can claim Abraham as their ascendant, and the lineage of Mohammed, the Seal of Prophets (khatim al-anbiya'), can therefore be traced back to Abraham. Contemporary historiography unveiled the lack of inner coherence of this genealogical system and demonstrated that it finds insufficient matching evidence; the distinction between Qahtanites and Adnanites is even believed to be a product of the Umayyad Age, when the war of factions (al-niza al-hizbi) was raging in the young Islamic Empire."
  4. ^ Maalouf, Tony (2003). "The Unfortunate Beginning (Gen. 16:1–6)". Arabs in the Shadow of Israel: The Unfolding of God's Prophetic Plan for Ishmael's Line. Kregel Academic. p. 45. ISBN 9780825493638. Archived from the original on 28 July 2018. Retrieved 28 July 2018. This view is largely based on the claim of Muslim Arab historians that their oldest ancestor is Qahtan, whom they identify as the biblical Joktan (Gen. 10:25–26). Montgomery finds it difficult to reconcile Joktan with Qahtan based on etymology.
  5. ^ Maqsood, Ruqaiyyah Waris. "Adam to the Banu Khuza'ah". Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2015-08-15.
  6. ^ Leaman, Oliver (2006). The Qur'an: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780415326391.
  7. ^ مختصر سيرة الرسول. Darussalam. 2006. ISBN 9789960980324.
  8. ^ India), Asiatic Society (Kolkata; Bengal, Asiatic Society of (1878). Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.
  9. ^ Jirjī Zaydān, David Samuel Margoliouth, Umayyads and ʻAbbāsids: Being the Fourth Part of Jurjī Zaydān, (about Islamic Empire), 1907, p.45.

Further reading


Adnan (Arabic: عدنان‎) is the traditional ancestor of the Adnanite Arabs of Northern, Western and Central Arabia, as opposed to the Qahtanite Arabs of Southern Arabia who descend from Qahtan.


According to Arab genealogical tradition, the Adnanites (Arabic: عدنانيون‎) are "Arabized Arabs", descended from Ishmael through Adnan, distinguished from the "pure" Qahtanite Arabs of southern Arabia.


Al-Dhafeer (Arabic: الظفير‎, also known as al-Dhafeer or other variants) is an Arab tribe, a subgroup of the Tayy tribe of the Qahtanite people. Most of the tribe is in Kuwait, north-eastern Saudi Arabia, with some living in Qatar and elsewhere. The prince of the tribe is known Ibin Suwait family or Alsuwait .


Anmar is an Arabic tribe consisting mainly of the Qahtanite, Adnanite and Ishmaelite Arabs. Anmar in Arabian means : "clean water".

While Mudar was supposed to have a son, Anmar's tribes had perished. The Prophet says Anmar was one of the tribes of Yemen, a son of Saba the Qahtanite.

Banu Harith

The Banu Harith (Arabic: بَنُو الْحَارِث‎ Banū al-Ḥārith or Arabic: بَنُو الْحُرَيْث‎ Banū al-Ḥurayth, Hebrew: בני חורית‎ Bnei Chorath) is one of the Jewish tribes of Arabia which once governed the cities of Najran, Taif, and Bisha, now located in southern Saudi Arabia.

Banu Lakhm

Banu Lakhm is a large Arab tribe tracing their lineage back to Qahtan, who among many achievements, created an Arab kingdom in Al-Hira, near modern Kufa, Iraq. This kingdom acted as a buffer zone between Arabia and the Persian Empire, preventing Bedouin Arab tribes from infiltrating Persian lands.

Banu Yam

Banu Yam (Arabic: بنو يام‎, Banū Yām) are a large tribe native to Najran Province in Saudi Arabia and the principal tribe of that area. They belong to the Qahtanite branch of Arabian tribes, specifically the group known as Banu Hamdan, and are, therefore, native to southwestern Arabia.

Their traditional way of life was well suited to life in the Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands they once lived in. Most have moved into small villages and given up their previous nomadic way of life. The tribe of Yam was also the progenitor of two other important tribes: the Al Murrah and the 'Ujman of eastern Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf coast.

The Yam are notable among the tribes of Saudi Arabia for the majority of its members who follow the small Sulaymani Isma'ili branch of Shi'ite Islam. Religious leadership is currently in the hands of the al-Makrami clan, who joined Yam through alliance some time in the 17th century. Members of the tribe can be found throughout Saudi Arabia due to migration, particularly the areas around Jeddah and Dammam. Unlike some other tribes of southwestern Saudi Arabia, Yam have traditionally had a large bedouin section, due to the proximity of their territories to the formidable desert known as the Empty Quarter.

They are also different from some of their neighboring tribes in that they are recorded to have repeatedly raided the neighboring region of Najd, reaching as far north as Dhruma near Riyadh during the time of the First Saudi State in 1775, and causing much panic.

Harb (tribe)

Harb (Arabic: حرب‎) "War" is a predominantly Sunni tribe in the Arabian peninsula. It is originally a Qahtanite tribe. Several authentic sources on Arab tribes genealogy state that the great-grandfather of Harb tribe is Harb ibn Saad ibn Saad ibn Khawlan ibn Amr ibn Qadha'ah ibn Himyar ibn Qahtan. Harb tribal lands extend from the Red Sea coast in Tihamah (Western Part of Saudi Arabia) to the heart of Najd in the central region of Saudi Arabia, and from North the Harbi lands extend from Madinah (a holy city for Muslims) to Al Qunfudhah in the south. The tribe's reach extends to other countries like Kuwait, Iraq, Egypt and UAE.

The origins of Harb tribe came from the 2nd century of the Islamic calendar. When Qahtani tribes emigrated from the south of Arabian Peninsula to Hijaz around 131 AH for water and land space after some battles with their cousins Banu Ar-Rabi'ah bin Saad. As a result, this caused several tribal conflicts with the native and mostly Adnani Arab tribes of Hijaz and Tihamah such as Juhainah, Inazah, Muzianah, and Sulaim over land and water. After around three centuries in Hijaz, Harb tribe became a dominant tribe in the heart of Hijaz with territories surrounding the holy city of Medina. It is important to note that Harb now, like many other Arabian tribes, is a federation of tribes and families, a good example is that Muzaynah in Saudi Arabia are considered from Harb but it is well known that it was a tribe of its own with a known presence in Hijaz in the Pre-Islamic Arabia as well as the time of the Prophet Muhammed—i.e., before the origin of Harb tribe in Hijaz.

Currently, many of the tribe sons have migrated in recent decades to the three major metropolitan centers of Saudi Arabia, namely Riyadh, Jeddah, and Dammam, in search of better education and employment. One of the main branches of the tribe such as Banu Shaker left al Hejaz and set off to the west coasts of Palestine to start business in agriculture. For the coast of Palestine is well known all around the world for its fertile soil. Banu Shaker that trace there ancestry to Al Hassan Al Muthana are also known to be the Abunamous and Al Shaker Families from Yaffa or Jaffa have developed their reputation of being prominent landowners in Yaffa city.


Humaydah (also transliterated as Humaidah, Arabic: حميضة‎), is an Arab tribe, a subgroup of the Bariq tribe of the Qahtanite people. They were a powerful house which governed the city of Bareq until the Ibn Saud invasion and lived peacefully beside al-Ali.Kinahan Cornwallis Said (1916):" Humeidah. Live in the western part of the district along the Muhail-Qunfudah road from Dhahab to 'Aqabet es-Suhul and extend down the 'Aqabah to Ghar el- Hindi. numbering 7,000 men, of whom 4,000 are nomads٫Their Chief Sheikh is Mohammed Ibn Haiazah.»

Naval Intelligence Handbooks (1916): "The most important tribe is the Humeidah, numbering 7,000 men, of whom 4,000 are nomads. They occupy the western part of the district, and the Muha'il- Qunfudah road from Dhahab to Ghar el-Hindi is in their territory. They quarrel with the Al Isba'i and are divided amongst themselves, the villagers favouring the Turks, the nomads Idrisi. Taken as a whole the tribes support Idrisi, with the exception of the settled Humeidah, and pay him taxes. They are peaceful and pleasure-loving, and by no means fond of war. At the same time they are not above harrying small Turkish convoys.»

Wilfred Thesiger (1946): "This desolate country continued until we reached the wadi khat and the cultivated lands of the Humaidha tribe at barik who resemble the 'Amara and live in well-built, flat-roofed, stone houses. These sedentary tribes own a few camels, some cattle, and fair-sized herds of sheep and goats. They are however essentially cultivators who grow dhurra or "dukhn" (bull-rush millet), either on small plains irrigated by the floods or on the silt of the stream beds.»

Ibn Duraid

Abū Bakr Muhammad ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Duraid al-Azdī al-Baṣrī ad-Dawsī (أبو بكر محمد بن الحسن بن دريد بن عتاهية الأزدي البصري الدوسي), or Ibn Duraid (بن دريد) (933-837 CE), a leading grammarian of Baṣrah, was described as "the most accomplished scholar, ablest philologer and first poet of the age", was from Baṣrah (Iraq) in the Abbasid era. Ibn Duraid is best known today as the lexicographer of the influential dictionary, the Jamhara fi 'l-lugha (جمهرة اللغة) (Vernacular Language). The fame of this comprehensive dictionary of the Arabic language is second only to its predecessor, the Kitab al-'Ayn.

In his biographical dictionary Ibn Khallikān gives his full name as:

Abū Bakr M. b. al-Hasan b. Duraid b. Atāhiya b. Hantam b. Hasan b. Hamāmi b. Jarw Wāsī b. Wahb b. Salama b. Hādir b. Asad b. Adi b. Amr b. Mālik b. Fahm b. Ghānim b. Daus b. Udthān b. Abd Allāh b. Zahrān b. Kaab b. al-Hārith b. Kaab b. Abd Allāh b. Mālik b. Nasr b. al-Azd b. al-Gauth b. Nabt b. Mālik b. Zaid b. Kahlān b. Saba b. Yashjub b. Yārub b. Kahtān, of the Azd tribe, native of Baṣrah.Al-Nadim writing two centuries earlier gives a slightly curtailed genealogy with some variation:

Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan ibn Durayd bin ‘Atāhiyah ibn Ḥantam ibn Ḥasan, son of Ḥamāmī, whose name came from a village in the region of ‘Umān called Ḥamāmā and who was the son of Jarw ibn Wāsi‘ ibn Wahb bin Salamah ibn Jusham ibn Ḥādir ibn Asad bin ‘Adī ibn ‘Amr ibn Mālik ibn Naṣr ibn Azd ibn al-Ghawth.He himself identified with the Qahtanite,, the larger confederacy of which Azd is a sub-group. The modern-day descendants of his tribe are the Zahran tribe residing primarily in the Al Bahah Region of Saudi Arabia.


Jarm (also spelled Jurm or Banu Jurum) were an Arab tribe that, in the Middle Ages, lived in Palestine, Hawran and coastal Egypt. The Jarm were a branch of the Tha'laba clan, a subbranch of the Al Jadilah, itself a branch of the large Arab tribe of Tayy. Some sources, however, consider the Jarm to be from the non-Tayyid tribe of Quda'a. Both the Tayy and the Quda'a were Qahtanite tribes (Arabs originally from Yemen).In the Middle Ages, during Ayyubid and Mamluk rule, the Jarm inhabited the region between Gaza and through the coastal plain of Palestine. Their main encampments were between Deir al-Balah and Gaza, while they often migrated to the vicinity of Hebron in the summer. Beginning with Sultan Baybars, the Mamluks entrusted the Jarm, along with other Tayyid clans with protecting the countryside, providing Arabian horses for the barid (postal route), and levied taxes on them. The chieftains of Jarm and other Tayyid clans were known as "emirs" (princes). In the Mamluk hierarchy, the military rank of the preeminent emir of the Jarm was equal to that of a Damascus-based amir ashara (emir of ten cavalry) or an Aleppo-based amir ashrin (emir of twenty cavalry). In the Mamluk records, the strength of the Jarm was 1,000 cavalry, making them one of the smaller leading tribes of Bilad al-Sham (the Levant); the largest was Al Fadl, the most powerful Tayyid clan.In 1415, there was heavy fighting between the Jarm and the A'id tribe in the triangle of Gaza, Ramla and Jerusalem. In 1494, a dispute arose regarding the official nomination of the preeminent emir of the Jarm, a duty normally entrusted to the Mamluk governors of Gaza or Jerusalem. Sultan Qaytbay ultimately intervened and chose the Jerusalem nominee because that district's governor paid a bribe of five hundred dinars. The Jarm chieftains preserved the title of emir during early Ottoman rule in the 16th century and were listed in the tax registers for the Gaza Sanjak. At the time, it had twelve branches and encamped in the vicinity of Ramla. It paid 10,000 akçe to the treasury of the Ottoman sultan.


The second Jurhum (also Banu Jurhum) was an old Arab tribe in the Arabian peninsula. Traditionally, they were a Qahtanite tribe whose historical abode was Yemen before they emigrated to Mecca.


Madh'hij (Arabic: مذحج‎) also spelled Math'hij is a famous large Qahtanite Arab tribal confederation. It is located in south and central Arabia. This confederation participated in the Arabic Islamic conquest and was a major factor in the conquest of Persian empire and Iberian Peninsula. It is also found in Mosel and in Levant and Iberian Peninsula.The Islamic prophet, Muhammad said that most people in Paradise will be from Madhhij. They were described as being the noblest in nature amongst the Arabs, holding up the virtues Islam holds dear. Those of honour, bravery, valour, courage, justice, wisdom, chivalry, reasoning and humility.

al-Hamdani cited Madhhij 30 times in his book "Sifat Jazirat al Arab: Description of the Arabian Peninsula" as a Genuine Arabic dynasty with branches like Nukha, Zubaid, Ruha and Hada (best archers among the Arabs) that has famous Historical personalities such as the Arabian knight king of Yemen Amru bin Ma'adi Yakrib al-Zubaidi al-Madhhiji who became a Muslim and Malik Ashtar al-Nakh'ei a close friend of the Prophet Muhammad and a military leader with Ali ibn Abi Talib in the battle of Siffin, and Madhhij later fought the Qarmatians under leadership of Abul Ashira in Yemen and Malik ibn Marara a-Rahawi, and the commentaries on al-Hamdani's book shows that they still live in the same towns and places as Hamadani described them in his book dated 900 AD, 1100 hyears ago.Madhhij is mentioned in Namara inscription, a memorial of the Nasrid king of al-Hira Imru ’al-Qays bin ‘Amr (died in 328), “king of all the Arabs”, boasted of having launched a raid against Madhhij, reaching “Najran" city of Shammar (the Himyarite king Shammar Yahri'sh)

. The same story is mentioned in detail in Wahb ibn Munabbih in his book of Pre-Islamic saga and lore "The Book of The Crowns of Himyar Kings"Before Islam, Madhhij had its own Idol that they used to bring in the yearly pilgrimage to Kaaba before Islam (Pagan Arabs before Islam) and they used to make Talbiya specific to Madhhij for that Idol in which they encircle Kaaba several times and plead their Madhhij' Talbiya to Allah to let that Idol be put around the Kaaba. The Arabs are said to inherited Kaaba from Ibrahim who named it Beit Allah, (aka the house of God) but in much later ages they started worshipping idols and then they brought the idols to Kaaba to bless their Idols by God.Madhhij name was found in the Namara inscription dated 330 AD.The men of Madh'hij were described as being hardened and experienced warriors in praising their positive aspect. They were also known for their skills in horseriding and were famed for being the best archers when on a horse.

Moharam (family)

Moharam of Judham of Murrah of Sheba of Kahlan of Qahtanite origin (also Moharram, Muharram, Aal Moharam, Aal Maharema) (Arabic: مُحَرَّم or المحارمة) is a family lineage from Egypt with ancestors from Yemen.

The family descends from Moharram from Judham (Jutham) (جذام) ibn Uday ibn Hareth of Murrah ibn Adad ibn Yashjob ibn Oreib ibn Zeid of Kahlan of Sheba (Sabaa') of Yashgiob of Yareeb from Qahtan from the Arab peninsula (Arabic: بنو جذام (عمرو) بن عدي بن الحارث بن مرة بن أدد بن زيد بن يشجب بن عريب بن زيد بن كهلان بن سبأ بن يشجب بن يعرب بن قحطان)From Judham descend the dynasties Hud (Banu Hud) and


who ruled Andalusia and Valencia.

Moharam first entered Egypt with the Arab conquest of Egypt in December 639 with Amr Bin-Al Aas, settled in Kafr Ali Kaly (قرية كفر على غالى) Al Sharkia, and owned lands. Saladin granted them more lands, which they still hold today.

Moharram in Egypt comprises five houses: Soweid, Baagah, Nathel, Refaa, and Bardaa (سويد، وبعجة، وناثل، ورفاعة، وبردعة )

Although the family settled in Al-sharkia in Egypt, they eventually spread over Egypt and over the middle east, especially in Jordan and Syria.

The major cause of their spread into Egypt was their refusal to pay taxes in the era of Muhammad Ali of Egypt, who ordered the destruction of their houses. Once they heard that the army was marching towards their homes, they abandoned them and took refuge in the neighboring cities.

After the campaign, some of the family houses returned to Al-sharkia while others made their homes in other places in Egypt.

Nukha (tribe)

Nakha (Arabic: النُخَع‎) is Qahtanite Yemeni Arabic tribe. It is branch of Madhhij genuine tribe. They have converted to Islam by Muadh ibn Jabal During the 7th century, participated in Islamic conquest. the tribe has notable historical figures such as Malik Ashtar ṣaḥābī of Muhammad and close friend of Ali ibn Abi Talib.

Al-Hamdani had mentioned to Nukha tribe in his book "Sifat Jazirat al Arab"( Description of the Arabian Peninsula) (900 AD).

Qahtan (disambiguation)

Qahtan (or Kahtan) (Arabic: قحطان‎) and Qahtani (Kahtani) (Arabic: قحطاني‎) or with the definit article al- as Al-Qahtani (Al-Kahtani) (Arabic: القحطاني‎) meaning coming from Qahtan may refer to:

Qahtan (tribe), an Arab tribal confederation in Saudi Arabia

Qahtanite or Qahtani, Arabs who originate from the southern region of the Arabian Peninsula, especially from Yemen

Qahtan (tribe)

Not to be confused with the Qahtanite peoples

Qahtān (Arabic: قحطان‎, also spelled as القحطاني) to distinguish between the tribe and the Qahtanite peoples, is an Arab tribal confederation. Qahtan is composed of three main tribes: Sanhan, Junb, and Rufaida. Today, members of the tribe and its sub-tribes are based in Yemen (where most of the tribe is congregated), Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. One must note that the Madh'hiji Qahtan tribe is different from the Qahtanite peoples, because while all members of the Qahtan identify as Qahtanite through their ancestry to Qahtan son of Hud which the tribe is named after, not all Qahtanite tribes (such as Shammar, Sharhan, Harb, etc.) trace their ancestry back to the modern tribe known as Qahtan.

Qahtan's sheikhdom was unanimously agreed by Western historians to be in the hands of the 'Al Qarmalah' family of the Jahader clan in the 19th century, and as early as 1961, the paramount sheikh of Qahtan was reported to be 'Khalil ibn Nasir ibn Qarmalah' (a descendant of Hadi ibn Qarmalah). However today, this subject of whether the Al Qarmalah family or the Ibn Dulaim family of the Sharif clan are the rightful sheikhs of Qahtan is highly controversial and has led to physical confrontations in high profile tribal Qahtan congregations. Regardless, Abdullah ibn Fahad ibn Dulaim, sheikh of the Ibn Dulaim family, is recognized by the Saudi state as the appointed paramount sheikh of Qahtan and its allied tribe of Wadi'a.


Sanabis (Arabic: سنابس‎ Sanābis) is a village located in the Kingdom of Bahrain, in the suburbs of the capital city, Manama.


Zubayd or Zubaid is a large Arab tribe that migrated to Iraq, before and after the Islamic conquest. The tribe was an offshoot of the Yemeni tribe of Madhhij, which is a majority Qahtanite Arab tribe. The Zubayd tribe hails from and derives its name from a town on Yemen's western coastal plain known as Zabid. Its first leader was the companion of Mohammed, named Amru bin Ma'adi Yakrib .The main tribe of Zubayd is based in Al-Suwaira, in the Governorate of Wasit in Iraq. Zubayd's overall leader is Shaikh Maad Jassim Al-Samarmad. Many other tribes trace their lineage to Zubayd. During the late 18th century and the 19th century, the bulk of today's Shi'a Zubayd in Iraq converted to Shia Islam. However, the Bani Hukayyim section (of the Zubaid) only converted to Shi'ism during the latter part of the 19th century.

Some sections of Zubayd, such as Al-Ajeel tribe in Tikrit, and Al-Jhaishat in Suwaira remain Sunni Muslims.

Other tribes that trace their lineage to Zubaid have their own separate Shaikhs, or tribal leaders, including Dulaim, Juboor, Al-Laheeb, Azzah, Obaid, Al Uqaydat, Al Bu Sultan, Al Bu Mohammed Shuwailat and Al Suwaed(Al-Saedi).

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