Qaboos bin Said al Said

Qaboos bin Said Al Said (Arabic: قابوس بن سعيد البوسعيدي‎, IPA: [ˈqaːbuːs bɪn ˈsaʕiːd ʔaːl ˈsaʕiːd]; born 18 November 1940)[1] is the incumbent Sultan of Oman. He rose to power by overthrowing his father, Said bin Taimur, in the 1970 Omani coup d'état. He is a 14th-generation descendant of the founder of the House of Al Said.[2] He is the longest serving leader in the Middle East and Arab world, having held the office since 1970.[3]

Sultan Qaboos of Oman
Omani Qaboos bin Said Al Said (cropped)
The Sultan of Oman in traditional attire
Sultan of Oman
Reign23 July 1970 – present
PredecessorSaid bin Taimur
Born18 November 1940 (age 78)
Salalah, Muscat and Oman
Spouse
Nawwal bint Tariq
(m. 1976; div. 1979)
HouseHouse of Al Said
FatherSaid bin Taimur
MotherMazoon al-Mashani
ReligionIbadi Islam

Early life and education

Qaboos was born in Salalah in Dhofar on 18 November 1940 as an only son of Sultan Said bin Taimur and Sheikha Mazoon al-Mashani.

He received his primary and secondary education at Salalah, and was sent to a private educational establishment in England at age 16.[4] At 20, he entered the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. After graduating from Sandhurst in September 1962, he joined the British Army and was posted to the 1st Battalion The Cameronians (Scottish Rifles), serving with them in Germany for one year. He also held a staff appointment with the British Army.[5]

After his military service, Qaboos studied local government subjects in England and then completed his education with a world tour chaperoned by Leslie Chauncy. Upon his return in 1966, he was placed under virtual house arrest in the Sultan's palace in Salalah by his father. Here he was kept isolated from government affairs, except for occasional briefings by his father's personal advisers. Qaboos studied Islam and the history of his country. His personal relationships were limited to a handpicked group of palace officials who were sons of his father's advisors and a few expatriate friends such as Tim Landon. Sultan Said said that he would not allow his son to be involved with the developing planning process, and Qaboos began to make known his desire for change — which was quietly supported by his expatriate visitors.[5]

Political career

Rise to power

Qaboos acceded to the throne on 23 July 1970 following a successful coup against his father, with the aim of ending the country's isolation and using its oil revenue for modernization and development.[6] He declared that the country would no longer be known as Muscat and Oman, but would change its name to "the Sultanate of Oman" in order to better reflect its political unity.

The coup was supported by the British, having been "planned in London by MI6 and by civil servants at the Ministry of Defence and the Foreign Office" and sanctioned by the Prime Minister, Harold Wilson.[7]

The first pressing problem that Qaboos bin Said faced as Sultan was an armed communist insurgency from South Yemen, the Dhofar Rebellion (1962–1976). The sultanate eventually defeated the incursion with help from the Shah of Iran, Jordanian troops sent from his friend King Hussein of Jordan, British Special Forces and the Royal Air Force.

Reign as Sultan

Styles of
The Sultan of Oman
National emblem of Oman
Reference styleHis Majesty
Spoken styleYour Majesty
VP Cheney Sultan Qaboos Salah Oman 2002
Sultan Qaboos meets with United States Vice President Dick Cheney during Cheney's visit to the Middle East in 2002.

There were few rudiments of a modern state when Qaboos took power in the 1970 Omani coup d'état.[5] Oman was a poorly developed country, severely lacking in infrastructure, healthcare, and education, with only six kilometres of paved roads and a population dependent on subsistence farming and fishing. Qaboos modernized the country using oil revenues. Schools and hospitals were built, and a modern infrastructure was laid down, with hundreds of miles of new roads paved, a telecommunications network established, projects for a port and airport that had begun prior to his reign were completed and a second port was built, and electrification was achieved. The government also began to search for new water resources and built a desalination plant, and the government encouraged the growth of private enterprise, especially in development projects. Banks, hotels, insurance companies, and print media began to appear as the country developed economically. The Omani rial was established as the national currency, replacing the Indian rupee and Maria Theresa thaler. Later, additional ports were built, and universities were opened.[8][9][10] In his first year in power, Qaboos also abolished slavery in Oman.[11]

The political system which Qaboos established is that of an absolute monarchy. The Sultan's birthday, 18 November, is celebrated as Oman's national holiday. The first day of his reign, 23 July, is celebrated as Renaissance Day.

Oman has no system of checks and balances, and thus no separation of powers. All power is concentrated in the sultan, who is also chief of staff of the armed forces, Minister of Defence, Minister of Foreign Affairs and chairman of the Central Bank. All legislation since 1970 has been promulgated through royal decrees, including the 1996 Basic Law. The sultan appoints judges, and can grant pardons and commute sentences. The sultan's authority is inviolable and the sultan expects total subordination to his will.[12]

In September 1995, he was involved in a car accident in Salalah just outside his palace, which claimed the life of one of his most prominent and influential ministers, Qais Bin Abdul Munim Al Zawawi.

According to CBS News, 19 June 2011,

Several protest leaders have been detained and released in rolling waves of arrests during the Arab Spring, and dissatisfaction with the state of affairs in the country is high. While disgruntlement amongst the populace is obvious, the extreme dearth of foreign press coverage and lack of general press freedom there leaves it unclear as to whether the protesters want the sultan to leave, or simply want their government to function better. Beyond the recent protests, there is concern about succession in the country, as there is no heir apparent or any clear legislation on who may be the next Sultan.[13]

His closest advisors are reportedly security and intelligence professionals within the Palace Office, headed by General Sultan bin Mohammed al Numani.[14]

Foreign policy

Oman has more normal relations with Iran than Arab states of the Persian Gulf, and is careful to appear neutral and maintain a balance between the West and Iran.[15] As a result, Oman has often acted as an intermediary between the United States and Iran.[16][17]

Succession

Unlike the heads of other Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Qaboos has not publicly named an heir. Article 6 of the constitution says the royal family should choose a new sultan within three days of the position falling vacant. If the royal family council fails to agree, a letter containing a name penned by Sultan Qaboos should be opened in the presence of a defence council of military and security officials, supreme court chiefs, and heads of the two quasi-parliamentary advisory assemblies.[18] Analysts see the rules as an elaborate means of Sultan Qaboos securing his choice for successor without causing controversy by making it public during his lifetime, since it is considered unlikely that the royal family would be able to agree on a successor on its own.[18]

Qaboos has no children; there are other male members of the Omani royal family including several paternal uncles and their families. Using same-generation primogeniture, the successor to Qaboos would appear to be the children of his late uncle, Sayyid Tariq bin Taimur Al Said, Oman's first prime minister before the sultan took over the position himself (and his former father-in-law).[19] Oman watchers believe the top contenders to succeed Qaboos are three of Tariq's sons: Assad bin Tariq Al Said, the personal representative of the Sultan; Shihab bin Tariq, a retired naval commander; and Haitham bin Tariq Al Said, the Minister of Heritage and National Culture.[18][20] First Deputy Prime Minister Fahd bin Mahmud al-Said, a distant cousin of the Sultan, and Taimur bin Assad, the son of Assad bin Tariq, are also mentioned as potential candidates.[18]

Philanthropy

He has financed the construction or maintenance of a number of mosques, notably the Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque, as well as the holy places of other religions.

Sultan Qaboos Prize for Environmental Preservation

Through a donation to UNESCO in the early 1990s, he funded the Sultan Qaboos Prize for Environmental Preservation, to afford recognition to outstanding contributions in the management or preservation of the environment. The prize has been awarded every two years since 1991.[21]

Personal life

Qaboos is a Muslim of the Ibadi denomination, which has traditionally ruled Oman.[22] Although Oman is predominantly Muslim, Qaboos has granted freedom of religion in the country since his reign and has financed the construction of four Catholic and Protestant churches in the country as well as several Hindu temples.[23]

Qaboos bin Said is an avid fan and promoter of classical music. His 120-member orchestra has a high reputation in the Middle East. The orchestra consists entirely of young Omanis who, since 1986, audition as children and grow up as members of the symphonic ensemble. They play locally and travel abroad with the sultan.[24] Argentine composer Lalo Schifrin was commissioned to compose a work entitled Symphonic Impressions of Oman.[25] The Sultan is particularly enthusiastic about the pipe organ.[26] The Royal Opera House Muscat features the largest mobile pipe organ in the world, which has three specially made organ stops, named the "Royal Solo" in his honour.[27] He was also a patron of local folk musician Salim Rashid Suri, making him a cultural consultant, in which role Suri wrote songs praising the Sultan and his family.[28]

On 22 March 1976, Qaboos bin Said married his first cousin, Kamila, née Sayyida Nawwal bint Tariq Al Said (born 1951), daughter of Sayyid Tariq bin Taimur Al Said and his second wife, Sayyida Shawana bint Nasir Al Said. The marriage ended in divorce in 1979.[29] She remarried in 2005.[30] The marriage produced no heirs, and Qaboos bin Said has written secret documents naming the successor to his realm.[31]

As of 2017, Qaboos has cancer, for which he receives treatment.[32]

Radio amateur

Qaboos bin Said al Said is a radio amateur with the call sign A41AA.[33]

Palace

Name City Area Coordinates Features
Al Alam Palace Muscat 2.0 km2 (0.77 sq mi) 23°36′52.86″N 58°35′43.90″E / 23.6146833°N 58.5955278°E

Super yachts

Name Length (m) Shipyard Year Description
Al Said 155[34] Lürssen 2007 Contains a Helipad, an orchestra and swimming pool. Berthed most of the time in Mutrah port.
Fulk al Salamah 156 Mariotti 2016 Secondary Royal Yacht and support vessel. Berthed most of the time in Mutrah port.
Al Dhaferah[35] 136 Lürssen 1987 Former Fulk al Salamah
Zinat al Bihaar 61 Oman Royal Yacht Squadron[36] 1988 Luxury sailing yacht with world's largest sail built in Oman with imported engine from Siemens.
Al-Noores 33.5[37] K. Damen Netherlands 1982 Specialized tug boat for the other royal yachts.

Military ranks

Qaboos holds the following ranks:[38]

Foreign honours

He has been awarded (° = Royal Ark):[38]

AUT Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria - 1st Class BAR
Wisam al-Khalifa 1st class
BRU Royal Family Order of the Crown of Brunei
EGY Order of the Nile - Grand Cordon BAR
Legion Honneur GC ribbon
GER Bundesverdienstkreuz 9 Sond des Grosskreuzes
Decoration without ribbon - en
Bintang Republik Indonesia Adipurna Ribbon Bar
Order of Pahlavi (Iran)
25th Anniversary Medal 1971
Cordone di gran Croce di Gran Cordone OMRI BAR
JPN Daikun'i kikkasho BAR
JOR Al-Hussein ibn Ali Order BAR
Order of Mubarak the Great (Kuwait) - ribbon bar
Lebanese Order of Merit Extraordinary Grade
MY Darjah Utama Seri Mahkota Negara (Crown of the Realm) - DMN
NLD Order of the Dutch Lion - Grand Cross BAR
Ord.Nishan-i-Pakistan.ribbon
Order of Independence (Qatar) - ribbon bar
Decoration without ribbon - en
Spange des König-Abdulaziz-Ordens
Darjah Utama Temasek ribbon (from 1996)
Ord.GoodHope-ribbon
Order of Isabella the Catholic - Sash of Collar
Order Of Ummayad (Syria) - ribbon bar
Order of Independence v. 1959 (Tunisia) - ribbon bar
Order of Union Sash
UK Order St-Michael St-George ribbon
Order of St John (UK) ribbon
Royal Victorian Order Honorary Ribbon
Order of the Bath UK ribbon
Royal Victorian Chain Ribbon

See also

References

  1. ^ Al Sa'id, Qaboos (1940–) – Personal history, Biographical highlights, Personal chronology, Influences and contributions, The world's perspective, Legacy Archived 24 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Encyclopedia.jrank.org. Retrieved on 14 July 2011.
  2. ^ "Qaboos bin Said". Webster's Concise Encyclopedia. 1. New York: Gramercy Books. 1998. p. 520.
  3. ^ "Can Oman's Stability Outlive Sultan Qaboos?". Middle East Institute. Retrieved 1 March 2017.
  4. ^ Tribute to His Majesty Archived 18 January 2006 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ a b c Allen, Calvin H.; Rigsbee, W. Lynn (1 January 2000). Oman Under Qaboos: From Coup to Constitution, 1970–1996. Psychology Press. pp. 28–29, 34. ISBN 9780714650012.
  6. ^ PROFILE-Oman's Sultan Qaboos bin Said Archived 6 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Forexyard.com (2011-03-25). Retrieved on 14 July 2011.
  7. ^ Cobain, Ian (2016). The History Thieves. London: Portobello Books. p. 87. ISBN 9781846275838.
  8. ^ "A Test for Oman and Its Sultan".
  9. ^ Oman: the Modernization of the Sultanate, Calvin H. Allen, Jr
  10. ^ Oman: The Bradt Travel Guide, Diana Darke
  11. ^ Suzanne Miers (2003). Slavery in the Twentieth Century: The Evolution of a Global Problem. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 347. ISBN 0-7591-0340-2.
  12. ^ "Country Report: Oman". Archived from the original on 28 December 2014.
  13. ^ "The world's enduring dictators: Qaboos bin Said, Oman".
  14. ^ Henderson, Simon (3 April 2017). "The Omani Succession Envelope, Please". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 4 April 2017. His closest advisors are security and intelligence professionals in the so-called Royal Office, headed by Gen. Sultan bin Mohammed al-Numani.
  15. ^ Slackman, Michael (16 May 2009). "Oman Navigates Between Iran and Arab Nations". The New York Times.
  16. ^ Gladstone, Rick (4 September 2013). "Iran's President to Speak at the U.N." NYT. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  17. ^ "A visit from the sultan".
  18. ^ a b c d Dokoupil, Martin (24 May 2012). "Succession Question Fuels Uncertainty in Oman". Reuters. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
  19. ^ HH Prince Sayyid Tarik bin Taimur al-Said Archived 1 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com. Retrieved on 14 July 2011.
  20. ^ "The Question of Succession". Muscat Confidential. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
  21. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 11 September 2018. Retrieved 8 June 2017.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  22. ^ Though Ibadhis are the majority in Oman, with Sunnis a minority, exact percentages are unavailable; 75% for the Ibadhis is often cited, while the Sunnis, followed by a small amount of local Shiites and foreign Hindus, Christians, and others make up the remaining 25%.
  23. ^ "Modi in Oman LIVE Updates: PM prays at Shiva temple in Muscat, visits Grand Mosque". 12 February 2018.
  24. ^ Trofimov, Yaroslavth (14 December 2001). "Oman has oil, but it had no orchestra". Wall Street Journal: A6.
  25. ^ [1] Archived 17 December 2005 at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ "Carlo Curly & Mathis Music". Archived from the original on 16 December 2008. Retrieved 7 December 2006.CS1 maint: Unfit url (link)
  27. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 February 2015. Retrieved 24 December 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link). Times of Oman; "In the Eye of Beauty – An Ode to the Organ" 11 December 2014; retrieved 24 December 2014.
  28. ^ Margaret Makepeace (26 November 2013). "The Singing Sailor – Salim Rashid Suri". Untold Lives Blog. British Library. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  29. ^ Joseph A. Kechichian (17 December 2010). "Sultan Qaboos Bin Saeed: A democrat visionary". Weekend Review. Gulf News. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
  30. ^ "oman9". Retrieved 12 July 2016.
  31. ^ Tennent, James (28 November 2015). "Who will take over from Sultan Qaboos, the Arab world's longest serving ruler?".
  32. ^ "The sultanate of Oman is taking a kicking". The Economist. 8 July 2017. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  33. ^ "Famous Ham Radio Operators and their Callsigns". www.dx-qsl.com.
  34. ^ Top 100. Yachtspotter.com (2010-07-27). Retrieved on 14 July 2011.
  35. ^ Access Perpetual Wellbeing in Excess: Sultan Qaboos's extravaganza. Inequalityreduced.blogspot.com (2009-01-01). Retrieved on 14 July 2011.
  36. ^ Sailing Yacht – Zinat al Bihaar – Oman Royal Yacht Squadron – Completed Superyachts on Superyacht Times .com Archived 21 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Superyachttimes.info. Retrieved on 14 July 2011.
  37. ^ Motor Yacht – Al-Noores – K. Damen – Completed Superyachts on Superyacht Times .com. Superyachttimes.com. Retrieved on 14 July 2011.
  38. ^ a b The Royal Ark, Oman genealogical details, p.9
  39. ^ "Reply to a parliamentary question about the Decoration of Honour" (pdf) (in German). p. 1441. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
  40. ^ HM deserves much more than awards and medals Archived 25 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Times of Oman (2007-01-28). Retrieved on 14 July 2011.
  41. ^ "Grand State Banquet". Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
  42. ^ Italian Presidency Website, S.M. Qaboos bin Said Sultano dell'Oman – decorato di Gran Cordone
  43. ^ "Senarai Penuh Penerima Darjah Kebesaran, Bintang dan Pingat Persekutuan Tahun 1991" (PDF).
  44. ^ 1999 National Orders awards Archived 12 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine

External links

Qaboos bin Said al Said
House of Al Said
Born: 18 November 1940
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Said bin Taimur
Sultan of Oman
1970–present
Incumbent
1970 Omani coup d'état

The 1970 Omani coup d'état was the bloodless overthrow of Sultan Said bin Taimur by his son Qaboos bin Said al Said in Oman on 23 July 1970. Occurring in the midst of the Dhofar Rebellion, the palace coup was executed with the support of the British military and saw Sultan bin Taimur deposed and sent into exile to Great Britain. The coup was a pivotal moment in modern Omani history as Sultan Qaboos swiftly set in motion numerous wide-ranging modernization reforms in the kingdom, transforming Oman from a backwater and underdeveloped state into a country on par with many Western nations in terms of peace and economic development. Today, Sultan Qaboos is the longest serving current ruler in the Middle East.

Cabinet of Oman

The Cabinet of Oman is the chief executive body of the Sultanate of Oman. On 6 March 2011, Sultan Qaboos bin Said al-Said responded to the 2011 Omani protests by dismissing 12 ministers.

Fahd bin Mahmoud al Said

H.H Sayyid Fahad bin Mahmood Al-Said (Arabic صاحب السمو السيد فهد بن محمود آل سعيد) is the Deputy Prime Minister for the Council of Ministers in the Sultanate of Oman, and has served in this post since 23 June 1972.

Foreign relations of Oman

When Sultan Qaboos bin Said Al Said assumed power in 1970, Oman had limited contacts with the outside world, including neighbouring Arab states. A special treaty relationship permitted the United Kingdom close involvement in Oman's civil and military affairs. Ties with the United Kingdom have remained very close under Sultan Qaboos along with strong ties to the United States.

Since 1970, Oman has pursued a moderate foreign policy and expanded its diplomatic relations dramatically. It supported the 1979 Camp David accords and was one of three Arab League states, along with Somalia and Sudan, which did not break relations with Egypt after the signing of the Egyptian-Israeli Peace Treaty in 1979. During the Persian Gulf crisis, Oman assisted the United Nations coalition effort. Oman has developed close ties to its neighbors; it joined the six-member Gulf Cooperation Council when it was established in 1980.

Oman has traditionally supported Middle East peace initiatives, as it did those in 1983. In April 1994, Oman hosted the plenary meeting of the Water Working Group of the peace process, the first Persian Gulf state to do so.

During the Cold War period, Oman avoided relations with communist countries because of the communist support for the insurgency in Dhofar. In recent years, Oman has undertaken diplomatic initiatives in the Central Asian republics, particularly in Kazakhstan, where it is involved in a joint oil pipeline project. In addition, Oman maintains good relations with Iran, its north-eastern neighbor across the Gulf of Oman, and the two countries regularly exchange delegations. Oman is an active member in international and regional organizations, notably the Arab League and the Gulf Cooperation Council. Its foreign policy is overseen by its Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Israel–Oman relations

Israel and Oman established unofficial trade relations in 1994. Despite this, as of 2008 Israeli citizens were prohibited entry into Oman. Economic cooperation between the two countries, though not significant, helped Oman to become a bridge between the Arab world and Israel. In 2018, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu led a delegation to Oman and met with Sultan Qaboos and other senior Omani officials.

Khalid bin Hilal al Busaidi

Sayyid Khalid bin Hilal al Busaidi is an Omanis politician and engineer. He is the current Minister of Diwan of Royal Court of Oman. He is also the former Chairman of the Oman Football Association. Sayyid is a member of the Royal family of Oman.

He has been decorated with the Order of Oman Civil Decoration from His Majesty Qaboos bin Said al Said, The Sultan of Oman.

List of ambassadors of China to Oman

The Chinese ambassador in Muscat, Oman is the official representative of the government in Beijing to the Government of Oman.

List of ambassadors of Oman to China

The Omani ambassador in Beijing is the official representative of the Government in Muscat, Oman to the Government of the People's Republic of China.

List of ambassadors of Oman to the United States

The Omani ambassador in Washington, D. C. is the official representative of the Government in Muscat, Oman to the Government of the United States.

List of rulers of Oman

The Sultan of the Sultanate of Oman is the monarch and head of state of Oman. It is the most powerful position in the country. The sultans of Oman are members of the Al Said dynasty, which is the ruling family of Oman since the mid-18th century.

Since 23 July 1970, Qaboos bin Said al Said is the current sultan.

Mazoon al-Mashani

Sultanah Mazoon bint Ahmad Ali Al-Mashani (Arabic: ميزون بنت أحمد‎; also spelled Maizoon or Mayzoon) (1925 – 12 August 1992) was the second wife of Sultan Said bin Taimur and the mother of Qaboos bin Said al Said, Sultan of Oman. His first wife, Sultanah Fatima Al-Mashani, was her cousin.

National Day of Oman

National Day (Arabic: اليوم الوطني العماني, alyawm alwataniu aleumaniu) is an official holiday in the Sultanate of Oman and the main one in the country. The holiday currently celebrates the History of Oman and specifically it's independence from the Kingdom of Portugal. It also celebrates the official birthday of Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said.

New Michael Palace

The New Michael Palace (Ново-Михайловский дворец, Novo-Mikhailovsky Dvorets) was the third Saint Petersburg palace designed by Andrei Stackenschneider for Nicholas I's children. It was built between 1857 and 1862 on the Palace Embankment, between the Hermitage Museum buildings (to the west) and the Marble Palace (to the east).

The palace was commissioned by Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia on the occasion of his wedding to Cecilie of Baden. The design is a Revivalist medley of quotations from the Renaissance, Baroque, and the Louis XVI styles. The Rococo interiors are ornate yet airy. The statuary is by David Jensen. Some of the paintings are by Michael Zichy.

A residential wing of the palace (the so-called Equerry Wing) fronts on Millionnaya Street. Its decoration is not as riotous, but the distinctive curvilinear facade reflects the Italianate taste of the 1740s. The wing has its origin in the Baroque palace of Chancellor Tcherkassky whose design has been attributed to Pyotr Yeropkin.After the Russian Revolution the palace housed a branch of the Communist Academy. Then in 1949 it was occupied by the Institute of Oriental Studies (IOS), later the Leningrad branch of the IOS, and it is currently occupied by its successor, the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts.The building stands well preserved thanks to a major restoration effort of 2005-2009. The former stables were recently reconstructed with funds provided by Qaboos bin Said al Said in order to house some 1,000,000 Oriental books and manuscripts from the institute's collection.

Nuffield Lodge

Nuffield Lodge is a house on Prince Albert Road, Regent's Park, London, England. It is Grade I listed.Nuffield Lodge and its gardens fall within Regent's Park, which is Grade I listed on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens.

The villa was built from 1822 to 1824 as Grove Lodge, and designed by the architect Decimus Burton as a bachelor residence for the geologist George Bellas Greenough (1778-1855). In 1877, it was heightened and converted into a family home by Burton's nephew, Henry Marley Burton. Interior murals were painted in about 1909 by the then-owner Sigismund Goetze (1866-1934) who had acquired it in 1907.In 1952, it was bought by the Nuffield Foundation, and renamed Nuffield Lodge. The Nuffield Foundation gave up the lease in 1986, and it became a private residence. In 2014, Nuffield Lodge was under restoration by Neil Tomlinson Architects on behalf of the owner Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said.Nuffield Lodge's stable block was built by Burton c.1824 and was converted into an artist's studio for Goetze in 1909 by Sidney Tatchell. It is Grade II listed, and features stucco ornamentation in its interior. The archway connecting the studio stable block and the Palm house is listed Grade II.The palm house in the grounds of the lodge is Grade II* listed, and was also designed by Burton. The palm house was designed to form a screen along with the stabling against "unpleasant objects" in the villa's environment. The Historic England heritage listing describes the palm house as "one of Burton's first experiments in the structural use of iron and glass".

Oman Children's Museum

The Oman Children's Museum is a children's science museum, located near Qurum Nature Park off Sultan Qaboos Street in a white-domed building in Muscat, Oman.

The museum was established by the Ministry of National Heritage and Culture and opened on November 17, 1990 by Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said on the 20th National Day celebration in Oman. The museum has 45 exhibits and two demonstrations and comprises 10,000 square feet (930 m2). It was the first science museum in Oman and is visited by around 50,000 visitors annually. The museum is currently run by a former school teacher, Samirah Ahmed al Raisi, who has run the museum for over six years.

The museum addresses the scientific ways of human life and the exhibition section is divided into three parts; The Human life, Physics and observation which investigates the progression of science through the ages.The museum has many hands-on displays. These include experiences of a fake electric shock, trigger a lightning bolt, launching a hot air balloon, photographing your own shadow, and sending message through a whisper dish. There is also a display named "Eye Spy", which is series of perception panels with illusions designed to offer some insight into how your eyes and brain see things differently.

Omani rial

The Omani rial (Arabic: ريال‎, ISO 4217 code OMR) is the currency of Oman. It is divided into 1000 baisa (also written baisa, بيسة).

Politics of Oman

The Politics of Oman take place in a framework of an absolute monarchy. The Sultan of Oman is not only the head of state, but also the head of government. The head of state and government is the hereditary sultan, Qaboos bin Said al Said, who appoints a cabinet to assist him. Sultan Qaboos also serves as the supreme commander of the armed forces, prime minister, and minister of defense, foreign affairs, and finance.

Royal Oman Police

The Royal Oman Police (ROP), also known as Oman Police (Arabic: شرطة عمان السلطانية‎), is the main law and order agency for the Sultanate of Oman. It maintains a helicopter fleet and also carries on the duties of safeguarding the long Omani coastline.

Yusuf bin Alawi bin Abdullah

Yusuf bin Alawi bin Abdullah (Arabic: يوسف بن علوي بن عبد الله‎, born 1945) is an Omani politician. He is currently the Sultanate of Oman's Minister Responsible for Foreign Affairs. The Sultan remains the official Minister of Foreign Affairs.

Alawi studied and worked in Kuwait. In 1970 he met sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said for the first time, shortly after his take-over. Alawi had been a dissident and associated with a Dhofar secession movement against the current Sultan's father. However, once Sultan Qaboos came to power he encouraged Omani dissidents to come out of overseas exile and help rebuild Oman. From 1973 till 1974 Yusuf bin Alawi was ambassador in Beirut.He was appointed as the Minister Responsible for Foreign Affairs in 1997 by Royal Decree No. 85/97.

Alawi has recently met with the US Secretary of State in Washington to discuss ways to better engage Iran. Oman is unusual among Arab states of the Persian Gulf in that it has a long history of cordial relations with Tehran, something Washington is keen to make use of in resolving a number of regional security issues.

Ancestors of Qaboos bin Said al Said
8. Faisal bin Turki
4. Taimur bin Feisal
9. Aliya bint Thuwaini Al Said
2. Said bin Taimur
10. Ali bin Salim
5. Fatima bint Ali Al Said
11. Aliya bint Barghash Al Said
1. Qaboos bin Said Al Said
12. Ali Al Mashani
6. Ahmad bin Ali Al Mashani
3. Mazoon bin Ahmad Al Mashani
Sultans of Oman since 1749
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