QWERTY (/ˈkwɜːrti/) is a keyboard design for Latin-script alphabets. The name comes from the order of the first six keys on the top left letter row of the keyboard (Q W E R T Y). The QWERTY design is based on a layout created for the Sholes and Glidden typewriter and sold to E. Remington and Sons in 1873. It became popular with the success of the Remington No. 2 of 1878, and remains in widespread use.

KB United States
QWERTY keyboard layout (US)
QWERTY keyboard
A laptop computer keyboard using the QWERTY layout


Continental Standard typewriter keyboard - key detail
Keys are arranged on diagonal columns to give space for the levers.

The QWERTY layout was devised and created in the early 1870s by Christopher Latham Sholes, a newspaper editor and printer who lived in Kenosha, Wisconsin. In October 1867, Sholes filed a patent application for his early writing machine he developed with the assistance of his friends Carlos Glidden and Samuel W. Soulé.[1]

The first model constructed by Sholes used a piano-like keyboard with two rows of characters arranged alphabetically as shown below:[1]

- 3 5 7 9 N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
2 4 6 8 . A B C D E F G H I J K L M

The construction of the "Type Writer" had two flaws that made the product susceptible to jams. Firstly, characters were mounted on metal arms or type bars, which would clash and jam if neighbouring arms were pressed at the same time or in rapid succession. Secondly, its printing point was located beneath the paper carriage, invisible to the operator, a so-called "up-stroke" design. Consequently, jams were especially serious, because the typist could only discover the mishap by raising the carriage to inspect what had been typed. The solution was to place commonly used letter-pairs (like "th" or "st") so that their type bars were not neighbouring, avoiding jams.[2]

Sholes struggled for the next five years to perfect his invention, making many trial-and-error rearrangements of the original machine's alphabetical key arrangement. The study of bigram (letter-pair) frequency by educator Amos Densmore, brother of the financial backer James Densmore, is believed to have influenced the array of letters, but the contribution was later called into question.[3] Others suggest instead that the letter groupings evolved from telegraph operators' feedback.[4]

In November 1868 he changed the arrangement of the latter half of the alphabet, O to Z, right-to-left.[5] In April 1870 he arrived at a four-row, upper case keyboard approaching the modern QWERTY standard, moving six vowel letters, A, E, I, O, U, and Y, to the upper row as follows:[6]

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 -
A E I . ? Y U O ,

In 1873 Sholes's backer, James Densmore, successfully sold the manufacturing rights for the Sholes & Glidden Type-Writer to E. Remington and Sons. The keyboard layout was finalized within a few months by Remington's mechanics and was ultimately presented:[7]

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 - ,
Q W E . T Y I U O P
A X & C V B N ? ; R

After they purchased the device, Remington made several adjustments, creating a keyboard with essentially the modern QWERTY layout. These adjustments included placing the "R" key in the place previously allotted to the period key. Apocryphal claims that this change was made to let salesmen impress customers by pecking out the brand name "TYPE WRITER QUOTE" from one keyboard row are not formally substantiated.[7] Vestiges of the original alphabetical layout remained in the "home row" sequence DFGHJKL.[8]

The modern layout is:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 - =
Q W E R T Y U I O P [ ] \
A S D F G H J K L ; '
Z X C V B N M , . /

The QWERTY layout became popular with the success of the Remington No. 2 of 1878, the first typewriter to include both upper and lower case letters, using a shift key.

Differences from modern layout

Substituting characters

Christopher Latham Sholes's 1878 QWERTY keyboard layout

The QWERTY layout depicted in Sholes's 1878 patent is slightly different from the modern layout, most notably in the absence of the numerals 0 and 1, with each of the remaining numerals shifted one position to the left of their modern counterparts. The letter M is located at the end of the third row to the right of the letter L rather than on the fourth row to the right of the N, the letters X and C are reversed, and most punctuation marks are in different positions or are missing entirely.[9] 0 and 1 were omitted to simplify the design and reduce the manufacturing and maintenance costs; they were chosen specifically because they were "redundant" and could be recreated using other keys. Typists who learned on these machines learned the habit of using the uppercase letter I (or lowercase letter L) for the digit one, and the uppercase O for the zero.[10]

Combined characters

In early designs, some characters were produced by printing two symbols with the carriage in the same position. For instance, the exclamation point, which shares a key with the numeral 1 on post-mechanical keyboards, could be reproduced by using a three-stroke combination of an apostrophe, a backspace, and a period. A semicolon (;) was produced by printing a comma (,) over a colon (:). As the backspace key is slow in simple mechanical typewriters (the carriage was heavy and optimized to move in the opposite direction), a more professional approach was to block the carriage by pressing and holding the space bar while printing all characters that needed to be in a shared position. To make this possible, the carriage was designed to advance forward only after releasing the space bar.

The 0 key was added and standardized in its modern position early in the history of the typewriter, but the 1 and exclamation point were left off some typewriter keyboards into the 1970s.[11]

In the era of mechanical typewriters, combined characters such as é and õ were created by the use of dead keys for the diacritics (′, ~) , which did not move the paper forward. Thus the and e would be printed at the same location on the paper, creating é.

Contemporary alternatives

There were no particular technological requirements for the QWERTY layout,[7] since at the time there were ways to make a typewriter without the "up-stroke" typebar mechanism that had required it to be devised. Not only were there rival machines with "down-stroke" and "frontstroke" positions that gave a visible printing point, the problem of typebar clashes could be circumvented completely: examples include Thomas Edison's 1872 electric print-wheel device which later became the basis for Teletype machines; Lucien Stephen Crandall's typewriter (the second to come onto the American market) whose type was arranged on a cylindrical sleeve; the Hammond typewriter of 1887 which used a semi-circular "type-shuttle" of hardened rubber (later light metal); and the Blickensderfer typewriter of 1893 which used a type wheel. The early Blickensderfer's "Ideal" keyboard was also non-QWERTY, instead having the sequence "DHIATENSOR" in the home row, these 10 letters being capable of composing 70% of the words in the English language.[12]


Alternating hands while typing is a desirable trait in a keyboard design. While one hand types a letter, the other hand can prepare to type the next letter, making the process faster and more efficient. However, when a string of letters is typed with the same hand, the chances of stuttering are increased and a rhythm can be broken, thus decreasing speed and increasing errors and fatigue. In the QWERTY layout many more words can be spelled using only the left hand than the right hand. In fact, thousands of English words can be spelled using only the left hand, while only a couple of hundred words can be typed using only the right hand[13] (the three most frequent letters in the English language, ETA, are all typed with the left hand). In addition, more typing strokes are done with the left hand in the QWERTY layout. This is helpful for left-handed people but disadvantages right-handed people.

Contrary to popular belief, the QWERTY layout was not designed to slow the typist down,[5] but rather to speed up typing by preventing jams. Indeed, there is evidence that, aside from the issue of jamming, placing often-used keys farther apart increases typing speed, because it encourages alternation between the hands.[14] There is another origin story in the Smithsonian that the QWERTY keyboard was made for telegraph operators and has this layout to make it easy for the telegraph operator to work.[14][15][16] (On the other hand, in the German keyboard the Z has been moved between the T and the U to help type the frequent bigraphs TZ and ZU in that language.) Almost every word in the English language contains at least one vowel letter, but on the QWERTY keyboard only the vowel letter "A" is on the home row, which requires the typist's fingers to leave the home row for most words.

A feature much less commented-on than the order of the keys is that the keys do not form a rectangular grid, but rather each column slants diagonally. This is because of the mechanical linkages – each key is attached to a lever, and hence the offset prevents the levers from running into each other – and has been retained in most electronic keyboards. Some keyboards, such as the Kinesis or TypeMatrix, retain the QWERTY layout but arrange the keys in vertical columns, to reduce unnecessary lateral finger motion.[17][18]

The words 'typewriter', 'proprietor', 'perpetuity', and 'repertoire' (from French) are the longest English words that can be written using only the keys in the top row.

Computer keyboards

The standard QWERTY keyboard layout used in the US. Some countries, such as the UK and Canada, use a slightly different QWERTY (the @ and " are switched in the UK); see keyboard layout

The first computer terminals such as the Teletype were typewriters that could produce and be controlled by various computer codes. These used the QWERTY layouts and added keys such as escape (ESC) which had special meanings to computers. Later keyboards added function keys and arrow keys. Since the standardization of PC-compatible computers and Windows after the 1980s, most full-sized computer keyboards have followed this standard (see drawing at right). This layout has a separate numeric keypad for data entry at the right, 12 function keys across the top, and a cursor section to the right and center with keys for Insert, Delete, Home, End, Page Up, and Page Down with cursor arrows in an inverted-T shape.[19]

Diacritical marks and international variants

Different computer operating systems have methods of support for input of different languages such as Chinese, Hebrew or Arabic. QWERTY is designed for English, a language with diacritical marks appearing only in a few words of foreign origin. QWERTY keyboards have no standard way of typing an accent. Until recently, no norm was defined for a standard QWERTY keyboard layout allowing the typing of accented characters. The so called "US-International layout" is, in fact, OS-dependent. There exist other layouts that try to overcome this shortcoming. One popular is EurKEY which is available for Windows, OS X and Linux.

A dead key is not used, like a grave accent (`) on a QWERTY keyboard, although some people use a dead key.

Depending on the operating system and sometimes the application program being used, there are many ways to generate Latin characters with accents independently of the layout in use.

International variants

Minor changes to the arrangement are made for other languages. There are a large number of different keyboard layouts used for different languages written in Latin script. They can be divided into three main families according to where the Q, A, Z, M, and Y keys are placed on the keyboard. These are usually named after the first six letters.


English-speaking Canadians have traditionally most often used the same keyboard layout as in the United States, unless they are in a position where they have to write French on a regular basis. French-speaking Canadians respectively have favoured the Canadian French keyboard layout (see below).

The Canadian Multilingual Standard keyboard layout is used by some Canadians. Though this keyboard lacks the caret (^) character, this is easily accomplished by typing the circumflex accent followed by a space. Note that while the diagram on the right depicts the Q key as if having upper-case and lower-case Greek Omega, that is not in conformance to the Canadian Multilingual Standard, which calls for a single extra character, an Omega-like Ohm symbol, not Omega. The lower-case Omega symbol does not belong in the diagram.

KB Canadian French text
Canadian French keyboard layout

This keyboard layout is commonly used in Canada by French-speaking Canadians. It is the most common layout for laptops and stand-alone keyboards targeting French speakers. Unlike the French layout used in France and Belgium, the Canadian French layout is a true QWERTY and as such is also relatively commonly used by English speakers in the US and Canada (using standard QWERTY keyboards) for easy access to accented letters found in some of the French words commonly used in English. It can be used to type all accented French characters, as well as some from other languages. It also serves all English functions as well. It is popular mainly because of its close similarity to the basic US keyboard commonly used by English-speaking Canadians and Americans, historical use of US-made typewriters by French-Canadians, and is the standard for keyboards in Quebec. It can also easily map to a standard English QWERTY keyboard with the sole loss the guillemet/degree sign key. Use of the European French layout in Quebec is practically unheard of.

In some variants of this keyboard the key names are translated to French:

  • ⇪ Caps Lock is Fix Major Verr Maj (short for Fixer/Verrouiller Majuscule = Lock Upper Case).
  • ↵ Enter is ↵ Entrée.[20]
  • Esc is Échap.


Qwerty cz
Czech QWERTY keyboard layout

The typewriter came to the Czech-speaking area in the late 19th century, when it was part of Austria-Hungary where German was the dominant language of administration. Therefore, Czech typewriters have the QWERTZ layout. However, with the introduction of imported computers, especially since the 1990s, the QWERTY keyboard layout is frequently used for computer keyboards. The Czech QWERTY layout differs from QWERTZ in that the characters (e.g. @$& and others) missing from the Czech keyboard are accessible with AltGr on the same keys where they are located on an American keyboard. In Czech QWERTZ keyboards the positions of these characters accessed through AltGr differs.


KB Danish
Danish keyboard layout

Both the Danish and Norwegian keyboards include dedicated keys for the letters Å/å, Æ/æ and Ø/ø, but the placement is a little different, as the Æ and Ø keys are swapped on the Norwegian layout. (The Finnish–Swedish keyboard is also largely similar to the Norwegian layout, but the Ø and Æ are replaced with Ö and Ä. On some systems, the Danish keyboard may allow typing Ö/ö and Ä/ä by holding the AltGr or Option key while striking Ø and Æ, respectively.)

Dutch (Netherlands)

Nederlandse toetsenbordindeling - tekst als paden
Dutch (Netherlands) keyboard layout

Though it is seldom used (most Dutch keyboards use US International layout),[21] the Dutch layout uses QWERTY but has additions for the € sign, the diaresis (¨), and the braces ({ }) as well as different locations for other symbols. An older version contained a single-stroke key for the Dutch character IJ/ij, which is usually typed by the combination of I and J. In the 1990s, there was a version with the now-obsolete florin sign (Dutch: guldenteken) for IBM PCs. In Flanders (the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium), "AZERTY" keyboards are used instead, due to influence from the French-speaking part of Belgium.


KB Estonian
Estonian keyboard layout

The keyboard layout used in Estonia is virtually the same as the Swedish layout. The main difference is that the Å and ¨ keys (to the right of P) are replaced with Ü and Õ respectively (the latter letter being the most distinguishing feature of the Estonian alphabet). Some special symbols and dead keys are also moved around.


KB Faroese
Faroese keyboard layout

The same as the Danish layout with added Đ (Eth), since the Faroe Islands are a self-governed part of the Kingdom of Denmark.

Finnish multilingual

KB Finnish Multilingual
Finnish multilingual keyboard layout

The visual layout used in Finland is basically the same as the Swedish layout. This is practical, as Finnish and Swedish share the special characters Ä/ä and Ö/ö, and while the Swedish Å/å is unnecessary for writing Finnish, it is needed by Swedish-speaking Finns and to write Swedish family names which are common.

As of 2008, there is a new standard for the Finnish multilingual keyboard layout, developed as part of a localization project by CSC. All the engravings of the traditional Finnish–Swedish visual layout have been retained, so there is no need to change the hardware, but the functionality has been extended considerably, as additional characters (e.g., Æ/æ, Ə/ə, Ʒ/ʒ) are available through the AltGr key, as well as dead keys, which allow typing a wide variety of letters with diacritics (e.g., Ç/ç, Ǥ/ǥ, Ǯ/ǯ).[22][23]

Based on the Latin letter repertory included in the Multilingual European Subset No. 2 (MES-2) of the Unicode standard, the layout has three main objectives. First, it provides for easy entering of text in both Finnish and Swedish, the two official languages of Finland, using the familiar keyboard layout but adding some advanced punctuation options, such as dashes, typographical quotation marks, and the non-breaking space (NBSP).

Second, it is designed to offer an indirect but intuitive way to enter the special letters and diacritics needed by the other three Nordic national languages (Danish, Norwegian and Icelandic) as well as the regional and minority languages (Northern Sámi, Southern Sámi, Lule Sámi, Inari Sámi, Skolt Sámi, Romani language as spoken in Finland, Faroese, Kalaallisut also known as Greenlandic, and German).

As a third objective, it allows for relatively easy entering of particularly names (of persons, places or products) in a variety of European languages using a more or less extended Latin alphabet, such as the official languages of the European Union (excluding Bulgarian and Greek). Some letters, like Ł/ł needed for Slavic languages, are accessed by a special "overstrike" key combination acting like a dead key.[24] However, the Romanian letters Ș/ș and Ț/ț (S/s and T/t with comma below) are not supported; the presumption is that Ş/ş and Ţ/ţ (with cedilla) suffice as surrogates.


Greek keyboard mono 3b
Modern Greek keyboard layout
  • The stress accents, indicated in red, are produced by pressing that key (or shifted key) followed by an appropriate vowel.
  • Use of the "AltGr" key may produce the characters shown in blue.


Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, and Luxembourg use QWERTZ layouts, where the letter Z is to the right of T.


KB Iceland
Icelandic keyboard layout

The Icelandic keyboard layout is different from the standard QWERTY keyboard because the Icelandic alphabet has some special letters, most of which it shares with the other Nordic countries: Þ/þ, Ð/ð, Æ/æ, and Ö/ö. (Æ/æ also occurs in Norwegian, Danish and Faroese, Ð/ð in Faroese, and Ö/ö in Swedish, Finnish and Estonian. In Norwegian Ö/ö could be substituted for Ø/Ø which is the same sound/letter and is widely understood).

The letters Á/á, Ý/ý, Ú/ú, Í/í, and É/é are produced by first pressing the ´ dead key and then the corresponding letter. The Nordic letters Å/å and Ä/ä can be produced by first pressing °, located below the Esc key, and ⇧ Shift+° (for ¨) which also works for the non-Nordic ÿ, Ü/ü, Ï/ï, and Ë/ë. These letters are not used natively in Icelandic, but may have been implemented for ease of communication in other Nordic languages. Additional diacritics may be found behind the AltGr key: AltGr++ for ˋ (grave accent) and AltGr+´ for ˆ (circumflex).


KB Windows Ireland
Microsoft Windows Irish layout

Microsoft Windows includes an Irish layout which supports acute accents with AltGr for the Irish language and grave accents with the ` dead key for Scottish Gaelic. The other Insular Celtic languages have their own layout. The UK or UK-Extended layout is also frequently used.


Italian Keyboard layout
Italian keyboard layout
  • Braces (right above square brackets and shown in purple) are given with both AltGr and Shift pressed.
  • The tilde (~) and backquote (`) characters are not present on the Italian keyboard layout (with Linux, they are available by pressing AltGr+⇧ Shift+ì, and AltGr+⇧ Shift+'; Windows might not recognise these keybindings).
  • When using Microsoft Windows, the standard Italian keyboard layout does not allow one to write 100% correct Italian language, since it lacks capital accented vowels, and in particular the È key. The common workaround is writing E' (E followed by an apostrophe) instead, or relying on the auto-correction feature of several word processors when available. It is possible to obtain the È symbol in MS Windows by typing Alt + 0200. Mac users, however, can write the correct accented character by pressing ⇧ Shift + ⌥ Option + E or, in the usual Mac way, by pressing the correct key for the accent (in this case Alt + 9) and subsequently pressing the wanted letter (in this case ⇧ Shift + E). Linux users can also write it by pressing the è key with ⇪ Caps Lock enabled.

There is an alternate layout, which differs only in disposition of characters accessible through AltGr, and includes the tilde and the curly brackets. It is commonly used in IBM keyboards.

Italian typewriters often have the QZERTY layout instead.

The Italian-speaking part of Switzerland uses the QWERTZ keyboard.


Although rarely used, a keyboard layout specifically designed for the Latvian language called ŪGJRMV exists. The Latvian QWERTY keyboard layout is most commonly used - its layout is the same as latin ones, but with a dead key, which allows entering special characters (āčēģīķļņšūž, sometimes ō and ŗ). The most common dead key is the apostrophe ('), which is followed by Alt+Gr (Windows default for Latvian layout). Some prefer using the tick (`).


In Lithuanian QWERTY keyboards the number keys on the top row have the following meanings: Ą, Č, Ę, Ė, Į, Š, Ų, Ū instead of their counterparts 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. Besides these changes the keyboard is standard QWERTY. Besides QWERTY, the ĄŽERTY layout is used.


The Maltese language uses Unicode (UTF-8) to display the Maltese diacritics: ċ Ċ; ġ Ġ; ħ Ħ; ż Ż (together with à À; è È; ì Ì; ò Ò; ù Ù). There are two standard keyboard layouts for Maltese, according to "MSA 100:2002 Maltese Keyboard Standard"; one of 47 keys and one of 48 keys. The 48-key layout is the most popular.


KB Norway
Norwegian keyboard layout
KB NorwaySami
Norwegian with Sámi

The Norwegian languages use the same letters as Danish, but the Norwegian keyboard differs from the Danish layout regarding the placement of the Ø, Æ and \ (backslash) keys. On the Danish keyboard, the Ø and Æ are swapped. The Swedish keyboard is also similar to the Norwegian layout, but Ø and Æ are replaced with Ö and Ä. On some systems, the Norwegian keyboard may allow typing Ö/ö and Ä/ä by holding the AltGr or Option key while striking Ø and Æ, respectively.

There is also an alternative keyboard layout called Norwegian with Sámi, which allows for easier input of the characters required to write various Sámi (also known as Lapp) languages. All the Sámi characters are accessed through the AltGr key.

On Macintosh computers, the Norwegian and Norwegian extended keyboard layouts have a slightly different placement for some of the symbols obtained with the help of the Shift or Option keys. Notably, the $ sign is accessed with ⇧ Shift+4 and ¢ with ⇧ Shift+⌥ Option+4. Furthermore, the frequently used @ is placed between Æ and Return.


KB Polish QWERTZ PN87 Mac
Polish typist's keyboard (QWERTZ PN-87)
Polish programmer's layout
Polish programmer's keyboard

Most typewriters use a QWERTZ keyboard with Polish letters (with diacritical marks) accessed directly (officially approved as "Typist's keyboard", Polish: klawiatura maszynistki, Polish Standard PN-87), which is mainly ignored in Poland as impractical (except custom-made, e.g., in public sector and some Apple computers); the "Polish programmer's" (Polish: polski programisty) layout has become the de facto standard, used on virtually all computers sold on the Polish market.

Most computer keyboards in Poland are laid out according to the standard US visual and functional layout. Polish diacritics are accessed by using the AltGr key with a corresponding similar letter from the base Latin alphabet. Normal capitalization rules apply with respect to Shift and Caps Lock keys. For example, to enter "Ź", one can type Shift+AltGr+X with Caps Lock off, or turn on Caps Lock and type AltGr+X.

Both ANSI[25] and ISO[26] mechanical layouts are common sights, and even some non-standard[27] mechanical layouts are in use. ANSI is often preferred, as the additional key provides no additional function, at least in Microsoft Windows where it duplicates the backslash key, while taking space from the Shift key. Many keyboards do not label AltGr as such, leaving the Alt marking as in the US layout - the right Alt key nevertheless functions as AltGr in this layout, causing possible confusion when keyboard shortcuts with the Alt key are required (these usually work only with the left Alt) and causing the key to be commonly referred to as right Alt (Polish: prawy Alt).[28] However, keyboards with AltGr marking are available and it is also officially used by Microsoft when depicting the layout.[29]

Key combinations to obtain Polish characters (Windows)
Caps Lock state In combination with Keystroke
Off right Alt ą ć ę ł ń ó ś ż ź
Shift & right Alt Ą Ć Ę Ł Ń Ó Ś Ż Ź
On right Alt Ą Ć Ę Ł Ń Ó Ś Ż Ź
Shift & right Alt ą ć ę ł ń ó ś ż ź
Note: On Polish programmer keyboard, right Alt plays the role of AltGr

Also, on MS Windows, the tilde character "~" (Shift+`) acts as a dead key to type Polish letters (with diacritical marks) thus, to obtain an "Ł", one may press Shift+` followed by L. The tilde character is obtained with (Shift+`) then space.

In Linux-based systems, the euro symbol is typically mapped to Alt+5 instead of Alt+U, the tilde acts as a normal key, and several accented letters from other European languages are accessible through combinations with left Alt. Polish letters are also accessible by using the compose key.

Software keyboards on touchscreen devices usually make the Polish diacritics available as one of the alternatives which show up after long-pressing the corresponding Latin letter.[30][31] However, modern predictive text and autocorrection algorithms largely mitigate the need to type them directly on such devices.


KB Portuguese Brazil
Portuguese (Brazil) keyboard layout

The Brazilian computer keyboard layout is specified in the ABNT NBR 10346 variant 2 (alphanumeric portion) and 10347 (numeric portion) standards.

Essentially, the Brazilian keyboard contains dead keys for five variants of diacritics in use in the language; the letter Ç, the only application of the cedilla in Portuguese, has its own key. In some keyboard layouts the AltGr+C combination produces the ₢ character (Unicode 0x20A2), symbol for the old currency cruzeiro, a symbol that is not used in practice (the common abbreviation in the eighties and nineties used to be Cr$). The cent sign ¢, is accessible via AltGr+5, but is not commonly used for the centavo, subunit of previous currencies as well as the current real, which itself is represented by R$. The Euro sign € is not standardized in this layout. The masculine and feminine ordinals ª and º are accessible via AltGr combinations. The section sign § (Unicode U+00A7), in Portuguese called parágrafo, is nowadays practically only used to denote sections of laws.

Variant 2 of the Brazilian keyboard, the only which gained general acceptance (MS Windows treats both variants as the same layout),[32] has a unique mechanical layout, combining some features of the ISO 9995-3 and the JIS keyboards in order to fit 12 keys between the left and right Shift (compared to the American standard of 10 and the international of 11). Its modern, IBM PS/2-based variations, are thus known as 107-keys keyboards, and the original PS/2 variation was 104-key. Variant 1, never widely adopted, was based on the ISO 9995-2 keyboards. To make this layout usable with keyboards with only 11 keys in the last row, the rightmost key (/?°) has its functions replicated across the AltGr+Q, AltGr+W, and AltGr+E combinations.

KB Portuguese
Portuguese (Portugal) keyboard layout

Essentially, the Portuguese keyboard contains dead keys for five variants of diacritics; the letter Ç, the only application of the cedilla in Portuguese, has its own key, but there are also a dedicated key for the ordinal indicators and a dedicated key for quotation marks. The AltGr+E combination for producing the euro sign € (Unicode 0x20AC) has become standard. On some QWERTY keyboards the key labels are translated, but the majority are labelled in English.

During the 20th century, a different keyboard layout, HCESAR, was in widespread use in Portugal.

Romanian (in Romania and Moldova)

Romanian keyboard layout

The current Romanian National Standard SR 13392:2004 establishes two layouts for Romanian keyboards: a "primary"[33] one and a "secondary"[34] one.

The "primary" layout is intended for traditional users who have learned how to type with older, Microsoft-style implementations of the Romanian keyboard. The "secondary" layout is mainly used by programmers as it does not contradict the physical arrangement of keys on a US-style keyboard. The "secondary" arrangement is used as the default Romanian layout by Linux distributions, as defined in the "X Keyboard Configuration Database".[35]

There are four Romanian-specific characters that are incorrectly implemented in versions of Microsoft Windows until Vista came out:

  • Ș (U+0218, S with comma), incorrectly implemented as Ş (U+015E, S with cedilla)
  • ș (U+0219, s with comma), incorrectly implemented as ş (U+015F, s with cedilla)
  • Ț (U+021A, T with comma), incorrectly implemented as Ţ (U+0162, T with cedilla)
  • ț (U+021B, t with comma), incorrectly implemented as ţ (U+0163, t with cedilla)

The cedilla-versions of the characters do not exist in the Romanian language (they came to be used due to a historic bug).[36] The UCS now says that encoding this was a mistake because it messed up Romanian data and the letters with cedilla and the letters with comma are the same letter with a different style.[37]

Since Romanian hardware keyboards are not widely available, Cristian Secară has created a driver that allows Romanian characters to be generated with a US-style keyboard in all versions of Windows prior to Vista through the use of the AltGr key modifier.[38]

MS Windows 7 now includes the correct diacritical signs in the default Romanian Keyboard layout. This layout has the Z and Y keys mapped like in English layouts and also includes characters like the 'at' (@) and dollar ($) signs, among others. The older cedilla-version layout is still included albeit as the 'Legacy' layout.


KB Slovak
Slovak QWERTY/Z keyboard layout

In Slovakia, similarly to the Czech Republic, both QWERTZ and QWERTY keyboard layouts are used. QWERTZ is the default keyboard layout for Slovak in Microsoft Windows.


KB Spanish
Spanish keyboard layout

The Spanish keyboard layout is used to write in Spanish and in other languages of Spain such as Catalan, Basque, Galician, Aragonese, Asturian and Occitan. It includes Ñ for Spanish, Asturian and Galician, the acute accent, the diaeresis, the inverted question and exclamation marks (¿, ¡), the superscripted o and a (º, ª) for writing abbreviated ordinal numbers in masculine and feminine in Spanish and Galician, and finally, some characters required only for typing Catalan and Occitan, namely Ç, the grave accent and the interpunct (punt volat / punt interior, used in l·l, n·h, s·h; located at Shift-3). It can also be used to write other international characters, such as those using a circumflex accent (used in French and Portuguese among others) or a tilde (used in both Spanish and Portuguese), which are available as dead keys. However, it lacks two characters used in Asturian: and (historically, general support for these two has been poor – they aren't present in the ISO 8859-1 character encoding standard, or any other ISO/IEC 8859 standard); several alternative distributions, based on this one or created from scratch, have been created to address this issue (see the Other original layouts and layout design software section for more information)).

On most keyboards, € is marked as Alt Gr + E and not Alt Gr + 5 as shown in the image. However, in some keyboards, € is found marked twice. An alternative version exists, supporting all of ISO 8859-1.[39]

Spanish keyboards are usually labelled in Spanish instead of English, its abbreviations being:

Spanish label English equivalent
Insertar (Ins) Insert (Ins)
Suprimir (Supr) Delete (Del)
Retroceder página (Re Pág) Page up (PgUp)
Avanzar página (Av Pág) Page down (PgDn)
Inicio Home
Fin End
Imprimir pantalla / Petición de sistema (Impr Pant/PetSis) Print Screen / System request (PrtScn/SysRq)
Bloqueo de mayúsculas (Bloq Mayús) Caps Lock
Bloqueo numérico (Bloq Num) Num Lock
Bloqueo de desplazamiento (Bloq Despl) Scroll Lock
Pausa / Interrumpir (Pausa/Inter) Pause/Break
Intro Enter

On some keyboards, the c-cedilla key (Ç) is located one or two lines above, rather than on the right of, the acute accent key (´). In some cases it is placed on the right of the plus sign key (+),[40][41] while in other keyboards it's situated on the right of the inverted exclamation mark key (¡).[42][43]

KB Latin American
Latin American Spanish keyboard layout

The Latin American Spanish keyboard layout is used throughout Mexico, Central and South America. Before its design, Latin American vendors had been selling the Spanish (Spain) layout as default.

Its most obvious difference from the Spanish (Spain) layout is the lack of a Ç key; on Microsoft Windows it lacks a tilde (~) dead key, whereas on Linux systems the dead tilde can be optionally enabled. This is not a problem when typing in Spanish, but it is rather problematic when typing in Portuguese, which can be an issue in countries with large commercial ties to Brazil (Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay).

Normally "Bloq Mayús" is used instead of "Caps Lock", and "Intro" instead of "Enter".


KB Sweden
Swedish Windows keyboard layout

The central characteristics of the Swedish keyboard are the three additional letters Å/å, Ä/ä, and Ö/ö. The same visual layout is also in use in Finland and Estonia, as the letters Ä/ä and Ö/ö are shared with the Swedish language, and even Å/å is needed by Swedish-speaking Finns. However, the Finnish multilingual keyboard adds new letters and punctuation to the functional layout.

The Norwegian keyboard largely resembles the Swedish layout, but the Ö and Ä are replaced with Ø and Æ. The Danish keyboard is also similar, but it has the Ø and Æ swapped. On some systems, the Swedish or Finnish keyboard may allow typing Ø/ø and Æ/æ by holding the AltGr or Option key while striking Ö and Ä, respectively.

The Swedish with Sámi keyboard allows typing not only Ø/ø and Æ/æ, but even the letters required to write various Sámi (also known as Lapp) languages. This keyboard has the same function for all the keys engraved on the regular Swedish keyboard, and the additional letters are available through the AltGr key.

On Macintosh computers, the Swedish and Swedish Pro keyboards differ somewhat from the image shown above, especially as regards the characters available using the Shift or Option keys. ⇧ Shift+§ (on the upper row) produces the ° sign, and ⇧ Shift+4 produces the sign. The digit keys produce ©@£$∞§|[]≈ with ⌥ Option and ¡"¥¢‰¶\{}≠ with ⌥ Option+⇧ Shift.

On Linux systems, the Swedish keyboard may also give access to additional characters as follows:

  • first row: AltGr ¶¡@£$€¥{[]}\± and AltGr+⇧ Shift ¾¹²³¼¢⅝÷«»°¿¬
  • second row: AltGr @ł€®þ←↓→œþ"~ and AltGr+⇧ Shift ΩŁ¢®Þ¥↑ıŒÞ°ˇ
  • third row: AltGr ªßðđŋħjĸłøæ´ and AltGr+⇧ Shift º§ÐªŊĦJ&ŁØÆ×
  • fourth row: AltGr |«»©""nµ¸·̣ and AltGr+⇧ Shift ¦<>©‘’Nº˛˙˙

Several of these characters function as dead keys.


KB Turkey
Turkish Q-keyboard layout

Today the majority of Turkish keyboards are based on QWERTY (the so-called Q-keyboard layout), although there is also the older F-keyboard layout specifically designed for the language.

United Kingdom

KB United Kingdom
United Kingdom and Ireland (except Mac) keyboard layout
United Kingdom Keyboard layout for Linux

The United Kingdom and Ireland[nb 1] use a keyboard layout based on the 48-key version defined in the (now withdrawn) British Standard BS 4822.[44] It is very similar to that of the United States, but has an extra key and a larger Enter key, includes £ and € signs and some rarely used EBCDIC symbols (¬, ¦), and uses different positions for the characters @, ", #, ~, \, and |. See the article British and American keyboards for details.

The BS 4822:1994 standard did not make any use of the AltGr key and lacked support for any non-ASCII characters other than ¬ and £. It also assigned a key for the non-ASCII character broken bar (¦), but lacks one for the far more commonly used ASCII character vertical bar (|). It also lacked support for various diacritics used in the Welsh alphabet, and the Scottish Gaelic alphabet; and also is missing the letter yogh, ȝ, used very rarely in the Scots language. Therefore, various manufacturers have modified or extended the BS 4822 standard:

  • The B00 key (left of Z), shifted, results in vertical bar (|) on some systems (e.g. Windows UK/Ireland keyboard layout and Linux/X11 UK/Ireland keyboard layout), rather than the broken bar (¦) assigned by BS 4822 and provided in some systems (e.g. IBM OS/2 UK166 keyboard layout)
  • The E00 key (left of 1) with AltGr provides either vertical bar (|) (OS/2's UK166 keyboard layout, Linux/X11 UK keyboard layout) or broken bar (¦) (Microsoft Windows UK/Ireland keyboard layout)

In many Commonwealth countries and other English-speaking jurisdictions (e.g., Canada, Australia, the Caribbean nations, Hong Kong, Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Singapore, New Zealand, and South Africa), local spelling conforms more closely to British English usage, while the supplied keyboard is or based on the English (US) keyboard. In Windows 8 and later versions, the backslash \ key (left of Z or space) is duplicated onto the hash # key (left of Enter), press which with Alt Gr key to type backslash \, with Alt Gr and ⇧ Shift keys to type vertical bar |. This aids users who are familiar with UK keyboard layout while the keyboard lacks this key (e.g. US Standard keyboard and Japan JIS keyboard).

KB United Kingdom Mac - Apple Keyboard (MC184B)
United Kingdom version of Apple keyboard

The British version of the Apple Keyboard does not use the standard UK layout. Instead, some older versions have the US layout (see below) with a few differences: the £ sign is reached by ⇧ Shift+3 and the # sign by ⌥ Option+3, the opposite to the US layout. The is also present and is typed with ⌥ Option+2. Umlauts are reached by typing ⌥ Option+U and then the vowel, and ß is reached by typing ⌥ Option+S.

Newer Apple "British" keyboards use a layout that is relatively unlike either the US or traditional UK keyboard. It uses an elongated return key, a shortened left ⇧ Shift with ` and ~ in the newly created position, and in the upper left of the keyboard are § and ± instead of the traditional EBCDIC codes. The middle-row key that fits inside the return key has \ and |.

KB United Kingdom Ext
United Kingdom Extended Keyboard Layout for Windows
United Kingdom Extended Keyboard Layout for Linux
United Kingdom International Keyboard Layout for Linux

From Windows XP SP2 onwards, Microsoft has included a variant of the British QWERTY keyboard (the "United Kingdom Extended" keyboard layout) that can additionally generate several diacritical marks. This supports input on a standard physical UK keyboard for many languages without changing positions of frequently used keys, which is useful when working with text in Welsh and Scottish Gaelic — languages native to parts of the UK (Wales and parts of Scotland respectively).

Although the rarely used grave accent key becomes, as it also does in the US International layout, a dead key modifying the character generated by the next key pressed, the apostrophe, double-quote, tilde and caret keys are not changed. Instead, the additional characters are obtained using the AltGr key. The extended keyboard is software installed from the Windows control panel, and the extended characters are not normally engraved on keyboards.

Apple's Mac OS X does not include UK Extended, as it has key combinations for accents on any keyboard layout.

The UK International keyboard uses mostly the AltGr key to add diacritics to the letters a, e, i, n, o, u, w and y (the last two being used in Welsh) as appropriate for each character, as well as to their capitals. Pressing the key and then a character that does not take the specific diacritic produces the behaviour of a standard keyboard. The key presses followed by spacebar generate a stand-alone mark.:

  • grave accents (e.g. à, è, etc.) are generated by pressing the grave accent/backtick key `, which is now a dead key, then the letter.
  • acute accents (e.g. á) are generated by pressing the AltGr key together with the letter, or AltGr+' (acting as a dead key combination) followed by the letter. Some programs use the combination of AltGr and a letter for other functions, in which case the AltGr+' method must be used to generate acute accents.
  • a circumflex (e.g. â, ê, etc.) is added by AltGr+6, acting as a dead key combination, followed by the letter.
  • diaeresis or umlaut (e.g. ä, ë, ö, etc.) is generated by a dead key combination AltGr+2, then the letter.
  • tilde (e.g. ã, ñ, õ, etc., as used in Spanish and Portuguese) is generated by dead key combination AltGr+#, then the letter.
  • cedilla (e.g. ç) under c is generated by AltGr+C, and the capital letter (Ç) is produced by AltGr+⇧ Shift+C

The AltGr and letter method used for acutes and cedillas does not work for applications which assign shortcut menu functions to these key combinations. For acute accents the AltGr and apostrophe method should be used.

These combinations are intended to be mnemonic and designed to be easy to remember: the circumflex accent (e.g. â) is similar to a caret (^), printed above the 6 key; the diaeresis/umlaut (e.g. ö) is visually similar to the double-quote (") above 2 on the UK keyboard; the tilde (~) is printed on the same key as the #.

The UK extended layout is almost entirely transparent to users familiar with the UK layout. A machine with the extended layout behaves exactly as with the standard UK, except for the rarely used grave accent key. This makes this layout suitable for a machine for shared or public use by a user population in which some use the extended functions.

Despite being created for multilingual users, UK-Extended does have some gaps — there are many languages that it cannot cope with, including Romanian and Turkish, and all languages with different character sets, such as Greek and Russian. It also does not cater for the ß in German, nor for the å, æ, ø, ð, þ in Nordic languages.

United States

KB United States-NoAltGr
United States keyboard layout

The arrangement of the character input keys and the Shift keys contained in this layout is specified in the U.S. American national standard ANSI-INCITS 154-1988 (R1999) (formerly ANSI X3.154-1988 (R1999)),[45] where this layout is called "ASCII keyboard". The complete US keyboard layout, as it is usually found, also contains the usual function keys in accordance with the international standard ISO/IEC 9995-2, although this is not explicitly required by the US American national standard.

US keyboards are used not only in the United States, but also in many other English-speaking places, including India, Australia, English Canada, Hong Kong, New Zealand, South Africa, Malaysia, Singapore and Philippines, including Indonesia that uses the same 26 alphabets as English. However, the United Kingdom and Ireland use a slightly different layout because of the Irish language.

The US keyboard layout has a second Alt key instead of the AltGr key and does not use any dead keys; this makes it inefficient for all but a handful of languages. On the other hand, the US keyboard layout (or the similar UK layout) is occasionally used by programmers in countries where the keys for []{} are located in less convenient positions on the locally customary layout.[46]

On some keyboards the enter key is bigger than traditionally and takes up also a part of the line above, more or less the area of the traditional location of the backslash key (\). In these cases the backslash is located in alternative places.[47] It can be situated one line above the default location, on the right of the equals sign key (=).[48][49] Sometimes it's placed one line below its traditional situation, on the right of the apostrophe key (') (in these cases the enter key is narrower than usual on the line of its default location).[50] It may also be two lines below its default situation on the right of a narrower than traditionally right shift key.[51]

A variant of this layout is used in Arabic-speaking countries.

This variant has the | \ key to the left of Z, ~ ` key where the | \ key is in the usual layout, and the > < key where the ~ ` key is in the usual layout.[39]

KB US-International
US-International keyboard layout (Windows)

An alternative layout uses the physical US keyboard to type diacritics in some operating systems (including Windows). This is the US-International layout, which uses the right Alt key as an AltGr key to support many additional characters directly as an additional shift key. (Since many smaller keyboards don't have a right Alt key, Windows also allows Ctrl+Alt to be used as a substitute for AltGr.) This layout also uses keys ', `, ", ^ and ~ as dead keys to generate characters with diacritics by pressing the appropriate key, then the letter on the keyboard. The international keyboard is a software setting installed from the Windows control panel[52] or similar; the additional functions (shown in blue) may or may not be engraved on the keyboard, but are always functional. It can be used to type most major languages from Western Europe: Afrikaans, Danish, Dutch, English, Faroese, Finnish, French, German, Icelandic, Irish, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Scottish Gaelic, Spanish, and Swedish. Some less common western European languages, such as Welsh and Maltese (the Welsh language using circumflexes and Maltese using the stroked H, among other accents), are not fully supported by the US-International keyboard layout.

A diacritic key is activated by pressing and releasing it, then pressing the letter that requires a diacritic. After the two strokes, the single character with diacritics is generated. Note that only certain letters, such as vowels and "n", can have diacritics in this way. To generate the symbols ', `, ", ^ and ~, when the following character is capable of having a diacritic, press the Spacebar after the key.

Characters with diacritics can be typed with the following combinations:

  • ' + vowel → vowel with acute accent, e.g., '+e → é
  • ` + vowel → vowel with grave accent, e.g., `+e → è
  • " + vowel → vowel with diaeresis (or umlaut), e.g., "+e → ë
  • ^ + vowel → vowel with circumflex accent, e.g., ^+e → ê
  • ~ + a, n or o → letter with tilde, e.g. ~+n → ñ, ~+o → õ
  • ' + c → ç (Windows) or ć (X11)

The US-International layout is not entirely transparent to users familiar with the US layout; when using a machine with the international layout the commonly used single- and double-quote keys and the less commonly used grave accent, tilde, and caret keys behave unexpectedly. This could be disconcerting on a machine for shared or public use.

There are also alternative US-International formats, whereby modifier keys such as shift and alt are used, and the keys for the characters with diacritics are in different places from their unmodified counterparts, for example, using the AltGr modifier key to activate dead keys, so that the ASCII quotation marks or circumflex symbol are not affected and can be typed normally with a single keystroke.

The standard keyboard layout in the Netherlands is US-International, as it provides easy access to diacritics on common UK- or US-like keyboards. The Dutch layout is historical, and keyboards with this layout are rarely used. Many US keyboards sold do not have the extra US-International characters or AltGr engraved on the keys, although € (AltGr+5) always is; nevertheless, the keys work as expected even if not marked. Many computer-literate Dutch people have retained the old habit of using Alt + number codes to type accented characters; others routinely type without diacritics, then use a spelling checker to produce the correct forms.

KB Intl English Mac - Apple Keyboard (MC184Z)
International English version of Apple keyboard

There are three kinds of Apple Keyboards for English: the United States, the United Kingdom and International English. The International English version is almost identical to the United States version, but some features are identical to the United Kingdom version:

  1. The ~
    key is located on the left of the Z key, and the |
    key is located on the right of the "
  2. The ±
    key is added on the left of the !
  3. The left ⇧ Shift key is shortened and the Return key has the shape of inverted L.


Vietnamese keyboard
Vietnamese keyboard layout

The Vietnamese keyboard layout is an extended Latin QWERTY layout. The letters Ă, Â, Ê, and Ô are found on what would be the number keys 14 on the US English keyboard, with 59 producing the tonal marks (grave accent, hook, tilde, acute accent and dot below, in that order), 0 producing Đ, = producing the đồng sign (₫) when not shifted, and brackets ([]) producing Ư and Ơ.[53]


Several alternatives to QWERTY have been developed over the years, claimed by their designers and users to be more efficient, intuitive, and ergonomic. Nevertheless, none have seen widespread adoption, partly due to the sheer dominance of available keyboards and training.[54] Although some studies have suggested that some of these may allow for faster typing speeds,[55] many other studies have failed to do so, and many of the studies claiming improved typing speeds were severely methodologically flawed or deliberately biased, such as the studies administered by Dvorak himself before and after World War II. Economists Stan Liebowitz and Stephen Margolis have noted that rigorous studies are inconclusive as to whether they actually offer any real benefits,[56] and some studies on keyboard layout have suggested that, for a skilled typist, layout is largely irrelevant – even randomized and alphabetical keyboards allow for similar typing speeds to QWERTY and Dvorak keyboards, and that switching costs always outweigh the benefits of further training on whichever keyboard you already use.

The most widely used such alternative is the Dvorak Simplified Keyboard; another alternative is Colemak, which is based partly on QWERTY and is claimed to be easier for an existing QWERTY typist to learn while offering several supposed optimisations.[57] Most modern computer operating systems support these and other alternative mappings with appropriate special mode settings, with some modern operating systems allowing the user to map their keyboard in any way they like, but few keyboards are made with keys labeled according to any other standard.

Comparison to other keyboard input systems

Comparisons have been made, between Dvorak, Colemak, QWERTY, and other keyboard input systems, namely stenotype or its electronic implementations (e.g., Plover an opensource project [1]). However, stenotype is a fundamentally different system, which relies on Phonetics and simultaneous key presses or chords. Although stenography has long been known as a faster and more accurate typing system, adoption has been limited, likely due to the historically high cost of equipment, steeper initial learning curve, and low awareness of the benefits within primary education and in the general public.

The first typed shorthand machines appeared around 1830, with english versions gaining popularity in the early 1900s. Traditionally, stenotype output required interpretation back to longhand by a trained professional, comparable to reading Gregg shorthand, which was very much in vogue at the time and taught publicly until the 1980s. Gregg shorthand also did not require much more than training and a pen, however machines gradually gained traction in the courtroom. Modern electronic stenotype machines or programs such as Plover Steno, output to written language, which provides an experience similar to other keyboard setups that immediately produce legible work.


Nokia E55 01
The Nokia E55 uses a half QWERTY keyboard layout.

A half QWERTY keyboard is a combination of an alpha-numeric keypad and a QWERTY keypad, designed for mobile phones.[58] In a half QWERTY keyboard, two characters share the same key, which reduces the number of keys and increases the surface area of each key, useful for mobile phones that have little space for keys.[58] It means that 'Q' and 'W' share the same key and the user must press the key once to type 'Q' and twice to type 'W'.

See also


Informational notes

  1. ^ There is a separate Gaelic keyboard layout, but this is rarely used. In all common operating systems that have a different selection for Irish, this refers to the layout that is identical with the UK layout, not the Irish Gaelic layout; the latter tends to be called Gaelic or similar and supports Scottish Gaelic as well. The other Insular Celtic languages have their own layout.


  1. ^ a b US 79868, Shole, C. Latham; Carlos Glidden & Samuel W. Soule, "Improvement in Type-writing Machines", issued 14 July 1868
  2. ^ "Fact of Fiction? The Legend of the QWERTY Keyboard". Smithsonian. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
  3. ^ Koichi Yasuoka: The Truth of QWERTY, entry dated 1 August 2006.
  4. ^ Stamp, Jimmy. "Fact of Fiction? The Legend of the QWERTY Keyboard". Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
  5. ^ a b Koichi and Motoko Yasuoka: Myth of QWERTY Keyboard, Tokyo: NTT Publishing, 2008. pp.12-20
  6. ^ Koichi and Motoko Yasuoka: Myth of QWERTY Keyboard, Tokyo: NTT Publishing, 2008. pp.24-25
  7. ^ a b c Koichi and Motoko Yasuoka: On the Prehistory of QWERTY, ZINBUN, No.42, pp.161-174, 2011.
  8. ^ David, Paul A. (1985), "Clio and the Economics of QWERTY", American Economic Review, American Economic Association, 75 (2): 332–337, JSTOR 1805621
  9. ^ US 207559, Sholes, Christopher Latham, issued 27 August 1878
  10. ^ Weller, Charles Edward (1918), The early history of the typewriter, La Porte, Indiana: Chase & Shepard, printers
  11. ^ See for example the Olivetti Lettera 36, introduced in 1972
  12. ^ Shermer, Michael (2008). The mind of the market. Macmillan. p. 50. ISBN 0-8050-7832-0.
  13. ^ Diamond, Jared (April 1997), "The Curse of QWERTY", Discover, retrieved 29 April 2009, More than 3,000 English words utilize QWERTY's left hand alone, and about 300 the right hand alone.
  14. ^ a b "...at least one study indicates that placing commonly used keys far apart, as with the QWERTY, actually speeds typing, since consecutive letters are often typed with alternate hands". straightdope.com.
  15. ^ Stamp, Jimmy. "Fact of Fiction? The Legend of the QWERTY Keyboard".
  16. ^ Madrigal, Alexis C. "The Lies You've Been Told About the Origin of the QWERTY Keyboard".
  17. ^ Kinesis – Ergonomic Benefits of the Contoured Keyboard Archived 28 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine – Vertical key layout
  18. ^ TypeMatrix. "TypeMatrix - The Keyboard is the Key". typematrix.com.
  19. ^ Castillo, M. (2 September 2010). "QWERTY, @, &, #". American Journal of Neuroradiology. 32 (4): 613. doi:10.3174/ajnr.a2228.
  20. ^ "Fren-Canadian keyboard". uakron.edu. Retrieved 27 November 2010.
  21. ^ Koenen, Liesbeth; Smits, Rik (1 January 2004). "Handboek Nederlands". Bijleveld – via Google Books.
  22. ^ SFS 5966 (keyboard layout), Finnish Standards Association SFS, 3 November 2008, retrieved 19 April 2015. Finnish-Swedish multilingual keyboard setting.
  23. ^ Kotoistus (12 December 2006), Uusi näppäinasettelu [Status of the new Keyboard Layout] (in Finnish and English), CSC IT Center for Science, archived from the original (presentation page collecting drafts of the Finnish Multilingual Keyboard) on 27 April 2015, retrieved 19 April 2015
  24. ^ "Precomposed characters in the new Finnish keyboard layout specification" (PDF). Kotoistus. 29 June 2006. p. 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
  25. ^ "Logitech K120 Keyboard czarna USB - Klawiatury przewodowe - Sklep komputerowy - x-kom.pl". x-kom.pl. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  26. ^ "Logitech Corded Keyboard K280e - Klawiatury przewodowe - Sklep komputerowy - x-kom.pl". x-kom.pl. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  27. ^ "SHIRU Klawiatura przewodowa - Klawiatury przewodowe - Sklep komputerowy - x-kom.pl". x-kom.pl. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  28. ^ "Klawiatura. Dlaczego są z nią problemy? Gdzie są polskie litery?". yestok.pl. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  29. ^ "Polish (Programmers) Keyboard Layout". Microsoft. Archived from the original on 2 July 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
  30. ^ "Jak używać ekranu dotykowego". softonet.pl. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  31. ^ "Test HTC One M9". gsmonline.pl. Retrieved 27 January 2017.
  32. ^ "Pimping your Brazilian keyboard". Developer network. Microsoft. 7 October 2006. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
  33. ^ "RO", Diacritice, Sourceforge, archived from the original (PNG) on 27 September 2011
  34. ^ "RO US", Diacritice, Sourceforge, archived from the original (PNG) on 27 September 2011
  35. ^ X keyboard config (wiki), Free desktop
  36. ^ "S-uri si t-uri". RO: Secarica. 20 October 2011. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
  37. ^ "Cedilla vs Comma" (PDF). Retrieved 9 December 2015.
  38. ^ "RO Keyboard" (in Romanian). RO: Secarica. 20 October 2011. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
  39. ^ a b "Microsoft Keyboard Layouts". Microsoft. Archived from the original on 13 July 2017. Retrieved 26 May 2017.
  40. ^ Spanish Keyboard layout and special alt characters Spain (Spanish) version, MyLingos, archived from the original on 30 May 2013, retrieved 23 March 2013
  41. ^ Spanish (Traditional Sort) Keyboard Overlays, FI: Trantor
  42. ^ Commons
  43. ^ Foreign language Keyboard layout: type foreign languages, spanish keyboard layout, French, German, Italian, Translation Software
  44. ^ BS 4822: Keyboard allocation of graphic characters for data processing (British Standard), British Standards Institution, 1994, [t]his standard has been declared obsolescent as it is no longer felt to be relevant
  45. ^ ANSI INCITS 154-1988 (R1999) Office Machines and Supplies - Alphanumeric Machines - Keyboard Arrangement (formerly ANSI X3.154-1988 (R1999)) (retrieved 2012-07-04)
  46. ^ "Editing Lisp Code with Emacs". CLiki. Retrieved 4 January 2008.
  47. ^ Where is the backslash key located on my keyboard?, Sharpened.net
  48. ^ "Keyboard for programmers", Stackoverflow (JPEG)
  49. ^ "US keyboard", SLES (JPEG), OpenSUSE
  50. ^ Aske, Jon, Typing accented letters and other special characters on a PC (or Mac), Department of Foreign Languages, Salem State University, archived from the original on 4 March 2012
  51. ^ US Tastaturbelegung: amerikanische Tastatur [US keyboard design] (in German), DE: in4mation, archived from the original on 29 May 2012, retrieved 23 March 2013
  52. ^ How to use the United States-International keyboard layout in Windows 7, in Windows Vista, and in Windows XP, Microsoft, 17 August 2009
  54. ^ Gould, Stephen Jay (1987) "The Panda's Thumb of Technology." Natural History 96 (1): 14-23; Reprinted in Bully for Brontosaurus. New York: W.W. Norton. 1992, pp. 59-75.
  55. ^ Paul David, "Understanding the economics of QWERTY: the necessity of history", Economic history and the modern economist, 1986
  56. ^ Liebowitz, Stan; Margolis, Stephen E. (1990), "The Fable of the Keys", Journal of Law and Economics, 33 (1): 1–26, CiteSeerX, doi:10.1086/467198
  57. ^ Krzywinski, Martin. "Colemak – Popular Alternative". Carpalx – keyboard layout optimizer. Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre. Retrieved 4 February 2010.
  58. ^ a b "Half-QWERTY keyboard layout – Mobile terms glossary". GSMArena.com. Retrieved 31 January 2011.

External links


AZERTY () is a specific layout for the characters of the Latin alphabet on typewriter keys and computer keyboards. The layout takes its name from the first six letters to appear on the first row of alphabetical keys; that is, (A Z E R T Y). Similar to the German QWERTZ layout, it is modelled on the English QWERTY layout. It is used by most French and all Flemish speakers based in Europe, although France and Belgium each have their own national variations on the layout. Luxembourg and Switzerland use the Swiss QWERTZ keyboard. Most of the residents of Quebec, the mainly French-speaking province of Canada, use a QWERTY keyboard that has been adapted to the French language such as the Multilingual Standard keyboard CAN/CSA Z243.200-92 which is stipulated by the government of Quebec and the Government of Canada.The competing layouts devised for French (e.g., the ZHJAYSCPG layout put forward in 1907, Claude Marsan's 1976 layout, the 2002 Dvorak-fr, and the 2005 Bépo layout) have obtained only limited recognition.

Appeal to tradition

Appeal to tradition (also known as argumentum ad antiquitatem, appeal to antiquity, or appeal to common practice) is an argument in which a thesis is deemed correct on the basis that it is correlated with some past or present tradition. The appeal takes the form of "this is right because we've always done it this way."An appeal to tradition essentially makes two assumptions that are not necessarily true:

The old way of thinking was proven correct when introduced, i.e. since the old way of thinking was prevalent, it was necessarily correct.

In reality, this may be false—the tradition might be entirely based on incorrect grounds.

The past justifications for the tradition are still valid at present.

In reality, the circumstances may have changed; this assumption may also therefore be untrue.An appeal to tradition is only a fallacious argument in itself if the argument is not developed further, for example by pointing out that the widespread acceptance of the practice means that there would be significant implications/disruption/cost involved in abandoning the tradition.

For example, arguing that the QWERTY keyboard layout should be retained "because it is traditional" would be fallacious unless the further argument is made that, being traditional, QWERTY is familiar to most current keyboard users who would need retraining if any change were made.(The further development may introduce other fallacies.)

The opposite of an appeal to tradition is an appeal to novelty, claiming something is good because it is new.


Colemak is a keyboard layout for Latin-script alphabets, created by and named after Shai Coleman in 2006. The layout is designed to make typing more efficient and comfortable by placing the most frequent letters on the home row.Many major modern operating systems such Mac OS, Linux, Android, Chrome OS, and BSD support Colemak. A program to install the layout is available for Microsoft Windows.

Comparison of smartphones

This is a comparison of the various internal components and features of many smartphones.

Dvorak keyboard layout

The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard ( (listen) d(ə)-VOR-ak) is a keyboard layout patented in 1936 by August Dvorak and his brother-in-law, William Dealey. Several modifications have since been designed by the team directed by Dvorak or by ANSI. These variations have been collectively or individually termed the Simplified Keyboard or American Simplified Keyboard, but they all have come to be known commonly as the Dvorak keyboard or Dvorak layout.

The keyboard layout is optimised for English, thus Dvorak proponents claim the layout requires less finger motion and reduces errors compared to the standard QWERTY keyboard arrangement. It is claimed that the reduction in finger distance traveled permits faster typing while also reducing repetitive strain injuries, although that claim is controversial.Although Dvorak has failed to replace the standard QWERTY, most major modern operating systems (such as Windows, macOS, Linux, Android, Chrome OS, and BSD) allow a user to switch to the Dvorak layout. iOS does not provide a system-wide, touchscreen Dvorak keyboard, although third-party software is capable of adding the layout to iOS, and the layout can be chosen for use with any hardware keyboard, regardless of printed layout.

Form factor (mobile phones)

The form factor of a mobile phone is its size, shape, and style, as well as the layout and position of its major components.

Georgian keyboard layout

The Georgian keyboard (Georgian: ქართული კლავიატურა [kʰɑrtʰuli kʼlɑviɑturɑ]) includes several keyboard layouts for Georgian script.

Hebrew keyboard

A Hebrew keyboard (Hebrew: מקלדת עברית mikledet ivrit) comes in two different keyboard layouts. Most Hebrew keyboards are bilingual, with Latin characters, usually in a US layout. Trilingual keyboard options also exist, with the third script being Arabic or Russian, due to the sizable Arabic- and Russian-speaking populations in Israel.

Keyboard layout

A keyboard layout is any specific mechanical, visual, or functional arrangement of the keys, legends, or key-meaning associations (respectively) of a computer, typewriter, or other typographic keyboard.

Mechanical layout is the placements and keys of a keyboard. Visual layout is the arrangement of the legends (labels, markings, engravings) that appear on the keys of a keyboard. Functional layout is the arrangement of the key-meaning associations, determined in software, of all the keys of a keyboard.

Most computer keyboards are designed to send scan codes to the operating system rather than directly sending characters to it. From there, the series of scancodes is converted into a character stream by keyboard layout software. This allows a physical keyboard to be dynamically mapped to any number of layouts without switching hardware components – merely by changing the software that interprets the keystrokes. It is usually possible for an advanced user to change keyboard operation, and third-party software is available to modify or extend keyboard functionality.

Linkin Park discography

American rock band Linkin Park has released seven studio albums, three live albums, two compilation albums, two remix albums, three soundtrack albums, 12 video albums, 10 extended plays, 35 singles, 20 promotional singles, and 66 music videos. Linkin Park was formed in Agoura Hills, California, in 1996 by Mike Shinoda (vocals, keyboards, samplers and guitars), Brad Delson (guitar), and Rob Bourdon (drums). Joe Hahn (turntables) and Dave Farrell (bass) were later recruited, and in 1999, Chester Bennington (lead vocals) became a member, staying with the band until his death in 2017.Linkin Park rose to international fame in 2000 with their debut album Hybrid Theory, which peaked at number two on the US Billboard 200. It was the seventh best-selling album of the 2000s, and certified Diamond in US and quadruple platinum in Europe. The fourth single from the album, "In the End", peaked at the second spot on the Billboard Hot 100 (the highest of Linkin Park's career), and stayed on the chart for 38 weeks. With first-week sales of 810,000, Linkin Park's second album Meteora (2003) entered the Billboard 200 at number one, becoming the third-best-selling album of the year.In 2007, their third studio album, Minutes to Midnight, also debuted at number-one on the Billboard 200, selling 623,000 copies in its first week. A Thousand Suns (2010) became Linkin Park's third studio album to debut at the top of the Billboard 200, but its first-week sales were less than half of its predecessor—240,000 copies. Living Things followed in 2012, selling 223,000 copies in its first week and becoming the band's fourth studio album to debut at number-one.

Linkin Park has sold over 110 million albums and 41 million singles worldwide, making a total of over 132 million records worldwide and 32,000,000 albums and 33,000,000 singles in the US as of June 2017. The band has produced eleven number-one singles on the Billboard Alternative Songs chart, and is the second-ever act to have at least ten weeks with three or more tracks on that chart. Two of these singles, "Crawling" and "Numb/Encore", earned the band two Grammy Awards. Linkin Park Underground, the band's official fan club, annually released EPs with rare tracks, demos, live recordings and remixes until 2017. Since Chester Bennington's death in July 2017, the band had not put together an LPU release.

List of Latin-script keyboard layouts

The QWERTY keyboard layout, along with its direct derivatives such as QWERTZ and AZERTY, is the primary keyboard layout for the Latin alphabet. However, there are also keyboard layouts that do not resemble QWERTY very closely, if at all. Some of these are used for languages where QWERTY may be unsuitable. Others are specially designed to reduce finger movement and are claimed by some proponents to offer higher typing speed along with ergonomic benefits.

Nokia Asha 302

The Nokia Asha 302 is a QWERTY messenger feature phone powered by Nokia's Series 40 operating system. It was announced at Mobile World Congress 2012 in Barcelona (on 27 February) along with other Asha phones - the Nokia Asha 202, and 203. The 302 is considered to be among the flagship of the Asha family. Its main features are the QWERTY keyboard, the pentaband 3G radio, SIP VoIP over 3G and Wi-Fi. Its design looks a lot like the older Nokia E6 with chrome slidings, giving it a somewhat premium look. A software update adds Mail for Exchange support.

Nokia C6-00

The Nokia C6-00 is a smartphone and portable entertainment handheld cellular device by Finnish communications company Nokia, running the Symbian S60v5 operating system. It was announced on April 13, 2010. It is the third Nokia Symbian^1 smartphone featuring a full slide-out QWERTY keyboard. Its software and hardware specifications resemble the N97 mini in most ways. One of the differences is that the sliding in this phone is flat, unlike the upward angled in the N97 mini, hence allowing a four row QWERTY keypad, bringing a slightly enhanced typing experience to the table. The phone has a 5-megapixel camera, though unlike the N97 mini, it does not have Carl Zeiss optics. It also has a secondary camera in front for video calls. The Nokia C6-01 is the successor to the C6-00 featuring a major step-up with the new Symbian^3 operating system, Ovi Maps 3.0 and such but losing the QWERTY keyboard.

All application and games for similar handsets like the N97, the N97 Mini, the 5800 Xpressmusic, and the 5230 will be compatible with this handset.

Nokia E6

The Nokia E6-00 is a smartphone running the Symbian^3 operating system. It supersedes the Nokia E72 as the new Symbian business mobility solution from Nokia following its announcement on 12 April 2011 (same day as Nokia X7-00). It shipped with the new "Symbian Anna" version of Symbian^3, and originally retailed for 340 euros before taxes.The smartphone is notable for its backlit 4-rows QWERTY keyboard and touch screen input methods, for its long battery life (Talktime : 7.5 to 14.8 h and Standby : 28 to 31 days), the out-of-the-box access to Microsoft Exchange ActiveSync, Microsoft Communicator Mobile and Microsoft SharePoint and the high pixel density of its VGA display (326ppi).Like its predecessors (Nokia E71/E72), the Nokia E6-00 integrates a stainless steel and glass design. The back removable cover, the raised panel for the back camera, dual LED flash and loud speaker and the contour of the front are made of stainless steel. The front of the phone (except for the QWERTY keyboard, short cut buttons and Navikey) is covered with Corning Gorilla Glass. Its casing has three color options (black, silver and white).

The E6 would also be the last Symbian-based device with a QWERTY keyboard, as the later QWERTY devices would be Series 40 from the Asha line. The Nokia Asha 302 from 2012 bears strong design similarities to the E6.In October 2012 Vertu released the Constellation Quest Blue, based on the E6.

Nokia X2-01

The Nokia X2-01 is a low-cost feature phone with a Nokia S40 mobile operating system released under the X-series line of phones by Nokia. It features a full QWERTY keyboard. It is being advertised as an entry-level messaging & Music phone. It's similar to the Nokia X2-00, only differences are that it has a QWERTY keyboard, the display is landscape and has a downgraded VGA camera with no flash.


Pantech Inc. (Korean: 주식회사 팬택) is a South Korean company that manufactures mobile phones. Established in 1991, its market is mainly domestic with partners in the United States, Japan, China, Europe and finally Vietnam. In 2012 Pantech was the second best-selling handset maker in South Korea, according to Gartner. In 2013 Samsung Electronics bought a 10% stake in Pantech. Pantech also partners with PCD for specialized phones.

For the U.S. market, the company primarily manufactures phones for the two largest wireless carriers, AT&T and Verizon.

According to a July 2014 report from CNET, Pantech is facing bankruptcy with over $475 million in debt.In October 2015, BusinessKorea reported that Korean regulators approved acquisition of Pantech by a local tech consortium led by Optis and Solid.According to a report in July 2014 from CNET, Pantech is facing bankruptcy risk with a debt of $475 million. In October 2015, BusinessKorea said that Korean regulators have approved the acquisition by a domestic technology group led by Optis and Solid. In 2014, Only imported in country and exported in Vietnam.


The QWERTZ or QWERTZU keyboard is a typewriter and keyboard layout widely used in Central Europe. The name comes from the first six letters at the top left of the keyboard: (Q W E R T Z).

Samsung Corby

Samsung S3650 (also known as Genio Touch and formally Samsung Corby) is an entry-level touchscreen mobile phone that was released in October 2009 by Samsung. It has a 2 MP camera and a 2.8-inch capacitive TFT touch screen.There is also a QWERTY and a QWERTY slide version of the phone, Samsung B3210 and Samsung B5310, respectively.

The phone is available in four different colours (limited for rear covers and side mechanical buttons) - White, Pink, Orange or Yellow.

The Samsung GT-S3650W is a variant which has built-in Wi-Fi support.

Switching barriers

Switching barriers or switching costs are terms used in microeconomics, strategic management, and marketing to describe any impediment to a customer's changing of suppliers (customer switching).

Prominent figures
Alphabets (list)
Letters (list)
Keyboard layouts (list)
Non-Latin script
For mobile devices
Chorded keyboards


This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.