QVC

QVC (an acronym for "Quality Value Convenience") is an American cable, satellite and broadcast television network, and flagship shopping channel specializing in televised home shopping that is owned by Qurate Retail Group. Founded in 1986 by Joseph Segel in West Chester, Pennsylvania, United States, QVC broadcasts to more than 350 million households in seven countries, including channels in the UK, Germany, Japan, and Italy, along with a joint venture in China with China National Radio called CNR Mall.[2]

QVC
QVC logo 2019
LaunchedNovember 24, 1986[1]
Owned byQurate Retail Group
Picture format1080i (HDTV)
480i (SDTV)
SloganFind what you love. Love what you find.
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Broadcast areaWorldwide
HeadquartersWest Chester, Pennsylvania
Sister channel(s)(see below)
Websiteqvc.com
Availability
Terrestrial
QVC Over the Airx.5 on most Ion Television owned-and-operated stations, also on:
Satellite
DirecTV70, 275 and 317 (HD/SD)
Dish Network137 (HD/SD)
Cable
Available on most cable systemsConsult your local cable provider for channel availability
IPTV
AT&T U-Verse1420 (HD)
420 (SD)
Streaming media
QVCLive Stream

History

QVC was founded on June 13, 1986, by Joseph Segel. One of the first brands to sign a two-year deal with QVC for its products was Sears.[3] The corporation later set a new record for first full-year fiscal sales for a new public company of $112 million.[4]

Initially broadcast live from 7:30 p.m. until midnight ET each weekday and 24 hours a day each weekend, the channel extended its live programming to 24/7/364 in January 1987. In 1989, QVC acquired its top competitor, the Cable Value Network (CVN), founded by Irwin L. Jacobs. The $380 million deal contributed to a loss of $17 million during the next fiscal quarter, and then led to difficulties in the couple of years that followed.[5]

On February 2, 1995, Comcast purchased a majority shareholder stake in QVC, Inc., taking control of the corporation. That year, QVC kicked off the "Quest for America's Best: 50 in 50 Tour," a 50-week nationwide product search. Q2, a separate channel for more upscale shoppers, was founded in 1994 but abandoned in 1996.[6] QVC.com was started in 1996 as iQVC.[7]

In 1998, two former hosts filed a class-action lawsuit against QVC, claiming that they were discriminated against by the shopping channel based on their race. The lawsuit went on to state that QVC refused to allow non-white hosts any permanent daytime/primetime spots, which relegated them to the overnight hours, otherwise known as the "graveyard shift." Because of this, the non-white hosts were paid considerably less than the white hosts.[8][9]

In July 2003, Comcast sold its majority share to Liberty Media. On September 23, 2007, QVC U.S. rebranded itself, changing its logo on-air and online. The rebranding was accompanied by an advertising campaign with the tagline "iQdoU?" ("I shop QVC, do you?") that had preceded the rebrand with billboards in major U.S. cities. The iQdoU? campaign also included a "teaser" website.[10][11]

QVC was the first shopping network to offer a native high-definition simulcast channel in May 2009. The 4:3 cut for its standard definition feed in this 16:9 presentation is made to the right of the screen rather than on both sides of the 4:3 frame, allowing the network to place its graphics fully to the left and lower portions of the screen to maximize camera presentation space.

On September 30, 2010, at 11 p.m., QVC began broadcasting in Italy, both on satellite and through digital terrestrial television. In 2012, QVC partnered with China National Radio to take over operations of its home shopping network and associated internet e-commerce site. Its initial reach was reported to be 35 million households.

In 2013, QVC partnered with Ion Media Networks to bring its programming to broadcast television, through Ion Television. QVC began to be carried as the fifth digital subchannel on most Ion Television owned-and-operated stations beginning on August 5, 2013; due to technical limitations caused by the number of subchannels Ion requires its stations to carry, QVC is carried in a squeezed full-screen 4:3 format and is transmitted in standard definition. The channel is also broadcast on digital subchannels of low-powered television stations in selected areas. The broadcast service is branded as "QVC Over the Air", with an accompanying on-screen bug appearing on the lower right corner of the screen during the network's programming.

In August 2015, QVC acquired the online retailer Zulily for $2.4 billion.[12][13]

On July 6, 2017, QVC's parent company, Liberty Interactive, announced its intention to purchase the remaining 62% of stock it didn't already own of HSN, the rival home shopping channel. The all-stock deal is valued at $2.1 billion ($40.36 a share).[14][15][16]

QVC2

QVC2
QVC2 logo 2019
LaunchedAugust 22, 2013
Sloganmore of what you love
Formerly calledQVC Plus
(2013-2017)
Sister channel(s)(see above)
Websiteqvc.com
Availability
Satellite
DirecTV76, 79 and 315
Dish Network255
Streaming media
Live Stream

On August 22, 2013, QVC launched a timeshift channel called QVC Plus (the first such channel operated by a home shopping network), made available initially on cable provider Bright House Networks and satellite provider DirecTV, which broadcasts the channel's programming on a three-hour tape delay.[17] On April 1, 2017, QVC Plus was rebranded as QVC2 as a destination for more live programming, now broadcasting live 12 hours a day, Monday through Friday from noon to midnight ET, and Saturdays and Sundays from 10am-10pm ET.[18]

QVC3

QVC3
QVC logo
LaunchedOctober 31, 2016
Formerly calledBeauty iQ
(2016-2019)
Sister channel(s)(see above)
Websiteqvc.com
Availability
Satellite
DirecTV318
Dish Network73
Cable
Available on some cable systemsConsult your local cable provider for channel availability
Streaming media
[1]

On October 25, 2016, QVC announced the creation of Beauty iQ, a female-oriented television channel based entirely on beauty products. The network was launched on both DirecTV and Dish Network on October 31, 2016. Beauty iQ aired live programming Monday through Friday, 8pm- Midnight ET. Beauty iQ ceased live programming on March 13, 2019.

On April 1, 2019, Beauty iQ was rebranded as QVC3, airing rebroadcasts of previously recorded QVC and QVC2 programming 24 hours a day.

Operations

All of QVC's operations (U.S., UK, Germany, Japan, Italy, and China) run 24 hours a day, although live programming hours vary between each region.

Headquarters

QVC has its headquarters in West Chester, Pennsylvania by U.S. Route 202.[19][20] The $100 million QVC Studio Park complex, located on an 80 acres (32 ha) plot of land, opened in 1997.[21]

QVC U.S.

QVC Outlet
QVC Outlet store in Frazer, Pennsylvania

QVC's U.S. operations are based in the Studio Park complex, which houses its corporate headquarters, studio and broadcasting facilities. Studio Park is the former corporate offices of Commodore Business Machines. Call center facilities are located in Chesapeake, Virginia, and San Antonio, Texas. QVC's distribution centers are located in Lancaster, Pennsylvania; Suffolk, Virginia; Florence, South Carolina; Rocky Mount, North Carolina and Ontario, California. Its 2013 sales were worth $5.84 billion.[22]

QVC U.S. also operates a retail store at their Studio Park complex, and two outlet stores in Lancaster, Pennsylvania and Frazer, Pennsylvania.[23]

QVC broadcasts live in the United States 24/7, 364 days a year to more than 100 million households, and ranks as the number two television network in terms of revenue (#1 in home shopping networks), with sales in 2015 giving a net revenue of $8.7 billion. The only day on which QVC does not broadcast its usual format is Christmas, when the station runs a taped telecast of the West Chester Christmas Parade and other pre-recorded programming.

Every year the "QVC Presents 'FFANY Shoes on Sale'" event is broadcast in which donated designer shoes are sold at half the suggested retail price and 80% of the proceeds go to breast cancer research and education. It is organized with the Fashion Footwear Association of New York, which runs a coinciding Shoes on Sale initiative along with an awards gala.[24][25][26][27]

QVC UK

QVC UK was launched on October 1, 1993. QVC UK's headquarters and broadcasting facilities are in Chiswick Park, West London. Call centre and distribution warehouse are situated in Knowsley, Merseyside. QVC UK also runs two outlet stores, one in Warrington, the other in Shrewsbury. QVC UK also operates three channels made up mostly of rerun segments from the live channel, QVC Beauty, QVC Extra and QVC Style. The company's UK sales in 2013 were worth $660 million.[22]

QVC UK's main channel broadcasts live 364 days a year from 09:00 to 01:00. For the 8 'non-live' hours a day and on one day a year, Christmas Day, the main channel shows rerun segments from the live channel.

QVC Germany

QVC Germany, incorporated in Düsseldorf, runs call centre operations from sites in Bochum and Kassel, whilst distribution is handled from a dedicated warehouse in Hückelhoven. The company's 2013 sales were worth $970 million.[22]

QVC Germany broadcasts live 17 hours a day, 363.5 days a year (the channel goes off-air on Christmas Eve (with no programming after noon) and Christmas Day). QVC has two additional channels in Germany, QVC 2 and QVC Style.

QVC Japan

QVC Japan is based in Makuhari, where its corporate headquarters and call center facility are located. Distribution facilities are in Sakura City. The company's 2013 sales were worth $1.02 billion.[22]

QVC Italy

QVC Italy was launched in October 2010.[28] QVC Italy's headquarters and broadcasting facilities are located at Brugherio, near Milan. The company's 2013 sales were worth $130 million.[22]

QVC Italy broadcasts live 17 hours a day (although the channel runs 24 hours a day), 364 days a year. The primary distribution platforms for QVC Italy are digital terrestrial television and satellite.

QVC France

In the summer of 2015, QVC launched in France.[29] Before the launch, the company said it expected to create about 200 jobs in its first two years in the country. QVC France broadcast from a studio center in suburban Paris live on weekdays from 15:00 to 23:00 and weekends from 11:00 to 23:00, online, on mobile devices and on major satellite TV, cable TV and internet TV.[30] The channel's corporate website said QVC stood for: Qualité, Valeur, Confiance, replacing convenience with (the French for) confidence.[22]

Qurate Retail Group ceased operations of QVC France on March 13, 2019, stating that "QVC France had underperformed against financial and operational expectations, in large part due to unique in-market structural challenges and market dynamics that evolved in the years following the launch of the operation." [31]

QVC/CNR (China)

QVC/CNR (China) is based in Beijing and operates both a television broadcast and associated e-commerce website cnrmall.com. The China operation is a 51/49 joint venture between state-owned China National Radio and QVC, based on the pre-existing CNR channel reaching 35 million households, with plans to grow to 195 million households that have digital cable.[32] Chinese law prohibits private control of television stations, so this is the maximum position QVC can hold in its Chinese operations. QVC/CNR broadcasts live programming 12 hours a day and then replays the previous 12-hour segment. The company's 2013 sales were worth $110 million.[22]

See also

References

  1. ^ "History of QVC Inc". FundingUniverse. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
  2. ^ "QVC takes to French television sets for first time". Cosmeticsbusiness.com. August 4, 2015. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
  3. ^ "Sears Gets into Video Shopping". nytimes.com. November 15, 1986. Retrieved June 26, 2017.
  4. ^ About QVC, About QVC
  5. ^ "Biography". Home.comcast.net. November 2, 2007. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
  6. ^ Rozansky, Michael L. (February 2, 1996). "QVC Is Making Plans To Change Its Second Channel: The Channel Had Sought To Appeal To Younger, More Affluent Shoppers; It Failed To Meet That Goal". Philly.com. Retrieved February 15, 2015.
  7. ^ Archive.org, QVC.com on 22 December 1996.
  8. ^ Sean Sexton. "Lawsuit Alleges Pattern of Racism at QVC - Direct Marketing News". Dmnews.com. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
  9. ^ "QVC official denies any racism A suit contends Jack Comstock treated minorities badly. He told the jury about his criteria for hosts. - Philly.com". Articles.philly.com. June 7, 2004. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
  10. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 1, 2007. Retrieved September 23, 2007.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^ "Press Releases - Philadelphia Business Journal". Philadelphia.bizjournals.com. September 23, 2007. Retrieved February 3, 2013.
  12. ^ Gottfried, Miriam (August 17, 2015). "zulily Is Lost Up the Amazon With Latest Deal". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved August 18, 2015. (subscription required)
  13. ^ http://www.cnet.com/news/qvc-owner-to-buy-zulily-shopping-site-for-2-4-billion/
  14. ^ "QVC to Acquire Rival HSN for More Than $2 Billion". The Wall Street Journal. July 6, 2017.
  15. ^ "QVC buying longtime rival Home Shopping Network in deal valued at $2.1 billion". CNBC. July 6, 2017.
  16. ^ Isidore, Chris (July 6, 2017). "QVC buying rival Home Shopping Network". CNN Money. Retrieved July 6, 2017.
  17. ^ QVC Launches Second Linear Channel, Multichannel News, 23 August 2013.
  18. ^ "Affiliate Distribution & marketing A Subsidiary of QVC".
  19. ^ "Directions to QVC Studio Park." QVC. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
  20. ^ "West Goshen township, Chester County, Pennsylvania Archived June 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
  21. ^ "Touring QVC'S Scene Of The Sale \ Entertainment and Retailing Meet in West Goshen Twp." The Philadelphia Inquirer. 17 August 1997. D01 Business. Retrieved 11 August 2010.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 18, 2015. Retrieved May 9, 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  23. ^ QVC Retail Stores, QVC Retail Stores
  24. ^ "QVC presents "FFANY Shoes on Sale" 2016". jimmyfund.org. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
  25. ^ "Best Foot Forward: 16th Annual QVC Presents "FFANY Shoes on Sale"". jimmyfund.org. September 22, 2009. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
  26. ^ Jennie Bell (October 22, 2015). "QVC Will Broadcast Its 'FFANY Shoes on Sale' Telethon Tonight". footwearnews.com. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
  27. ^ Chloe Melas (September 16, 2015). "Cheryl Burke Teams Up With QVC To Fight Breast Cancer In A Fashionable Way". hollywoodlife.com. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
  28. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 23, 2011. Retrieved August 22, 2011.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  29. ^ "QVC expands into France". The Retail Bulletin. August 5, 2015. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
  30. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 30, 2016. Retrieved January 1, 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  31. ^ Qurate Retail Group to Cease Operations of QVC France Effective March 13, 2019 - PR Newswire, 11 March 2019. Retrieved 1 April 2019.
  32. ^ QVC expands in China through joint venture - MarketWatch, New York, 20 March 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2015.

External links

America's Store

America's Store was a US shopping television network. It was the spin-off channel to the Home Shopping Network (HSN). On April 3, 2007, America's Store ceased broadcasting permanently.

America's Store (AS) began in 1988 as the Home Shopping Club Overnight Service, which aired on broadcast stations around the US from midnight to 9am and, in particular, on WWOR-TV from 3am to 6am in the New York City metro area. In 1989, HSN purchased a number of low-power TV stations and began operating the service 24 hours a day as Home Shopping SPREE. In 1997, the name was changed again to America's Jewelry Store to reflect a switch to exclusively selling jewelry. This incarnation met with limited success, so in 1998, the selection was expanded to include all of HSN's inventory categories, and the word jewelry was removed from the network's name. In 2003, AS was added to the DirecTV lineup.

The low-power TV stations owned by HSN with partners and affiliated companies were located in every major metropolitan market – including a transmitter atop the World Trade Center until September 11, 2001.

Much of the merchandise presented by AS was distressed inventory from HSN, so the prices were usually dropped until liquidated or removed from air.

Competitor QVC had a spin-off channel called "Q2", which lasted only two years from 1994–1996. Following Barry Diller's exit from QVC and purchase of HSN, many former Q2 employees followed him to HSN and America's Store.

Cajamarca Quechua

Cajamarca Quechua is a variety of Quechua spoken in the districts of Chetilla, Baños del Inca and Cajamarca (Porcón) in the Peruvian province of Cajamarca, along the northwest coast of Peru.

It was never spoken throughout the region, where other indigenous languages like Mochica were spoken .

Cajamarca Quechua is severely endangered, as hardly any children are now learning it.

Cajamarca Quechua belongs to Quechua II, subgroup Cajamarca–Cañaris (Quechua II a, Yunkay) and is closest to Lambayeque Quechua, with which it has 94% lexical similarity. Félix Quesada published the first grammar and dictionary in 1976.

Evine

Evine is a multi-channel video retailer and American cable, satellite and broadcast television network. Owned by Evine Live Inc., the channel is headquartered in Eden Prairie, Minnesota. The home shopping channel's main competitors are HSN (Home Shopping Network) and QVC.

Home Shopping Network

HSN, formerly Home Shopping Network, is an American broadcast, basic cable and satellite television network that is owned by Qurate Retail Group, which also owns catalog company Cornerstone Brands. Based in St. Petersburg, Florida, United States, the home shopping channel has former and current sister channels in several other countries. HSN also has an online outlet at HSN.com.

Mindy Grossman is a former CEO of the company. She became CEO of HSN in 2006, and aggressively reinvented and relaunched the brand. She took HSN public in 2008, and has overseen its multibillion-dollar retail portfolio and multimedia expansion. Grossman left HSNi in May 2017 to helm Weight Watchers.

Home shopping

Home shopping is the electronic retailing and home shopping channels industry, which includes such billion dollar television-based and e-commerce companies as Shop LC, HSN, TJC, QVC, eBay, ShopHQ, Buy.com and Amazon.com, as well as traditional mail order and brick and mortar retailers as Hammacher Schlemmer and Sears, Roebuck and Co. Home shopping allows consumers to shop for goods from the privacy of their own home, as opposed to traditional shopping, which requires one to visit brick and mortar stores and shopping malls.

There are three main types of home shopping: mail or telephone ordering from catalogs; telephone ordering in response to advertisements in print and electronic media (such as periodicals, TV and radio); and online shopping.

KBCB

KBCB, virtual channel 24 (UHF digital channel 19), is a television station licensed to Bellingham, Washington, United States. The station is owned by Venture Technologies Group. KBCB's studios are located on Meridian Street in Bellingham, and its transmitter is located near Mount Constitution on Orcas Island. The station carries the Sonlife Broadcasting Network, Evine Live, Jewelry Television and QVC on its four digital subchannels.

Lisa Rinna

Lisa Deanna Rinna (born July 11, 1963) is an American actress and television personality. She is best known for her roles as Billie Reed on the NBC daytime soap opera Days of Our Lives and Taylor McBride on Fox's television drama Melrose Place, and as one of the stars of Bravo's hit reality television series The Real Housewives of Beverly Hills. From 2002 to 2006, she was the host of Soapnet's talk show Soap Talk. Rinna has also been a contestant on various seasons of The Celebrity Apprentice and Dancing with the Stars, and she has acted in series such as Entourage, The Middle, Veronica Mars, The Hogan Family, Community, and 8 Simple Rules.

List of television stations in Florida

This is a list of broadcast television stations serving cities in the U.S. state of Florida.

Lori Greiner

Lori Greiner (born December 9, 1969) is an American television personality, inventor and entrepreneur. She is known as an investor on the reality TV show Shark Tank and on its spin-off, Beyond the Tank. She has been known as the "Queen of QVC" since 2000, with her show Clever & Unique Creations. Greiner is the president and founder of the company, For Your Ease Only, Inc.

Mike Rowe

Michael Gregory Rowe (born March 18, 1962) is an American television host and narrator. He is known for his work on the Discovery Channel series Dirty Jobs and the CNN series Somebody's Gotta Do It. He currently hosts a series produced for Facebook called Returning the Favor in which he finds people doing good deeds and does something for them in return. He also hosts the podcast The Way I Heard It with Mike Rowe, which he describes as "short stories designed specifically for the curious mind plagued with a short attention span". Rowe has narrated programs on the Discovery Channel, The Science Channel, and National Geographic Channel such as Deadliest Catch, How the Universe Works, and Shark Week. He has appeared in commercials for firms such as the Ford Motor Company.

QVC (Italy)

QVC Italia s.r.l. is a shopping and entertainment channel, part of the QVC group. It is present on the Italian digital terrestrial television (LCN 32 on the multiplex Mediaset 2) and on satellite (channel 475 Sky, channel 33 Tivùsat – Hot Bird 13 degrees East). The CEO ofi QVC Italia is Paolo Penati, replaced Gregg Bertoni in June 2015.The May 28, 2013, the channel was added in mux Mediaset 2 while the version of the mux TIMB 1 is "temporary" that from May 5, 2013, has stopped broadcasting, transmitting only an information sign at retuning while from October 29 has been completely removed from the muxTIMB 1.

QVC (UK)

QVC UK is a television shopping channel broadcast from the United Kingdom to the United Kingdom and Ireland. It was formed in 1993 when QVC, Inc. agreed a deal with Sky TV to create a UK version of the US channel. "QVC — The Shopping Channel" first broadcast in the UK on 1 October 1993.

QVC Beauty

QVC Beauty is a digital television shopping channel broadcast in the United Kingdom, specializing in beauty products. It is the sister channel to QVC. The channel launched on Tuesday 26 October 2010 and is available on Freeview, Sky, Freesat and online.

QVC Germany

QVC Germany is a branch of QVC, a multinational corporation specialising in televised home shopping. It was founded in 1986 by Joseph Segel in West Chester, Pennsylvania. QVC broadcasts in four major countries to 141 million consumers. The name is an initialism—standing for "Quality, Value, Convenience".

With a market share of 50%, QVC is one of the 10 largest mail-order companies in Germany.

QVC is spread over four locations: Düsseldorf in Hafen, with the administration, purchasing and studio; Hückelhoven with the distribution center, Kassel and Bochum with the QVC call center.

Qurate Retail Group

Qurate Retail Group, formerly known as Liberty Interactive, is an American media conglomerate controlled by company Chairman John C. Malone, who owns a majority of the voting shares.

SES-3

SES-3 is a communications satellite operated by SES World Skies. It was built by Orbital Sciences Corporation and based on the STAR-2 platform. It was launched on 15 July 2011 on a Proton-M / Briz-M launch vehicle, alongside the KazSat-2 satellite. It is currently positioned at the 103.0°W orbital location over North America, replacing AMC-1. Clients include E. W. Scripps Company, In Demand pay-per-view, Ion Television, Mood Media, NBC and QVC.

Shopping channel

Shopping channels (also known as teleshopping) are a type of television specialty channel devoted to home shopping. Their formats typically feature live presentations and demonstrations of products, hosted by on-air presenters and other spokespeople who provide a sales pitch for the product. Viewers are also instructed on how they can order the product. Shopping channels may focus primarily on mainstream merchandise, or more specialized categories such as high-end fashion and jewelry. The term can also apply to channels whose contents consist solely of infomercials.

The concept was first popularized in the United States in the 1980s, when Lowell "Bud" Paxson and Roy Speer launched a local cable channel known as the Home Shopping Club—which later launched nationally as the Home Shopping Network. It later gained competition from QVC, who would eventually acquire HSN in 2017. Home shopping channels originally relied on telephone ordering, but have since been required to emphasize online shopping as part of their business models in order to compete with online-only competitors (while distinguishing themselves with their use of on-air pitches and offers to entice potential customers).

Web scraping

Web scraping, web harvesting, or web data extraction is data scraping used for extracting data from websites. Web scraping software may access the World Wide Web directly using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol, or through a web browser. While web scraping can be done manually by a software user, the term typically refers to automated processes implemented using a bot or web crawler. It is a form of copying, in which specific data is gathered and copied from the web, typically into a central local database or spreadsheet, for later retrieval or analysis.

Web scraping a web page involves fetching it and extracting from it. Fetching is the downloading of a page (which a browser does when you view the page). Therefore, web crawling is a main component of web scraping, to fetch pages for later processing. Once fetched, then extraction can take place. The content of a page may be parsed, searched, reformatted, its data copied into a spreadsheet, and so on. Web scrapers typically take something out of a page, to make use of it for another purpose somewhere else. An example would be to find and copy names and phone numbers, or companies and their URLs, to a list (contact scraping).

Web scraping is used for contact scraping, and as a component of applications used for web indexing, web mining and data mining, online price change monitoring and price comparison, product review scraping (to watch the competition), gathering real estate listings, weather data monitoring, website change detection, research, tracking online presence and reputation, web mashup and, web data integration.

Web pages are built using text-based mark-up languages (HTML and XHTML), and frequently contain a wealth of useful data in text form. However, most web pages are designed for human end-users and not for ease of automated use. Because of this, tool kits that scrape web content were created. A web scraper is an Application Programming Interface (API) to extract data from a web site. Companies like Amazon AWS and Google provide web scraping tools, services and public data available free of cost to end users.

Newer forms of web scraping involve listening to data feeds from web servers. For example, JSON is commonly used as a transport storage mechanism between the client and the web server.

There are methods that some websites use to prevent web scraping, such as detecting and disallowing bots from crawling (viewing) their pages. In response, there are web scraping systems that rely on using techniques in DOM parsing, computer vision and natural language processing to simulate human browsing to enable gathering web page content for offline parsing.

Zozo Marine Stadium

ZOZO Marine Stadium (ZOZOマリンスタジアム, Zozo Marin Sutajiamu) (official name: Chiba Marine Stadium) is a stadium in Chiba City, Japan. It opened in 1990 and holds approximately 30,000 people. It is primarily used for baseball and is the home field of the Chiba Lotte Marines. It is also used for Rugby union.

The official opening of the stadium was on April 13, 1990, when popstar Madonna opened her Blond Ambition Tour at the venue. The show was blighted by heavy rain and high winds which led to the concert being dramatically scaled back, as documented in her documentary Truth or Dare.

Lady Gaga performed 2 sold-out shows at the venue on August 13 and 14, 2014, for her ArtRave: The Artpop Ball tour.The Summer Sonic Festival and Makuhari Messe are held at the stadium every summer as well as the Electric Daisy Carnival music festival which was first held at the stadium in 2017.

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