Pyrgotidae

The Pyrgotidae are an unusual family of flies (Diptera), one of only two families of Cyclorrhapha that lack ocelli. Most species are "picture-winged" (i.e, have patterns of bands or spots on the wings), as is typical among the Tephritoidea, but unlike other tephritoids, they are endoparasitoids; the females pursue scarab beetles in flight, laying an egg on the beetle's back under the elytra where the beetle cannot reach it. The egg hatches and the fly larva enters the body cavity of the beetle, feeding and eventually killing the host before pupating. In the United States, some species of Pyrgota and Sphecomyiella can be quite common in areas where their host beetles (typically the genus Phyllophaga, or "June beetles") are abundant. Like their host beetles, these flies are primarily nocturnal, and are often attracted to artificial lights.[1][2]

Pyrgotidae
Pyrgotella chagnoni
Pyrgotella chagnoni
Scientific classification
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Pyrgotidae

Schiner, 1868
Genera

see text

Pyrgotidae Diptera lateral Johan Heyns
Female of species of Pyrgotidae, showing the prominent ovipositor
Pyrgotidae Diptera Dorsal Johan Heyns
Dorsal aspect of same fly; note the absence of the ocelli

List of genera

References

  1. ^ Korneyev, V. A. (2012). "Revision of the genus Pyrgotomyia Hendel (Diptera: Pyrgotidae)". African Invertebrates. Pietermaritzburg: Pensoft Publishers on behalf of the Council of the KwaZulu-Natal Museum (South Africa. 53 (1): 187–203. doi:10.5733/afin.053.0112. ISSN 2305-2562. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  2. ^ Korneyev, V.A. (2004). "Genera of Palaearctic Pyrgotidae (Diptera, Acalyptrata), with nomenclatural notes and a key" (PDF). Vestnik Zoologii. 38 (1): 19–46. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  3. ^ a b c d Hendel, Friedrich (1913). "Neue Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Pyrgotinen" (PDF). Archiv für Naturgeschichte. Abteilung A: Original-Arbeiten. 79 (11): 77–117, pl. 1. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  4. ^ Waga, A. (1842). "Adapsilia. Genre de Dipteres apparenant a la sous-tribu Dolichoceres de Macquart, voisin de Sepedon et Tetanocera". Annales de la Société Entomologique de France. II (1): 279–282.
  5. ^ a b c Paramonov, S J. (1958). "A review of Australian Pyrgotidae (Diptera)". Australian Journal of Zoology. 6: 89–137. doi:10.1071/zo9580089.
  6. ^ Korneyev, V. A. (2015). "Pyrgotid Flies Assigned to Apyrgota. III. Species of Afropyrgota gen. n. and Tylotrypes (Diptera, Pyrgotidae)" (PDF). Vestnik Zoologii. 49 (1): 25–40. doi:10.1515/vzoo-2015-0003.
  7. ^ Hardy, D. E. (1954). "Notes and descriptions on Australian fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)". Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. 15: 327–333.
  8. ^ Steyskal, G. C. (1978). "Synopsis of the North American Pyrgotidae (Diptera)". Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. The Entomological Society of Washington. 80: 149–155.
  9. ^ a b Aczél, M. L. (1956). "Revisión parcial de las Pyrgotidae neotropicales y antárticas, con sinopsis de los géneros y especies (Diptera, Acalyptratae). Parte I". Revista Brasileira de Entomologia. 4: 161–184.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Enderlein, G. (1942). "Klassifikation der Pyrogotiden". Sitzungsberichte der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde zu Berlin. 2: 98–134.
  11. ^ a b Hendel, Friedrich (1908). "Acht neue Pyrgotinen (Dipt.)". Wiener entomologische Zeitung. 27: 145–153.
  12. ^ Hendel, Friedrich (1907). "Nomina nova fur mehrere Gattungen der acalyptraten Musciden". Wiener Entomologische Zeitung. 26: 98. doi:10.5962/bhl.part.5119. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  13. ^ Hendel, Friedrich (1909). "Diptera. Fam. Muscaridae. Subfam. Pyrgotinae". Genera Insectorum. 79: 1–33.
  14. ^ Korneyev, V. A. (2014). "Pyrgotid flies assigned to Apyrgota. I. New species and synonyms in Eupyrgota (s. str.) (Diptera, Pyrgotidae), with the description of a new subgenus" (PDF). Vestnik Zoologii. 48 (2): 111–128. doi:10.2478/vzoo-2014-0012.
  15. ^ Korneyev, V. A. (2014). "Pyrgotid flies assigned to Apyrgota. II. New synonyms in Eupyrgota (Subgenus Taeniomastix) (Diptera, Pyrgotidae), with key to subgenera and species" (PDF). Vestnik Zoologii. 48 (3): 211–220. doi:10.2478/vzoo-2014-0024.
  16. ^ a b c Malloch, J. R. (1929). "Appendix, pp. 20-31. In Bezzi, M., Australian Pyrgotidae (Diptera)". Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. 54: 1–31. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  17. ^ a b Vanschuytbroeck, P. (1963). "Pyrgotidae (Diptera Otitoidae)" (PDF). Exploration du Parc National de la Garamba. 38: 1–76.
  18. ^ a b Bezzi, Mario (1929). "Australian Pyrgotidae (Diptera). With an Appendix by J.R. Malloch". Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales. 54: 1–31. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  19. ^ a b c d e Hendel, Friedrich (1934). "Übersicht über die Gattungen der Pyrgotiden, nebst Beschreibung neuer Gattungen und Arten". Encyclopédie Entomologique. Serie B. II. Diptera. 7: 141–156.
  20. ^ Curran, Charles Howard (1934). The families and genera of North American Diptera. New York: Ballou Press. pp. 512 pp. 2 pls.
  21. ^ Malloch, John Russell (1930). "Exotic Muscaridae (Diptera). XXIX". The Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 10 (5): 465–484.
  22. ^ Bezzi, Mario (1914). "Indian Pyrgotinae (Diptera)". The Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 8 (14): 153–163.

External links

Acalyptratae

The Acalyptratae or Acalyptrata are a subsection of the Schizophora, which are a section of the order Diptera, the "true flies". In various contexts the Acalyptratae also are referred to informally as the acalyptrate muscoids, or acalyptrates, as opposed to the Calyptratae. All forms of the name refer to the lack of calypters in the members of this subsection of flies. An alternative name, Acalypterae is current, though in minority usage. It was first used by Justin Pierre Marie Macquart in 1835 for a section of his tribe Muscides; he used it to refer to all acalyptrates plus scathophagids and phorids, but excluding Conopidae.

The confusing forms of the names stem from their first usage; Acalyptratae and Acalyptrata actually are adjectival forms in New Latin. They were coined in the mid 19th century in contexts such as "Muscae Calyptratae and Acalyptratae" and "Diptera Acalyptrata", and the forms stuck.The Acalyptratae are a large assemblage, exhibiting very diverse habits, with one notable and perhaps surprising exception: no known acalyptrates are obligate blood-feeders (hematophagous), though blood feeding at various stages of the life history is common throughout other Dipteran sections.

Acropyrgota

Acropyrgota is a genus of flies in the family Pyrgotidae.

Boreothrinax

Boreothrinax is a genus of flies in the family Pyrgotidae.

Campylocera

Campylocera is a genus of flies in the family Pyrgotidae.

Ctenostylidae

The enigmatic fly family Ctenostylidae is a small group of very rare flies formerly included in the family Pyrgotidae (as the subfamily "Lochmostyliinae"); the principal reason for their inclusion in the Pyrgotidae was the absence of ocelli, a feature originally thought to be a unique defining feature ("autapomorphy") of the Pyrgotidae. Subsequent careful analysis has revealed that this anatomical feature shared with Pyrgotidae may not be indicative of a close relationship, and even the inclusion of Ctenostylidae within the superfamily Tephritoidea was cast into doubt, leaving this as the only family of Acalyptratae presently unassignable to superfamily.There are fewer than 20 described species in 6 genera in this pantropical family, all characterized not only by the lack of ocelli, but the lack of functional mouthparts, and unusual modifications of the antennal arista; it is the only family of Diptera where the arista has two or more branches. All but one of the described species are known from fewer than 10 specimens. The male antennal arista is simple and unmodified. So far as is known, females are viviparous, laying larvae instead of eggs; larval biology is unknown, but it is assumed they are parasitoids.

Dicrostira

Dicrostira is a genus of flies in the family Pyrgotidae.

Eupyrgota

Eupyrgota is a genus of flies in the family Pyrgotidae. A number of its species were originally from Apyrgota and Taeniomastix, which in 2014 were made synonyms of Eupyrgota by V. Korneyev.

Facilina

Facilina is a genus of flies in the family Pyrgotidae.

Leptopyrgota

Leptopyrgota is a genus of flies in the family Pyrgotidae.

Lopadops

Lopadops is a genus of flies in the family Pyrgotidae.

Lygiohypotyphla

Lygiohypotyphla is a genus of flies in the family Pyrgotidae.

Metropina

Metropina is a genus of flies in the family Pyrgotidae.

Plectrobrachis

Plectrobrachis is a genus of flies in the family Pyrgotidae.

Pyrgota

Pyrgota is a genus of flies in the family Pyrgotidae. There are about 10 described species in Pyrgota.

Pyrgota valida

Pyrgota valida is a species of fly in the family Pyrgotidae.

Siridapha

Siridapha is a genus of flies in the family Pyrgotidae.

Stirothrinax

Stirothrinax is a genus of flies in the family Pyrgotidae.

Tephritoidea

The Tephritoidea are a superfamily of flies. The following families are included:

Pallopteridae — flutter flies

Piophilidae — skippers

Platystomatidae — signal flies

Pyrgotidae

Richardiidae

Tephritidae — fruit flies

Ulidiidae (Otitidae) — picture-winged fliesThe Tachiniscinae, formerly ranked as the family Tachiniscidae, are now included in the Tephritidae.

Trichopeltia

Trichopeltia is a genus of flies in the family Pyrgotidae.

Extant Diptera families

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