Count Pyotr Alexandrovich Rumyantsev-Zadunaisky (Russian: Пётр Алекса́ндрович Румя́нцев-Задунайский; 15 January [O.S. 4 January] 1725 – 19 December [O.S. 8 December] 1796) was one of the foremost Russian generals of the 18th century. He governed Little Russia in the name of Empress Catherine the Great from the abolition of the Cossack Hetmanate in 1764 until Catherine's death 32 years later. Monuments to his victories include the Kagul Obelisk in Tsarskoye Selo (1772), Rumyantsev Obelisk on Basil Island (1798–1801), and a galaxy of Derzhavin's odes.
|Governor of Little Russia|
|Preceded by||Kyrylo Rozumovsky (as the Hetman of Zaporizhian Host)|
|Succeeded by||office liquidated|
Pyotr Alexandrovich Rumyantsev-Zadunaisky
15 January 1725
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
|Died||19 December 1796 (aged 71)|
Pereyaslav county, Little Russian Governorate, Russian Empire
|Branch/service||Imperial Russian Army|
|Battles/wars||War of the Austrian Succession|
Russo-Swedish War (1741–43)
Russo-Turkish War (1768–74)
Russo-Turkish War (1787–92)
Peter was the only son of Count Alexander Rumyantsev by Maria, the daughter and heiress of Count Andrey Matveyev. As his mother spent much time in the company of Peter the Great, rumours suggested that the young Rumyantsev was the monarch's illegitimate son. He was named after the ruling Emperor who was his godfather. He was the brother of Praskovya Bruce, confidant of Catherine the Great.
Pyotr Alexandrovich first saw military service under his nominal father in the war with Sweden (1741–1743). He personally carried to the Empress the peace treaty of Abo, concluded by his father in 1743. Thereupon he gained promotion to the rank of colonel.
His first military glory dates from the great battles of the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), those of Gross-Jägersdorf (1757) and Kunersdorf (1759). In 1761 he besieged and took the Pomeranian fortress of Kolberg, thus clearing for Russian armies the path to Berlin.
Throughout the reign of Catherine the Great, Rumyantsev served as supreme governor of Little Russia. In this post, which his father had held with so much honesty, Rumyantsev made it his priority to eliminate any autonomy of the hetmans and to fully incorporate the newly conquered territories into the Russian Empire. Some accuse him of having promoted serfdom in New Russia, but the choice of such a policy remained out of his control.
With the outbreak of the Russo-Turkish war in 1768, Rumyantsev took command of the army sent to capture Azov. He thoroughly defeated the Turks in the Battles of Larga and Kagula, crossed the Danube and advanced to Romania. For these dazzling victories he became Field-Marshal and gained the victory title Zadunaisky (meaning "Trans-Danubian"). When his forces approached Shumla in 1774, the new Sultan Abdul Hamid I started to panic and sued for peace, which Rumyanstev signed upon a military tambourine at the village of Küçük Kaynarca.
By that point, Rumyantsev had undoubtedly become the most famous Russian commander. Other Catharinian generals, notably Potemkin, allegedly regarded his fame with such jealousy that they wouldn't permit him to take the command again. In times of peace, Rumyantsev expressed his innovative views on the martial art in the Instructions (1761), Customs of Military Service (1770), and the Thoughts (1777). These works provided a theoretical base for the re-organisation of the Russian army undertaken by Potemkin.
During the Second Russo-Turkish War, Rumyantsev suspected Potemkin of deliberately curtailing supplies of his army and presently resigned his command. In the Polish campaign of 1794 he once again won appointment as commander-in-chief, but his rival Suvorov actually led the armies into battle. On this occasion Rumyantsev didn't bother even to leave his Ukrainian manor at Tashan which he had rebuilt into a fortress. He died there on 19 December 1796, just over a month after Catherine's death, and was interred in the Kiev Pechersk Lavra.
As the story goes, old Rumyantsev-Zadunaisky grew enormously fat and avaricious, so that he pretended not to recognize his own sons when they came from the capital to ask for money. Under his son Sergey's administration, Tashan fell into ruins, although he erected a mausoleum near Balashikha for his father's reburial (which never took place). Neither Sergey nor his brother Nikolay Petrovich Rumyantsev married, and the comital branch of the Rumyantsev family became extinct upon their death.
as Hetman of Zaporizhian Host
| Governor-General of Little Russia
The Battle of Cahul (Russian: Сражение при Кагуле, Turkish language:Kartal Ovası Muharebesi) was the most important land battle of the Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774 and one of the largest battles of the 18th century. It was fought on 1 August 1770 (21 July at Julian Calendar), in Moldavia, near the village of Frumoasa (now Cahul, Moldova), just a fortnight after the Russian victory at Larga.
Under contribution of Pyotr Melissino, the Russian commander Pyotr Rumyantsev arranged his army of 40,000 soldiers in solid squares and surprisingly chose to go on the offensive against the allied forces of the Khanate of Crimea and the Ottoman Empire, which consisted of 30,000 Ottoman infantry and 45,000 Ottoman cavalry. About 80,000 Crimean Tatar cavalry were deployed within 20 km from the battlefield but they did not engage in battle.
The comparatively small Russian army assaulted the Ottomans and put them to flight. The Russian casualties were 1,000, while casualties on the Ottoman side amounted to over 20,000 soldiers killed and wounded. In the wake of this victory, the Russians captured 130 Ottoman cannons and overran all major fortresses in the region - İsmail (now Izmail), Kilya (now Kilia), Akkerman (now Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi), İbrail (now Brăila), İsakça (now Isaccea), and Bender.
In commemoration of the victory, Catherine II of Russia ordered the Cahul Obelisk to be erected in Tsarskoe Selo, while Frederick II of Prussia sent to Rumyantsev a congratulatory letter in which he compared the Russian victory to the deeds of the Ancient Romans.On the same day four years later, Russian and Ottoman empires signed the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, ending the war.Bruce (Russian nobility)
Bruce (Russian: Брюсы) is the name of noble family of Scottish origin. The family members bear the title of Count.Cossack Hetmanate
The Cossack Hetmanate (Ukrainian: Гетьманщина, Hetmanščyna), officially known as the Zaporizhian Host (Військо Запорозьке, Vijśko Zaporoźke, Latin: Exercitus Zaporoviensis) was a Ukrainian Cossack host in Central Ukraine between 1649 and 1764 (some sources claim until 1782).The Hetmanate was founded by the Hetman of Zaporizhian Host Bohdan Khmelnytsky during the Uprising of 1648–57. Establishment of vassal relations with the Tsardom of Russia in the Treaty of Pereyaslav of 1654 is considered a benchmark of the Cossack Hetmanate in Soviet, Ukrainian, and Russian historiography. The second Pereyaslav Council in 1659 further restricted the independence of the Hetmanate, and from the Moscow side there were attempts to declare agreements reached with Yuri Khmelnitsky in 1659 as nothing more than the "former Bohdan's agreements" of 1654. The 1667 Treaty of Andrusovo – conducted without any representation from the Cossack Hetmanate – established borders between the Polish and Russian states, dividing the Hetmanate in half along the Dnieper and putting the Zaporizhian Sich under a formal joint Russian-Polish administration.
After a failed attempt to break the union with Russia by Ivan Mazepa in 1708, the whole area was included into the Government of Kiev and Cossack autonomy was severely restricted. Catherine II of Russia officially abolished the institute of the Hetman in 1764, and in 1764-1781 the Cossack Hetmanate was incorporated as the Little Russia Governorate headed by Pyotr Rumyantsev, with the last remnants of the Hetmanate's administrative system abolished in 1781.Cossack with musket
Cossack with rifle, sometimes as Knight with rifle or Cossack with musket (Ukrainian: Лицар із самопалом, Lytsar iz samopalom) is a former national emblem of the Cossack Hetmanate (Zaporizhian Host). In 20th century it was the official national emblem of Ukrainian State.Dormition Cathedral, Kharkiv
The Assumption or Dormition Cathedral was the main Orthodox church of Kharkov, Russian Empire (present day Kharkiv, Ukraine) until the construction of the Annunciation Cathedral in 1901. The cathedral stands on the University Hill by the bank of the Lopan River and dominates the entire downtown. The Neoclassical cathedral bell tower, built in the 1820s and 1830s to a height of 90 meters, remained the tallest building in the city until the 21st century.
The original Dormition Church was built in the Kharkov Fortress in the 1680s. It was completely rebuilt after a fire to a Late Baroque design loosely based on St Clement's Church, Moscow. The cathedral was consecrated in 1780 in the presence of a viceroy (Pyotr Rumyantsev). The church boasted a gilded icon screen, carved from limewood to Rastrelli's Rococo design.
The free-standing Alexander Bell Tower was built in the aftermath of Napoleon's expulsion from Russia "to express the people's gratitude to Alexander I". It used to be the second tallest building in the Ukraine after the Great Lavra Bell Tower. The seat of the local bishop was moved from the older Intercession Cathedral to the Dormition Church in 1846. A large French clock was installed in the bell tower in 1856.
The Soviet authorities closed the cathedral and had its domes torn down in 1929. The belfry was further damaged by a tornado in 1975. The cathedral was restored in the late 1970s and reverted to the Ukrainian Orthodox Church in 2006. The local bishopric shares it with a philharmonic society which had a Rieger–Kloss organ installed in the building back in 1986.Gomel Palace
The Rumyantsev-Paskevich Residence is the main place of historical importance in the city of Gomel, Belarus. The grounds of the residence stretch for 800 meters along the steep right bank of the Sozh River. An image of the residence is featured on the Belarusian 20,000-ruble bill.
The two-storey palace of Field Marshal Pyotr Rumyantsev was built between 1777 and 1796 to a Neoclassical design attributed to Ivan Starov. The palace replaced the ruined castle of Gomel's previous owner, Michael Frederick Czartoryski. The central part is surmounted by a square belvedere with a wide flat dome. The six-columned Corinthian portico faces an extensive English park. The main portico is placed on a high platform and is supported by four Corinthian columns.
After Pyotr Rumyantsev's death in 1796, the grounds were slowly improved by his son Nicholas (1754-1826). His brother Sergei was the next owner. He was never interested in country housekeeping and promptly sold the palace to the crown (1834). Gomel was immediately purchased by another Field Marshal, Ivan Paskevich, who had both the palace and the park substantially renovated. He employed architect Adam Idźkowski to add a four-storey tower and a three-storey wing to the existing structure.
After the Russian Revolution the palace was nationalized to house a local museum. Paskevich's daughter-in-law Irina had to move from the palace into an ordinary flat. The buildings sustained heavy damage in the Russian Civil War and World War II. They were shared by the Gomel History Museum and the local pioneers' palace until the late 1990s. The current Neoclassical interiors result from a late 1990s restoration campaign.
The park contains a modern statue of Count Nikolay Rumyantsev. The original marble statues of Euripides, Venus, Athena, Ares, Bacchus, and the Nymph were lost. It was only in 2006 that the replacement statues were put in place. The Paskevich art collection also boasted several paintings by Ivan Kramskoi, Marcin Zaleski, and January Suchodolski, as well as a marble bust of Count Rumyantsev by Antonio Canova.
The bronze equestrian statue of Prince Joseph Poniatowski by Bertel Thorvaldsen, which Paskevich had brought from Warsaw as a trophy in 1842, was dismantled by the Poles during the Polish-Soviet War and transported back to Warsaw, only to be destroyed by the Germans in the 1940s. Its copy stands in front of the Presidential Palace, Warsaw.
Other buildings on the grounds are the Russian Revival chapel with the tombs of Ivan Paskevich and his family, a winter garden (which originated as Prince Paskevich's sugar-mill), several subsidiary outbuildings, and a set of cannons captured by Paskevich's soldiers in the course of the Russo-Turkish War (1828–1829).
By far the most conspicuous landmark in the park is the Neoclassical church of Sts. Peter and Paul. It was commissioned by Count Nikolay Rumyantsev from architect John Clark in 1809 but was not consecrated until 1824. The church is the seat of the local Orthodox bishopric.James Bruce (1732–1791)
Count James Bruce or Yakov Alexandrovich Bruce (1732–30 November 1791) was a Russian general. He was a grandson of Lieutenant General Robert Bruce and great-nephew of Jacob Bruce. His father was Lieutenant Colonel Count Alexander Bruce, Ekaterina Alekseyevna Dolgorukova was his stepmother. James Bruce married Praskovia Rumiantseva, sister of General (and later Field Marshal) Pyotr Rumyantsev. Praskovia was a lady-in-waiting and friend of Catherine the Great. These connections greatly helped the career of James Bruce. In 1774, he became Commander of the Finland Division.
However, even after Praskovia was in 1779 banned from the court after having had an affair with the Empress' lover, Bruce stayed in favour and received new posts. Bruce first became simultaneously Governor-General of Moscow and Saint Petersburg Governorate between 1784 and 1786, and then of Saint Petersburg only until 1791. He died the same year, without male offspring, and with him ended the line of the Russian counts Bruce. His only daughter Catherine died childless in 1829.Kachanivka
Kachanivka Palace (Ukrainian: Качанівка; Kachanivka; Russian: Качановка; Kachanovka) is one of the many country estates built by Pyotr Rumyantsev, Catherine II's viceroy of Little Russia. It stands on the bank of the Smosh River near the village of Petrushivka in Ichnia Raion, Chernihiv Oblast, Ukraine. Perhaps the best known Rumyantsev estate in the region is the Gomel Residence.
The Kachanivka residence was erected in the 1770s to Neoclassical designs by Karl Blank. The church, orangery, aviary, water tower and several other buildings date from the 19th century. After Nikolay Rumyantsev's death, the property passed to the Tarnovsky family. Vasily Tarnovsky was interested in the history of Ukraine and amassed a collection of weapons that had been owned by the hetmans of Ukraine. Among the 19th-century visitors to Kachanovka were Nikolai Gogol, Taras Shevchenko, Ilya Repin, Mikhail Vrubel, and Mikhail Glinka (who worked on his opera A Life for the Tsar in the summerhouse).Although the Soviets nationalized the palace for use as a penal colony and tuberculosis hospital, the manor, including the extensive English park and several subsidiary outbuildings, is exceptionally well preserved. It has been designated a national cultural preserve since 1982 and was selected as one of the Seven Wondrous Castles and Palaces of Ukraine.Kaynardzha
Kaynardzha (Bulgarian: Кайнарджа, pronounced [kajnarˈdʒa], Romanian: Cainargeaua Mică, Turkish: Kaynarca; also transliterated Kajnardža) is a village in northeastern Bulgaria, part of Silistra Province. It is the administrative centre of Kaynardzha Municipality, which lies in the easternmost part of Silistra Province, in the historical region of Southern Dobruja, close to the Romanian border.
The village is known as the location of the signing of the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca on 21 July 1774 between Count Pyotr Rumyantsev, representative of Empress Catherine the Great of the Russian Empire and Musul Zade Mehmed Pasha, representative of Sultan Abdul Hamid I of the Ottoman Empire. The treaty put an end to the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774, which was devastating for the once-mighty Ottoman realm.
The village was liberated from Ottoman rule in 1878, following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. After the Balkan Wars, it was ceded by the Kingdom of Bulgaria to the Kingdom of Romania along with all of Southern Dobruja; as part of the interwar Durostor County, it was known as Cainargeaua Mică, a translation and adaptation of the older Ottoman Turkish name, Küçük Kaynarca ("small spa place"). Per the Treaty of Craiova of 1940, all of Southern Dobruja was returned to Bulgaria.
Since October 2017, Kaynardzha has been linked with the neighbouring commune of Lipnița in Romania via the Kaynardzha-Lipnița border crossing.Little Russia
Little Russia, sometimes Little Rus' (Russian: Малая Русь, Malaya Rus', Малая Россия, Malaya Rossiya, Малороссия, Malorossiya; Ukrainian: Мала Русь, Mala Rus'; or Rus' Minor from Greek: Μικρὰ Ῥωσία, Mikrá Rosía), is a geographical and historical term first used by Galician ruler Bolesław-Jerzy II, who in 1335 signed his decrees as Dux totius Russiæ minoris.A Little Russia Governorate existed from 1764 to 1781, administered by the Collegium of Little Russia (1764–86; originally established 1722 and abolished 1727) headed by Pyotr Rumyantsev. The Collegium was tasked with liquidating any remnants of autonomy in Ukraine.With time, "Little Russia" developed into a political and geographical concept in Russia, referring to most of the territory of modern-day Ukraine before the 20th century. Accordingly, derivatives such as "Little Russian" (Russian: Малороссы, Malorossy) were commonly applied to the people, language, and culture of the area. Prior to the revolutionary events of 1917, a large part of the region's élite population adopted a Little Russian identity that competed with the local Ukrainian identity.
After the collapse of the Russian Empire in 1917, and with the amalgamation of Ukrainian territories into one administrative unit (the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic), the term started to recede from common use. Its subsequent usage has been regarded as derogatory, referring to those Ukrainians with little or no Ukrainian national consciousness.
The term retains currency among Russian monarchists and Russian nationalists who deny that Ukraine and Ukrainians are distinct from Russia and Russians. By the late 1980s, the term had become archaic, and Ukrainians regarded its anachronistic usage as offensive.Little Russia Governorate (1764–1781)
The First Little Russia Governorate (Russian: Малороссiйская Губернiя) or Government of Malorossiya was created by Russian authorities in 1764–65 after the abolition of Cossack Hetmanate in Ukrainian lands incorporated into the Russian Empire. The (First) Little Russia Governorate was governed by Pyotr Rumyantsev.
With another administrative reform of 1781 the governorate and its subdivisions (regiments) were liquidated and replaced with vice-royalties divided into counties (uyezds).Mikhail Kutuzov
Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov (Russian: князь Михаи́л Илларио́нович Голени́щев-Куту́зов; 16 September [O.S. 5 September] 1745 – 28 April [O.S. 16 April] 1813) was a Field Marshal of the Russian Empire. He served as one of the finest military officers and diplomats of Russia under the reign of three Romanov Tsars: Catherine II, Paul I and Alexander I. His military career was closely associated with the rising period of Russia from the end of the 18th century to the beginning of the 19th century. Kutuzov is considered to have been one of the best Russian generals.He was born in Saint Petersburg in 1745 to a family of Novgorod nobility. His father was a Russian general and senator. Kutuzov began military schooling at age 12 and joined the Imperial Russian Army in 1759. Three years later Kutuzov became a company commander in the Astrakhan Infantry Regiment under Alexander Suvorov. He took part in crushing the Polish Bar Confederation rebellion. During the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 he served in the staff of Pyotr Rumyantsev at Moldova for the battles of Larga and Kagul. In July 1774 at Crimea, Kutuzov was severely wounded by a bullet that went through his temple and out near his right eye, which became permanently scarred. He returned to Crimea in 1776 to assist Suvorov and conducted negotiations with the last Crimean khan Şahin Giray, convincing him to abdicate and submit to Russia.
After Kutuzov became Governor-General of Crimea in 1787, the Russo-Turkish War of 1787–1792 began. He was again severely wounded in 1788 during the Siege of Ochakov when a bullet was shot through both of his temples. Kutuzov came back a year later, taking part in the Battle of Rymnik and Siege of Izmail. Near the end of the war, he led a decisive charge at the Battle of Măcin. Kutuzov was on good terms with Tsar Paul, but had disputes with his successor Tsar Alexander. In 1805, he led Russian forces alongside Austria during the Napoleonic Wars. The allied Russo-Austrian army was defeated by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz. Alexander blamed Kutuzov and demoted him to Moldova for the Russo-Turkish War of 1806–1812. Kutuzov vanquished a four-times larger Turkish army at Rousse and brought an end to the war with a decisive victory at the Battle of the Danube. For his achievements, he was awarded the titles of count and prince.
Kutuzov returned at the request of Alexander for the French invasion of Russia. He was appointed Commander-in-Chief, succeeding Barclay de Tolly and continuing his scorched earth policy up to Moscow. Under Kutuzov's command, the Russian army faced the Grande Armée at the Battle of Borodino. He allowed Napoleon to take an abandoned Moscow, which was set on fire. Kutuzov counter-attacked once Napoleon retreated from Moscow, pushing the French out of the Russian homeland. In recognition of this, Kutuzov was awarded the victory title of Prince Smolensky. He stepped down from command due to deteriorating health soon after the French left Russia. Kutuzov died in 1813 at Bunzlau and was buried at the Kazan Cathedral in Saint Petersburg. Kutuzov was highly regarded in the works of Russian and Soviet historians.Nikolay Rumyantsev
Count Nikolai Petrovich Rumyantsev (Russian: Никола́й Петро́вич Румя́нцев; 3 April 1754 – 3 January 1826), born in Saint Petersburg, was Russia's Foreign Minister and Chancellor of the Russian Empire in the run-up to Napoleon's invasion of Russia (1808–12). He was the son of Field Marshal Pyotr Rumyantsev-Zadunaisky from the Rumyantsev comital family.Praskovya Bruce
Countess Praskovya Aleksandrovna Bruce (née Rumyantseva) (Прасковья Александровна Брюс; 1729–1785) was a Russian
lady-in-waiting and noble, confidant of empress Catherine the Great.Pârvu Cantacuzino
Pârvu III Cantacuzino, also known as Pârvul or Pîrvu Cantacuzino (? – late November 1769), was a high-ranking Wallachian statesman who served intermittently as Spatharios and Ban of Oltenia, primarily known as the leader of an anti-Ottoman rebellion. Holding sway over a Russophile faction within the Wallachian boyardom, he briefly served as an officer in Russia's Imperial Army during the Russo-Turkish War of 1768-1774. Pârvu was a member of the Cantacuzino family, which made him a descendant of several Wallachian Princes, and was joined in all of his political and military actions by his younger brother, the Vistier Mihai.
Helping Pyotr Rumyantsev and Nazary Alexandrovych Karazin in their occupation of Bucharest, the Cantacuzinos also arrested Grigore III Ghica; in the aftermath, Pârvu served as civilian governor of Wallachia. He commanded a part of the Wallachian military forces, assisting against the Ottoman army on the road to Giurgiu. He and his soldiers were ambushed and killed on the way to Comana Monastery, where Pârvu was buried.
His Cantacuzino branch, headed by Mihai, survived mostly in exile, joining the ranks of Russian nobility and calling for Wallachia's annexation to Russia. It included Pârvu's nephew Ioan Cantacuzino, the poet and politician, who returned for a while to take over as leader of the Russophile faction. The Russophiles maintained a presence in Wallachian politics to ca. 1800, but frictions between the Empire and the boyars pushed the party a steady decline.Rumyantsev (surname)
Rumyantsev (Russian: Румянцев), or Rumyantseva (feminine; Румянцева), is a Russian surname. It may refer to the following people:
The Rumyantsev family, a prominent Russian family in the 18th and early 19th centuries
Alexander Rumyantsev (1677–1749), Russian count, assistant of Peter the Great
Alexander Rumyantsev (minister) (born 1945), Russian atomic energy minister (2001–2005)
Andrei Rumyantsev (born 1969), Russian football player
Maria Rumyantseva (1699–1788), Russian lady in waiting
Mikhail Nikolayevich Rumyantsev (1901–1983), Soviet clown, better known by his stage name Karandash
Nadezhda Rumyantseva (1930–2008), Russian comedy actress
Nikolai Rumyantsev (historian) (1892–1956), Soviet historian of Christianity
Nikolay Rumyantsev (1754–1826), Russian Foreign Minister and Imperial Chancellor
Pyotr Rumyantsev (1725–1796), Russian field marshal
Valentin Rumyantsev (1921–2007), Soviet scientist in the field of mechanicsRusso-Turkish War (1768–1774)
The Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 was an armed conflict that brought Kabardia, the part of the Yedisan between the rivers Bug and Dnieper, and Crimea into the Russian sphere of influence. Though the victories accrued by the Russian Empire were substantial, they gained far less territory than otherwise would be expected. The reason for this was the complex struggle within the European diplomatic system for a balance of power that was acceptable to other European leading states, rather than Russian hegemony. Russia was able to take advantage of the weakened Ottoman Empire, the end of the Seven Years' War, and the withdrawal of France as the continent's primary military power (due to financial burden and isolationism). This left the Russian Empire in a strengthened position to expand its territory but also lose temporary hegemony over the decentralized Poland. The greater Turkish losses were diplomatic in nature seeing its full decline as a threat to Christian Europe, and the beginning of the Eastern Question that would plague the continent until the end of the Ottoman Empire in the early 20th century.
On 25 September 1768 the Ottoman Empire declared war onto the Russian Empire following the recent treaty between Ottomans and members of Bar Confederation. On 31 October 1768, the President of the Collegium of Little Russia (Malorossia) Pyotr Rumyantsev ordered the Kosh Otaman of Zaporizhian Host Petro Kalnyshevsky "все войско свое устроить… в военный порядок тот час, чтобы готовы вы были к внезапному ополчению" (all troops of yours prepare... in battle order at the same time that you will be ready to sudden mobilization).Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca
The Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji Turkish: Küçük Kaynarca Antlaşması (also spelled Kuchuk Kainarji) Russian: Кючук-Кайнарджийский мир) was a peace treaty signed on 21 July 1774, in Küçük Kaynarca (today Kaynardzha, Bulgaria) between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire. Following the recent Ottoman defeat at the Battle of Kozludzha, the document ended the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–74 and marked a defeat of the Ottomans in their struggle against Russia. The Russians were represented by Field-Marshal Count Pyotr Rumyantsev while the Ottoman side was represented by Musul Zade Mehmed Pasha. The treaty was a most humiliating blow to the once-mighty Ottoman realm. It would also stand to foreshadow several future conflicts between the Ottomans and Russia. It would be only one of many attempts by Russia to gain control of Ottoman territory.
Russia returned Wallachia and Moldavia to Ottoman control, but was given the right to protect Christians in the Ottoman Empire and to intervene in Wallachia and Moldavia in case of Ottoman misrule. The northwestern part of Moldavia (which became known as Bukovina) was ceded to Austria in 1775. Russia interpreted the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji as giving it the right to protect Orthodox Christians in the Empire, notably using this prerogative in the Danubian Principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) to intervene under the last Phanariote rulers and after the Greek War of Independence. In 1787, faced with increased Russian hostility, Abdul Hamid I declared war on Russia again.Russia gained Kabardia in the Caucasus, unlimited sovereignty over the port of Azov, the ports of Kerch and Enikale in the Kerch peninsula in the Crimea, and part of the Yedisan region between the Bug and Dnieper rivers at the mouth of the Dnieper. This latter territory included the port of Kherson. Russia thus gained two outlets to the Black Sea, which was no longer an Ottoman lake. Restrictions imposed by the 1739 Treaty of Niš over Russian access to the Sea of Azov and fortifying the area were removed. Russian merchant vessels were to be allowed passage of the Dardanelles. The treaty also granted Eastern Orthodox Christians the right to sail under the Russian flag and provided for the building of a Russian Orthodox Church in Constantinople (which was never built).
The Crimean Khanate was the first Muslim territory to slip from the sultan's suzerainty, when the Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji forced the Sublime Porte to recognize the Tatars of the Crimea as politically independent, although the sultan remained the religious leader of the Tatars as the Muslim caliph. This was the first time the powers of the Ottoman caliph were exercised outside of Ottoman borders and ratified by a European power. The Khanate retained this nominal independence, while actually being dependent on Russia, until Catherine the Great formally annexed it in 1783, increasing Russia's power in the Black Sea area.
The Ottoman-Russian War of 1768–74 had opened the era of European preoccupation with the Eastern Question: what would happen to the balance of power as the Ottoman Empire lost territory and collapsed? The Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainarji would provide some of the answer. After the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699, the Ottoman Empire ceased to be an aggressive power; it had terrified Christendom for over three hundred years. From then on, it mainly fought against the overwhelming might of Christian Europe. The Habsburgs had been one of the Ottoman Empire's chief European foes, but by the middle of the century, the tsars had taken over the Habsburgs' fight against the Turks. The Russian tsars were seeking the Black Sea, the bulwark of the Ottoman capital of Constantinople. Finally, after two centuries of conflict, the Russian fleet had destroyed the Ottoman navy and the Russian army had inflicted heavy defeats on the Ottoman land forces.The Ottoman Empire's frontiers would gradually shrink for another two centuries, and Russia would proceed to push her frontier westwards to the Dniester.Çenebaz Osman Efendi
Çenebaz Osman Efendi (Osman Efendi the Chatterer or the Loudmouthed), formally named as Yenişehirli Osman Efendi (either from Yenişehir near Bursa, or from Giannitsa, now in Greece, which was also called "Yenişehr-i Fener" in Ottoman times) in Ottoman sources, was an Ottoman diplomat who was the first plenipotentiary in the first peace conference, held in Focşani, today in Romania, starting August 19, 1772, among the several that were organised during the ten-month truce (May 10, 1772 – March 21, 1773) in the course of the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774). His Russian counterparts were Grigory Grigoryevich Orlov, Catherine II's lover and counsellor, and Aleksey Mikhailovich Obreskov (1720–1787), Russia's peacetime ambassador in İstanbul.
His name remains a byword to this day, thanks to his highly original perception of international relations and the unusual methods he developed while conducting diplomatic negotiations. He regained notoriety in Turkey's everyday culture from an anecdote about him related in a book by the Turkish novelist Kemal Tahir.
He started by burying an amulet into the ground on the way the members of the Russian delegation were to walk each day to render themselves to the conference hall. He also kept by his side a large sack full of gold coins at all times during the pourparlers, shuffling the coins noisily and gazing at his interlocutors with meaningful eyes, to the great puzzlement of the Russian negotiators. Proud of his rhetorical skill, he thought he could wear down the Russians with his diatribe of words and he sometimes just shouted at them meaninglessly to keep the pace of his speech. A first-hand Ottoman witness, named below, wrote that, in the end, the Russians had got used to listening to him as they would listen to a kaval.
Russian Field-Marshal Count Pyotr Rumyantsev noted in his memoirs: "If we say this efendi is crazy, it would be improper, so let us just say that he is smart but his is not like any other intelligence, we have ever experienced.". In his account of the war, Ahmed Resmi Efendi, a fervent advocate of immediate peace, placed the blame for the failure of the first round of negotiations, centered on the question of Crimea, squarely on Çenebaz Osman Efendi's shoulders.
The same Ahmed Resmi Efendi was to be the one to appose his signature on the 1774 Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, disastrous for the Ottomans, at the end of the second round of the war resumed in March 1773.