Purushanda

Purushanda (also variously Purushkanda, Purushhattum or Burushattum) was an ancient city-state in central Anatolia, lying south of the Kızılırmak River in what is now modern Turkey. Its site has yet to be discovered. It may have been situated south-east of Lake Tuz, possibly on the mound of Acemhöyük (located at the village of Yeşilova, Aksaray) approximately 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) north-west of the city of Aksaray.[1] Another possible location is the mound of Karahöyük near Konya.[2]

The city is prominently mentioned in the Cappadocian Texts, a collection of Hittite writings unearthed at Kanesh. They depict it as a major seat of power in the region, describing its ruler as "Great King" (rubā'um rabi'um) whereas other rulers are merely "kings". A separate text known as the "King of Battle" (šar tamhāri), dating to the 14th century BC, recounts a heavily embellished account of the Akkadian king Sargon carrying out an expedition against Purushanda's ruler Nur-Dagan (or Nur-Daggal). The story is ahistorical, as it apparently portrays the 23rd-century Sargon in an anachronistic 19th-century BC setting. Some modern scholars consider it a work of fiction, although the Akkadian language version was also found among the Amarna letters (Egypt), and it may have some basis in historical fact.[3]

In the story, Sargon yearns for battle but is advised against it by his generals. Nonetheless, when a message arrives from a group of Akkadian merchants in Purushanda pleading for help from Sargon against the oppressive Nur-Dagan, the king mobilises his army and marches off through difficult terrain. Nur-Dagan is hopeful that flooding and the terrain will thwart Sargon, but the Akkadian launches a lightning attack which captures Purushanda. Nur-Dagan is taken prisoner and grovels before Sargon, declaring him to be a peerless mighty king and perhaps swearing allegiance as a vassal. After three years the Akkadians leave, taking with them the fruits of the land as spoils of war.[3]

Purushanda features again in the stories of the campaigns of the 17th century BC Hittite ruler Anitta.[4] The Purushandan kingdom appears to have been a significant rival of Kanesh, the kingdom ruled by Anitta. The Hittite king launched a war against Purushanda but according to the Anitta Text, a Hittite account of later date, the Purushandan king surrendered to the Hittite army:[4]

When I went into battle, the Man of Purushanda brought gifts to me; he brought to me a throne of iron and a sceptre of iron as a gift. But when I returned to Nesa [Kanesh] I took the Man of Purushanda with me. As soon as he enters the chamber, that man will sit before me on the right.[5]

The text indicates that the right to rule over Purushanda's territory – symbolised by the regalia of office, the throne and sceptre – was surrendered to Anitta. Its king was reduced to the status of a privileged vassal, entitled to join Anitta at the court in Kanesh in recognition of his voluntary surrender and his high-born status. The kingdom itself probably ceased to exist at this point and was absorbed into Hittite-ruled territory.[4]

References

  1. ^ Bryce, Trevor (2005). The kingdom of the Hittites. Oxford University Press. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-19-927908-1.
  2. ^ Kuhrt, Amélie (1995). The ancient Near East, c. 3000-330 BC. Routledge. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-415-16763-5.
  3. ^ a b Studevent-Hickman, Benjamin; Morgan, Christopher (2006). "Old Akkadian Period Texts". In Chavalas, Mark William (ed.). The ancient Near East: historical sources in translation. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 24–27. ISBN 978-0-631-23580-4.
  4. ^ a b c Bryce, p. 39
  5. ^ Anitta Text, 73-9. Quoted in Bryce, p. 39

Coordinates: 38°24′41″N 33°50′09″E / 38.41139°N 33.83583°E

Acemhöyük

Acemhöyük is an archaeological site in Turkey. The tell is located near the village of Yeşilova in Merkez district, Aksaray Province. The Bronze Age name for the place was probably Purušḫanda/Purušḫattum or Ullama. The site was an Assyrian trading colony, or Karum.

Ariassus

Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).

Cotenna

Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.

King of Battle

The King of Battle, or šar tamḫāri, is an ancient Mesopotamian epic tale of Sargon of Akkad and his campaign against the city of Purušḫanda in the Anatolian highlands and its king, Nur-Daggal or Nur-Dagan, in aid of his merchants. It is extant in five manuscripts, two from Amarna in Egypt and six fragments of one from the Hittite capital Ḫattuša from the middle Babylonian period and one each from Aššur and Nineveh, probably from the Neo-Assyrian period. Of the twenty-three tales composed of the Kings of Akkad, this was one of only three, along with the Birth Legend of Sargon and the Cuthean Legend of Naram-Sin, to continue to circulate in the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian periods, some 1,500 years after the events they describe. It is thought to have been committed to writing during the first half of the second millennium, perhaps following a lengthy oral tradition, although the circumstances of its composition are hotly debated.

List of Bronze Age states

The Bronze Age (c. 3300–1200 BC) marks the emergence of the first complex state societies, and by the Middle Bronze Age (mid-3rd millennium BC) the first empires.

This is a list of Bronze Age polities.

By the end of the Bronze Age, complex state societies were mostly limited to the Fertile Crescent and to China, while Bronze Age tribal chiefdoms with less complex forms of administration were found throughout Bronze Age Europe and Central Asia, in the northern Indian subcontinent, and in parts of Mesoamerica and the Andes (although these latter societies were not in the Bronze Age cultural stage).

List of ancient settlements in Turkey

Below is the list of ancient settlements in Turkey. There are innumerable ruins of ancient settlements spread all over the country. While some ruins date back to Neolithic times, most of them were settlements of Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians, Ionians, Urartians, and so on.

List of political entities in the 13th century BC

Political entities in the 14th century BC – Political entities in the 12th century BC – Political entities by century

This is a list of political entities in the 13th century BC (1300–1201 BC).

List of political entities in the 14th century BC

Political entities in the 15th century BC – Political entities in the 13th century BC – Political entities by century

This is a list of political entities in the 14th century BC (1400–1301 BC).

List of political entities in the 15th century BC

Political entities in the 16th century BC – Political entities in the 14th century BC – Political entities by century

This is a list of political entities in the 15th century BC (1500–1401 BC).

List of political entities in the 16th century BC

Political entities in the 17th century BC – Political entities in the 15th century BC – Political entities by century

This is a list of political entities in the 16th century BC (1600–1501 BC).

List of political entities in the 17th century BC

Political entities in the 18th century BC – Political entities in the 16th century BC – Political entities by century

This is a list of political entities in the 17th century BC (1700–1601 BC).

List of political entities in the 18th century BC

Political entities in the 19th century BC – Political entities in the 17th century BC – Political entities by century

This is a list of political entities in the 18th century BC (1800–1701 BC).

List of political entities in the 19th century BC

Political entities in the 20th century BC – Political entities in the 18th century BC – Political entities by century

This is a list of political entities in the 19th century BC.

List of political entities in the 20th century BC

Political entities in the 21st century BC – Political entities in the 19th century BC – Political entities by century

This is a list of political entities in the 20th century BC.

List of political entities in the 21st century BC

Political entities in the 20th century BC – Political entities by century

This is a list of political entities in the 21st century BC.

Luwians

The Luwians were a group of Anatolian peoples who lived in central, western, and southern Asia Minor as well as the northern part of western Levant in the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. They spoke the Luwian language, an Indo-European language of the Anatolian sub-family, which was written in cuneiform imported from Mesopotamia, and a unique native hieroglyphic script, which was sometimes used by the linguistically related Hittites also.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.

Yangi

Yangi (Akkadian: 𒅀𒀭𒄀, romanized: Ia-an-gi) was an early monarch of the Early Period of Assyria (Azuhinum). He is listed as the third among the “seventeen kings who lived in tents” within the Mesopotamian Chronicles. Yangi was preceded by Adamu, and succeeded by Suhlamu. Next to nothing is otherwise known about Yangi's reign.

Yeşilova, Aksaray

Yeşilova (former Acem) is a belde (town) in the central district of Aksaray Province, Turkey. At 38°24′N 33°50′E it is 18 kilometres (11 mi) to Aksaray. The population of the town is 4218 as of 2010. The settlement was founded in 1517 by a small Turkmen clan from Iran. Iran is also known as Acem and the settlement was named accordingly. The mound near the settlement was named as Acemhöyük, which is now thoıught to be the tumulus of Purushanda an ancient settlement. In 1928 Yeşilova was declared a township.

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