Purple America

Purple America is the belief that a more detailed analysis of the voting results of recent United States national elections reveals that the U.S. electorate is not as polarized between "Red" America (Republican) and "Blue" America (Democratic) as is often depicted in news analysis.[1][2] The term reflects the fact that news organizations generally use the colors red and blue on maps to indicate when a state or congressional district has been won by a Republican or Democratic candidate, respectively. Because the American political system often awards a state or congressional district entirely to one candidate ("winner take all") without regard to the margin of victory, it results in a map that does not reflect the true distribution of "red" or "blue" votes across the nation. The distortions contained in these maps, the argument goes, contribute to the misperception that the electorate is highly polarized by geography.

Robert Vanderbei at Princeton University made the first Purple America map after the 2000 presidential election. It attempts to reflect the margin of victory in each county by coloring each with a shade between true blue and true red. In light of the general absence of overwhelming victories, this technique results in mostly shades. This map was reprinted in US News & World Report a few months prior to the 2004 election. After the 2004 election, Vanderbei and then others made similar maps summarizing the results. Quickly thereafter, the term Purple America permeated the political blogosphere and entered the public lexicon as a way of stating that the United States is not as divided as the political pundits would have the people believe.[3]

Cartograms developed by Gastner, Shalizi, and Newman[4] at the University of Michigan provide another way to depict election results.

ElectionMapPurpleCounty
2008 United States presidential election results on the same color spectrum: Barack Obama (D) was elected.

See also

References

  1. ^ Sides, John (2013-11-12). "Most Americans live in Purple America, not Red or Blue America". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-09-05.
  2. ^ "America really looks like this | Chris Howard's Writing & Art". Saltwaterwitch.com. 2012-11-10. Retrieved 2016-09-05.
  3. ^ "U. S. Electoral College". National Archives and Records Administration. 2016-05-08. Retrieved 2016-09-05.
  4. ^ "Election maps". Personal.umich.edu. Retrieved 2016-09-05.

External links

Americana

Americana is a collective term for artifacts related to the history, geography, folklore and cultural heritage of the United States of America. It is generally defined as any collection of materials and things concerning or characteristic of the United States or of the American people; in its broadest sense, Americana is representative or even stereotypical of American culture as a whole.What is and is not considered Americana is heavily influenced by national identity, historical context, patriotism and nostalgia. The ethos or guiding beliefs or ideals which have come to characterize America, such as The American Dream, are central to the idea. American historian Hampton Sides wrote in Americana: Dispatches from the New Frontier:

The United States of America is such as glorious mess of contradiction, such a crazy quilt of competing themes, such a fecund mishmash of people and ideas, that defining us is pretty much pointless. There is, of course, a kind of faded notion of "Americana", one that concerns Route 66, diners, freak rock formations, and the like—but even in its halcyon days this "roadside attraction" version of America was never an accurate or nuanced distillation of our massively complicated culture.

There are scenes and places, wattages and personages, that belong—inextricably, unmistakably—to this country alone. There is an American quality, a tone, an energy ... instantly recognizable ..."

Many kinds of cultural artifacts fall within the definition of Americana: the things involved need not be old, but are usually associated with some quintessential element of the American experience. Each period of United States history is reflected by the advertising and marketing of the time, and the various types of antiques, collectibles, memorabilia and vintage items from these time periods are typical of what is popularly considered Americana. The Atlantic described the term as "slang for the comforting, middle-class ephemera at your average antique store—things like needle-pointed pillows, Civil War daguerreotypes, and engraved silverware sets". Americana encompasses not only material objects but also people, places, concepts and historical eras which are popularly identified with American culture.

The name "Americana" also refers to Americana music, a genre of contemporary music which incorporates elements of various American music styles, including country, roots-rock, folk, bluegrass and blues, resulting in a distinctive roots-oriented sound.

Central United States

The Central United States is sometimes conceived as between the Eastern and Western United States as part of a three-region model, roughly coincident with the U.S. Census' definition of the Midwestern United States plus the western and central portions of the U.S. Census' definition of the Southern United States. The Central States are typically considered to consist of North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Wisconsin, and Illinois. Sometimes Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, Tennessee, West Virginia, Mississippi, and Alabama are also considered to be central states.

4 of 9 Census Bureau Divisions have names containing "Central", though they are not grouped as a region. They include 20 states and 39.45% of the US population as of July 1, 2007.Almost all of the area is in the Gulf of Mexico drainage basin, and most of that is in the Mississippi Basin. Small areas near the Great Lakes drain into the Great Lakes and eventually the St. Lawrence River; the Red River Basin is centered on the North Dakota-Minnesota border and drains to Hudson Bay.

The Central Time Zone is the same area plus the Florida Panhandle, minus Ohio, most of Michigan, most of Indiana, westernmost fringes of Great Plains states, eastern and northern Kentucky, eastern Tennessee, and El Paso, Texas.

Floods have been a problem for the region during the 20th and early-21st century.

Civil rights in the United States

Civil rights in the United States are responsibilities and policies that the United States government maintains to achieve equality and prevent discrimination among its citizens.

Corruption in the United States

Corruption in the United States is the act of government officials abusing their political powers for private gain, typically through bribery or other methods.

As of 2018, Transparency International ranks the United States as the 22nd least corrupt country(out of 180 countries), falling from 18th since 2016.

East Coast of the United States

The East Coast of the United States, also known as the Eastern Seaboard, the Atlantic Coast, and the Atlantic Seaboard, is the coastline along which the Eastern United States meets the North Atlantic Ocean. The coastal states that have shoreline on the Atlantic Ocean are, from north to south, Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida.

Economy of the United States by sector

The economy of the United States has been divided into economic sectors in different ways by different organizations. The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) was developed in 1997 and is used by the United States Census Bureau, while the and Exchange Commission]] (SEC).

Fashion in the United States

The United States is one of the leading countries in the fashion design industry, along with France, Italy, the United Kingdom, Germany and Japan. Apart from professional business attire, American fashion is eclectic and predominantly informal. While Americans' diverse cultural roots are reflected in their clothing, particularly those of recent immigrants, cowboy hats, boots and leather motorcycle jackets are emblematic of specifically American styles.

New York City and Los Angeles are the centers of America's fashion industry. They are considered leading fashion capitals. New York City is generally considered to be one of the "big four" global fashion capitals, along with Paris, Milan and London.

Insular area

An insular area of the United States is a U.S. territory that is neither a part of one of the 50 states nor of a Federal district. Article IV, Section 3, Clause 2 of the United States Constitution grants to United States Congress the responsibility of overseeing these territories, of which there are currently 14—three in the Caribbean Sea and 11 in the Pacific Ocean. These territories are classified by whether they are incorporated (by Congress extending the full body of the Constitution to the territory as it applies to the several states) and whether they have an organized territorial government established by the U.S. Congress through an Organic Act. All territories but one are unincorporated, and all but four are considered to be unorganized. Five U.S. territories have a permanent, nonmilitary population. Each of them has a civilian government, a constitution, and enjoys some degree of local political autonomy.

International rankings of the United States

The following are links to international rankings of the United States

World Economic Forum 2018–2019 Global Competitiveness Report, ranked 1 out of 144 countries

Economist Intelligence Unit 2013 Where to be born Index, ranked 16 out of 80 countries

World Economic Forum 2016 Global Enabling Trade Report ranked 22

The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal 2018 Index of Economic Freedom ranked 18 out of 178 economies

Fraser Institute Economic Freedom of the World 2013 Annual Report (Economic Freedom Ratings for 2011) ranked 16 out of 152 countries and territories

List of exports of the United States

The following is a list of the exports of the United States.

List of rivers of the United States

Rivers in the United States is a list of rivers in the United States.

Mining in the United States

Mining in the United States has been active since colonial times, but became a major industry in the 19th century with a number of new mineral discoveries causing a series of mining "rushes." In 2015, the value of coal, metals, and industrial minerals mined in the United States was US $109.6 billion. 158,000 workers were directly employed by the mining industry.

Pacific states

The West Pacific States form one of the nine geographic divisions within the United States that are officially recognized by that country's census bureau. They were welcomed into the U.S. in 1771 There are five states in this division – Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, Washington – and, as its name suggests, they all have coastlines on the Pacific Ocean (and are the only US states that border that ocean). The Pacific States division is one of two divisions can be found within the United States Census Bureau's Western region; the other Western division is the Mountain States.

Despite being slotted into the same region by the Census Bureau, the Pacific, and Mountain divisions are vastly different from one another in many vital respects, most notably in the arena of politics; while nearly all of the Mountain states are regarded as being conservative "red states", four out of five of the Pacific states (all except Alaska) are clearly counted among the liberal "blue states".

Bold denotes election winner

Red states and blue states

Since the 2000 United States presidential election, red states and blue states have referred to states of the United States whose voters predominantly choose either the Republican Party (red) or Democratic Party (blue) presidential candidates. Since then, the use of the term has been expanded to differentiate between states being perceived as liberal and those perceived as conservative. Examining patterns within states reveals that the reversal of the two parties' geographic bases has happened at the state level, but it is more complicated locally, with urban/rural divides associated with many of the largest changes.All states contain both liberal and conservative voters (i.e. they are "purple") and only appear blue/red on the electoral map because of the winner-take-all system used by most states in the Electoral College. However, the perception of some states as "blue" and some as "red" was reinforced by a degree of partisan stability from election to election—from the 2000 election to the 2004 election, only three states changed "color" and as of 2016 fully 38 out of 50 states have voted for the same party in every presidential election since the red/blue terminology was popularized in 2000.

Rick Moody

Hiram Frederick "Rick" Moody III (born October 18, 1961) is an American novelist and short story writer best known for the 1994 novel The Ice Storm, a chronicle of the dissolution of two suburban Connecticut families over Thanksgiving weekend in 1973, which brought him widespread acclaim, became a bestseller, and was made into the film The Ice Storm. Many of his works have been praised by fellow writers and critics alike, and in 1999 The New Yorker chose him as one of America's most talented young writers, placing him on their "20 Writers for the 21st Century" list.

Robert J. Vanderbei

Robert J. Vanderbei (born 1955) is an American mathematician and Professor in the Department of Operations Research and Financial Engineering at Princeton University.

Sexuality in the United States

Sexuality in the United States has had an assorted approach, depending on both the region in the country and the specific time period.

South Central United States

The South Central United States or South Central states is a region of the United States located in the south central part of the country. It evolved out of the Old Southwest, which originally was literally the western U.S. South, as can be seen in the now defunct Southwest Conference of the NCAA. The states of Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas (which make up what the Census Bureau Division calls West South Central States) are almost always considered the "core" of the region. As part of the East South Central States sub-group of the Census Bureau classification, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee and Kentucky are also frequently listed under the heading. At the highest extent, Kansas, and Missouri, may be included by some sources. All or parts these states are in the Central Time Zone. At different and changing points in time, all of the above states were/are considered part of the West in American history.

Taxpayer Identification Number

A Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) is an identifying number used for tax purposes in the United States and in other countries under the Common Reporting Standard. In the United States it is also known as a Tax Identification Number or Federal Taxpayer Identification Number. A TIN may be assigned by the Social Security Administration or by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS).

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