A puppet state, puppet regime, or puppet government is a state that is de jure independent but is de facto completely dependent upon an outside power. It is nominally sovereign but effectively controlled by a foreign or otherwise alien power, for reasons such as financial interests, economic or military support.
A puppet state preserves the external paraphernalia of independence like a name, flag, anthem, constitution, law codes, motto and government but in reality is an organ of another state which created, sponsored or otherwise controls the government of the puppet state. Puppet states are not recognized as legitimate under international law.
In the Middle Ages vassal states existed which were based on delegation of rule of a country from a King to noble men of lower rank. Since the Peace of Westphalia of 1648 the concept of a nation came into existence where sovereignty was connected more to the people who inhabited the land than to the nobility who owned the land. The term is a metaphor which compares a state or government to a puppet controlled by an outside puppeteer using strings. The first recorded use of the term "puppet government" is from 1884, in reference to the Khedivate of Egypt.
The Batavian Republic was established in the Netherlands under French revolutionary protection.
In Eastern Europe, France established a Polish client state of the Duchy of Warsaw.
In 1836 U.S. citizens allowed to live in the Mexican state of Texas revolted against the Mexican government to establish a U.S.-backed Republic of Texas, a country that existed less than 10 years (from May 14, 1836 to December 29, 1845) before it was annexed to the United States of America. However, in August 1837, Memucan Hunt, Jr., the Texan minister to the United States, submitted the first official annexation proposal to the Van Buren administration (the first American-led attempts to take over Mexican Texas by filibustering date back to 1819 and by separatist settlers since 1826).
During Japan's imperial period, and particularly during the Pacific War (parts of which are considered the Pacific theatre of World War II), the Imperial Japanese regime established a number of dependent states.
Japan had made drafts for other dependent states.
Several European governments under the domination of Germany and Italy during World War II have been described as "puppet régimes". The formal means of control in occupied Europe varied greatly. These states fall into several categories.
As Soviet forces prevailed over the German Army on the Eastern Front during the Second World War, the Soviet Union supported the creation of communist governments in all of Eastern Europe. Specifically, the People's Republics in Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Albania were dominated by the Soviet Union. While all of these People's Republics did not "officially" take power until after World War II ended, they all have roots in pro-Communist war-time governments.
Historically, the British Empire has planted various dictators on thrones because of its own geopolitical interests. For example, the British occupation forces brought back Sardar Abdur Rahman from Bukhara, imposed on him the Gandumak Surrender Treaty, and made him Amir of Afghanistan. This extremely ruthless man, ruled as a puppet dictator for two decades (1880-1901), applying barbaric practices against his own subjects, but remaining dependent on British government of India for money, weapon and protection.
The Axis demand for oil and the concern of the Allies that Germany would look to the oil-rich Middle East for a solution, caused the invasion of Iraq by the United Kingdom and the invasion of Iran by the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union. Pro-Axis governments in both Iraq and Iran were removed and replaced with Allied-dominated governments.
In some cases, the process of decolonization has been managed by the decolonizing power to create a neo-colony, that is a nominally independent state whose economy and politics permits continued foreign domination. Neo-colonies are not normally considered puppet states.
During the 1950–1953 Korean War, South Korea and the United States alleged that North Korea was a Soviet puppet state. At the same time, South Korea and Japan was accused of being an American puppet state by North Korea and its allies. Additionally, in 1951 Dean Rusk, the Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs, branded the People's Republic of China a "Slavic Manchukuo", implying that it was a puppet state of the Soviet Union just as Manchukuo had been a puppet state of the Empire of Japan. This position was commonly taken by American propaganda of the 1950s, despite the fact that the Chinese communist movement had developed largely independently of the Soviet Union.
Following the victory of the Viet Minh in the First Indochina War, the 1954 Geneva Accords stipulated that Vietnam would be divided for two years only, until national elections could be held. However, the Americans along with Ngo Dinh Diem feared that Ho Chi Minh and the Communists would win the election. The State of Vietnam and the United States didn't sign the Geneva Accords, citing that it was impossible to hold free and fair nationwide democratic elections in the communist North, and this was later expressed by UN observers monitoring the partition of Vietnam. As a result, South Vietnam and the U.S. were not bound by its terms. In 1955 the Vietnamese president Ngo Dinh Diem, supported by the United States, declared the independence of the Republic of Vietnam in the southern half of Vietnam. Over time, Diem grew increasingly uncomfortable with the role of the U.S. in his country, complaining that they were increasing the conflict with North Vietnam. Diem's complaints became more vocal as American soldiers, called "advisors", continued to pour into the country, and some began calling Diem an uncooperative client and a puppet pulling his own strings. After he became seen more as a liability than an asset to America, Diem was assassinated in 1963 with the complicity of the CIA and John F. Kennedy.
During the Vietnam War, South Vietnam was allied with the U.S. and other anti-communist states in Asia and the West, whereas North Vietnam was allied with China, and particularly the Soviet Union, and with other socialist and communist nations.
During the 1970s and 1980s, four ethnic bantustans, some of which were extremely fragmented, were carved out of South Africa and given nominal sovereignty. Two (Ciskei and Transkei) were for the Xhosa people; and one each for the Tswana people (Bophuthatswana) and for the Venda people (Venda Republic).
The principal purpose of these states was to remove the Xhosa, Tswana and Venda peoples from South African citizenship (and so to provide grounds for denying them democratic rights). All four were reincorporated into South Africa in 1994.
The term 'puppet state' is used to describe nominal sovereigns under effective foreign control...
Puppet state: a country whose government is being controlled by the government of another country, much as a puppeteer controls the strings on a marionette
In short, the electorate of Northern Cyprus votes freely for its political leaders and gives them substantial support. Nor is Northern Cyprus a Turkish puppet state. Mr Denktas and the Turkish-Cypriot case have a powerful following in Turkey...
Bei'an (Chinese: 北安; pinyin: Běi'ān; literally: 'northern peace') is a county-level city in west-central Heilongjiang province in the People's Republic of China. It is under the jurisdiction of Heihe.
Bei'an was the provincial capital of Bei'an province of Manchukuo, a puppet state set up by Japan during the Second World War.Changchun Dafangshen Airport
Changchun Dafangshen Airport (Chinese: 长春大房身机场), or Dafangshen Air Base, is a military air base in Changchun, the capital of Jilin Province in Northeast China. Originally constructed in 1941 by the Empire of Japan for the capital of its puppet state Manchukuo, Dafangshen Airport saw fierce fighting and was severely damaged during the Siege of Changchun in the Chinese Civil War. It served as Changchun's public international airport from October 1960 until August 2005, when all civil flights were transferred to the new Changchun Longjia International Airport.China Railways JF15
The China Railways JF15 (解放15, Jiěfàng, "liberation") class steam locomotive was a class of 2-8-2 steam locomotives operated by the China Railway, built by the American Locomotive Company in the United States in 1928−1929.These locomotives were originally built for the Jihai Railway. After the Japanese established the puppet state of Manchukuo, these and other privately owned railways in the territory of Manchukuo were nationalised to create the Manchukuo National Railway, which designated these the Mikasa (ミカサ) class, becoming Mikana (ミカナ) class after the classification reform of 1938.
After the end of the Pacific War, these locomotives were passed on to the Republic of China Railway. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, China Railways designated them ㄇㄎ15 (MK15) class in 1951, and subsequently 解放15 (JF15) class in 1959.China Railways JF18
The China Railways JF18 (解放18, Jiěfàng, "liberation") class steam locomotive was a class of 2-8-2 steam locomotives operated by the China Railway, built by the American Locomotive Company in the United States in 1914.The original owner of these locomotives is unknown. After the Japanese established the puppet state of Manchukuo, the privately owned railways in the territory of Manchukuo were nationalised to create the Manchukuo National Railway, which designated these the Mikai (ミカイ) class, becoming Mikana (ミカナ) class after the classification reform of 1938.
After the end of the Pacific War, these locomotives were passed on to the Republic of China Railway. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, China Railways designated them ㄇㄎ18 (MK18) class in 1951. They were subsequently redesignated 解放18 (JF18) class in 1959, and were retired in 1975.Client state
A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state (termed controlling state in this article) in international affairs. Types of client states include: satellite state, associated state, puppet state, neo-colony, protectorate, vassal state, and tributary state.Fascist Italy
Fascist Italy may refer to:
Fascist Italy (1922–1943), the Kingdom of Italy under Fascism, ruled by the National Fascist Party under Benito Mussolini
Italian Social Republic, a puppet state of Nazi Germany, ruled by the Republican Fascist Party under Benito Mussolini from 1943 to 1945Government of National Unity (Hungary)
The Government of National Unity (Hungarian: Nemzeti Összefogás Kormánya) existed during the occupation of Hungary by Nazi Germany between October 1944 and May 1945. Formed by the Nazi Arrow Cross Party, it was established on 16 October 1944 after Regent Miklós Horthy was removed from power during Operation "Panzerfaust" (Unternehmen "Eisenfaust" ). Arrow Cross leader Ferenc Szálasi became Prime Minister and, as "Nation Leader", the head of state. During the government's short period of rule, ten to fifteen thousand Jews were murdered in Hungary and around eighty thousand Jews, including many women, children and elderly Jews, were deported from Hungary to their deaths in the Auschwitz concentration camp.Independent Macedonia (1944)
In September 1944, Nazi Germany briefly sought to establish an Independent State of Macedonia, a puppet state in the territory of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia that had been occupied by the Kingdom of Bulgaria following the invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941. When Soviet Union forces approached the borders of Bulgaria near the end of August 1944, Bulgaria declared neutrality and briefly sought to negotiate with the Western Allies. As the Bulgarian government was not impeding the withdrawal of German forces from Bulgaria or Romania, the Soviet Union treated it with suspicion. On 2 September a new pro-Western government took power in Sofia, only to be replaced a week later by a pro-communist government after a Fatherland Front–led revolt. However, on 5 September 1944, the Soviets declared war on Bulgaria.
The Germans turned to Ivan Mihailov to implement the scheme. Mihailov was a Bulgarophile right-wing politician and former leader of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) that had been engaged in terrorist activity in Yugoslav and Greek Macedonia. Mihailov had become leader of IMRO in 1927 and under his leadership the organisation had joined forces with the Croatian Ustaše in 1929. The two organisations had planned and executed the assassination of King Alexander of Yugoslavia in 1934. After the military coup d'état in the same year IMRO was banned by the authorities. Mihailov fled to Turkey and then Italy, where most of the Ustaše were also in exile. After the invasion of Yugoslavia in 1941, Mihailov had moved to Zagreb where he had acted as an advisor to Ante Pavelić. In January 1944 he had successfully lobbied the Germans to arm some Ohrana supporters and have them placed under Schutzstaffel (SS) command in Greek Macedonia, which had also been annexed by the Bulgarians in 1941.In 1928, Mihailov proposed a plan calling for the unification of the region of Macedonia into a single state, that would be autonomous from Bulgaria. He was a proponent of a pro-Bulgarian United Macedonian multi-ethnic state, calling it: "Switzerland of the Balkans". During the last phase of the Second World War he tried to realise his plan with German political collaboration, however he abandoned the implementation of this idea due to the lack of real military support. Despite this, an independent state was declared by Macedonian nationalists on 8 September 1944. Without the means to make the state a reality, this pretence dissolved as soon as the Yugoslav Partisans asserted their control following the withdrawal of German troops from the area by mid-November. This event marked the defeat of the Bulgarian nationalism and the victory of the Macedonism in the area.Inner Mongolian Army
The Inner Mongolian Army, also sometimes called the Mengjiang National Army, referred to the Inner Mongolian military units in service of Imperial Japan and its puppet state of Mengjiang during the Second Sino-Japanese War, particularly those led by Prince Demchugdongrub. It was primarily a force of cavalry units, which mostly consisted of ethnic Mongols, with some Han Chinese infantry formations.Irish Republic (1798)
The Irish Republic of 1798, more commonly called the Republic of Connacht, was a short lived puppet state proclaimed during the Irish Rebellion of 1798 that resulted from the French Revolutionary Wars. In theory the republic was to cover the whole island of Ireland, but its functional control was limited to only very small parts of the Province of Connacht. The opposing Irish Royal Army was deployed across most of the country including the main towns such as Dublin, Belfast and Cork.Knin camp
Knin camp was a detention camp run by the rebel Serb army in Knin in the puppet state of Republika Srpska Krajina, that held Croatian detainees, soldiers and civilians, from 1991 until 1992, during the Croatian War of Independence.
It consisted out of at least two facilities. The ICTY stated that a prison in Knin, run by the Yugoslav People's Army, held approximately 150 detainees, while the old hospital in Knin, run by "Martic's Militia", held approximately 120 detainees. At least two prisoners perished.Former prisoners testified that they were arrested by Serb paramilitary forces and then deported into Knin camp. The detainees were beaten, mistreated and humiliated. Some were threatened to read a written testimony in front of TV cameras from Belgrade and confess crimes against Serbs which they did not commit. One Croatian soldier testified that he was interrogated for 68 consecutive days and received food and water only once a day. Two Catholic priests, Mirko Barbarić and Franjo Halužan, were arrested in Benkovac and then brought to the Knin prison. There one Serb soldier ordered Halužan to make the sign of the cross with three fingers. After that gesture, the soldier kicked his arm with a baton. Other prisoners testified they were forced to eat two full spoons of salt and then drink 0,4 gallons of water at once. Some were tortured with electro shocks, had to eat cigarette ash, wash the toilette floors with their tongues and perform oral sex under threat of murder.In July 1991, Ivica Knez succumbed to heavy beatings and became the first Croatian casualty in a Krajina camp. Detainees were exchanged and released from the camp at the end of 1991 and beginning of 1992.List of World War II aces from Croatia
This is a list of fighter aces in World War II from the Independent State of Croatia, a puppet state of Nazi Germany from 1941–45, created in the portion of Yugoslavia occupied by the Axis powers. There were 25 fighter aces from the Independent State of Croatia during the Second World War. For more information, see List of World War II aces from Croatia.
. For other countries see List of World War II aces by countryList of World War II puppet states
During World War II a number of countries were conquered and controlled. Some of these countries were then given new names, and assigned new governmental leaders which were loyal to the conquering country. These countries are known as puppet states. Germany and Japan were the two countries with the most puppet states. Italy also had several puppet states. Most of the Allies (with the exception of the Soviet Union) did not have many puppet states.Mengjiang
Mengjiang (Mengkiang; Chinese: 蒙疆; pinyin: Měngjiāng; Wade–Giles: Meng3-chiang1; Hepburn: Mōkyō), also known in English as Mongol Border Land or the Mongol United Autonomous Government, was an autonomous area in Inner Mongolia, existing initially as a puppet state of the Empire of Japan before being under nominal Chinese sovereignty of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China from 1940 (which itself was a puppet state). Formed in 1939, it consisted of the then-Chinese provinces of Chahar and Suiyuan, corresponding to the central part of modern Inner Mongolia. It has also been called Mongukuo or Mengguguo (or Mengkukuo; Chinese: 蒙古國) (in analogy to Manchukuo, another Japanese puppet state in Manchuria). The capital was Kalgan, from where it was ruled by the Mongol nobleman Prince Demchugdongrub. The territory returned to Chinese control after the defeat of the Japanese Empire in 1945.Puppet ruler
A puppet ruler is a person who has a title indicating possession of political power, but who, in reality, is controlled by outside individuals or forces. Such outside power can be exercised by a foreign government, in which case the puppet ruler's domain is called a puppet state. But the puppet ruler may also be controlled by internal forces, such as non-elected officials.Satellite state
A satellite state is a country that is formally independent in the world, but under heavy political, economic and military influence or control from another country. The term was coined by analogy to planetary objects orbiting a larger object, such as smaller moons revolving around larger planets, and is used mainly to refer to Central and Eastern European countries of the Warsaw Pact during the Cold War or to Mongolia or Tannu Tuva between 1924 and 1990, for example. As used for Central and Eastern European countries it implies that the countries in question were "satellites" under the hegemony of the Soviet Union. In some contexts it also refers to other countries in the Soviet sphere of influence during the Cold War—such as North Korea (especially in the years surrounding the Korean War of 1950–1953) and Cuba (particularly after it joined the Comecon in 1972). In Western usage, the term has seldom been applied to states other than those in the Soviet orbit. In Soviet usage, the term applied to the states in the orbit of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and Imperial Japan.
The Oxford English Dictionary traces the use of the phrase satellite state in English back at least as far as 1916.
In times of war or political tension, satellite states sometimes serve as buffers between an enemy country and the nation exerting control over the satellites. "Satellite state" is one of several contentious terms used to describe the (alleged) subordination of one state to another. Other such terms include puppet state and neo-colony. In general, the term "satellite state" implies deep ideological and military allegiance to the hegemonic power, whereas "puppet state" implies political and military dependence, and "neo-colony" implies (often abject) economic dependence. Depending on which aspect of dependence is being emphasised, a state may fall into more than one category.Slana concentration camp
Slana concentration camp was a concentration and extermination camp on the Croatian island Pag.
The camp was established in June 1941 in Metajna. It was established by Mijo Babić and controlled by the Ustaše, who had been installed as rulers of the puppet state of Croatia by Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. Slana was a men's camp. Most prisoners were Jews, Serbs and Croatian communists. The commander of the camp was Ivan Devčević, who was also a commander of the 13th Ustaša battalion which was garrisoned in the camp.The camp was closed in August 1941 by the Italian military, who feared that the brutality of the Ustaše would provoke unrest in the region. Historians have estimated the death toll in Slana and the women's camp Metajna to be between 4,000 and 12,000. During the first weeks the inmates mainly died of physical abuse, exhaustion, hunger and thirst. When the transports became more frequent and the camp lacked space, the Ustaše began to execute many prisoners. The Author Ante Zemljar wrote a book about what happened in Slana in 1941: Charon and Destinies.Vassal state
A vassal state is any state that has a mutual obligation to a superior state or empire, in a status similar to that of a vassal in the feudal system in medieval Europe. The obligations often included military support in exchange for certain privileges. In some cases, the obligation included paying tribute, but a state which does so is better described as a tributary state. Today, more common terms are puppet state, protectorate, client state, or associated state.Zhoulai
Zhoulai (Chinese: 州來) was a small state of the Spring and Autumn period that ruled a crucial part of the middle Huai River valley. Its capital, known by the same name, was located in modern-day Fengtai County in Huainan. Due to its strategic location, Zhoulai controlled the most important route from Hubei to the Yellow Sea. This made it a target of the expansionist state of Chu, which subjugated Zhoulai in the late 7th century BC in order to gain access to the east. While nominally allowed to maintain autonomy under its own dynasty, Zhoulai effectively became a puppet state under Chu military occupation and civil administration. It survived in this condition until 529 BC, when its capital city was conquered by Wu and its ruling family was formally deposed.