Punu language

Punu is a Bantu language spoken in Gabon and the Republic of Congo. Irimba is classified as a dialect, but may be relexified from a non-Bantu source.

Native toGabon, Republic of Congo
EthnicityBapunu, Babongo Pygmies
Native speakers
160,000 (2000—2007)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3puu


  1. ^ Punu at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Punu". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online
Bunu languages

The Bunu (Punu) are the Yao people who speak Hmongic languages. That is, Bunu in the broad sense is a cultural rather than linguistic group. Strecker (1987) had classified Bunu proper (Bu-Nao) as a Western (Chuanqiandian) Hmongic language, and the other Bunu (or Punuic) languages—Younuo, Wunai (Hm Nai), and Jiongnai (Kiong Nai)—as distinct branches of Hmongic. Matisoff (2001) grouped all of these together in a Bunu branch of Hmongic (that is, outside Western Hmongic). Ratliff (2010) returned Bunu proper (Bu-Nao) to Western Hmongic, and moved Jiongnai to its own peripheral branch of Hmongic, but did not address Younuo or Wunai. Mao Zongwu (1997) found that Younuo, Wunai, and Pa-Hng form a distinct branch of Hmongic.The Bunu languages form a group in Chinese classification, but that is because Chinese classifications are not purely linguistic, but take into account ethnic identity.

Ngounié River

The Ngounié River (also Ngunyé) is a river flowing through southwest-central Gabon. It is the last and second most important tributary of the Ogooué River, the first being the Ivindo River. It initially flows down from the Chaillu Mountains, along the border with Congo, and then turns northwest, flowing through the towns of Fougamou, Sindara and Mouila before flowing into the Ogooué.


Punu may refer to:

Punu people, a people of Gabon

Punu language, the language of the Punu people

Bunu languages or Punu languages, the Hmongic languages of the Yao people of China

Penu, Golestan or Pūnū, a village in Golestan, Iran

Punu Chanyu, chanyu of the Xiongnu empire

Yasutoshi Yukawa

Yasutoshi Yukawa (born 1941 - 25.8.2014) was a Japanese linguist who contributed to African and Tibetan linguistics. In 2006 his students and colleagues honoured his work with a Festschrift Yasutoshi Yukawa's initial research interest was Theoretical Linguistics, especially syntax and semantics (1950s-60s). During the 1960s and 1970s he published several important papers on Lhasa dialect of Tibetan. He began work on African linguistic in 1975. His main contribution is description of Bantu languages, their genetic classification and tone systems.

Official language
National languages
Indigenous languages


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