Punta Eugenia

Punta Eugenia is a headland in the Mulegé Municipality, and is the westernmost point on the mainland of the state of Baja California Sur. To its north west lie Isla Natividad, Cedros Island and the Islas San Benito.

The pattern of ocean currents and eddies around Punta Eugenia has been shown to be a significant phylogeographic break in the distribution of fish species.[1]

This annotated Space Shuttle photo shows Punta Eugenia bottom right. Cedros Island is in the center.


  1. ^ Bernardi G, Findley L, Rocha-Olivares A (2003). "Vicariance and dispersal across Baja California in disjunct marine fish populations" (PDF). Evolution. The Society for the Study of Evolution. 57 (7): 1599–1609. doi:10.1554/02-669. PMID 12940364. Retrieved August 27, 2013.

Coordinates: 27°50′49″N 115°4′54″W / 27.84694°N 115.08167°W

Baja California Peninsula

The Baja California Peninsula (English: Lower California Peninsula, Spanish: Península de Baja California) is a peninsula in Northwestern Mexico. It separates the Pacific Ocean from the Gulf of California. The peninsula extends 1,247 km (775 miles) from Mexicali, Baja California in the north to Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur in the south. It ranges from 40 km (25 miles) at its narrowest to 320 km (200 miles) at its widest point and has approximately 3,000 km (1,900 miles) of coastline and approximately 65 islands. The total area of the Baja California Peninsula is 143,390 km2 (55,360 sq mi).

The peninsula is separated from mainland Mexico by the Gulf of California and the Colorado River. There are four main desert areas on the peninsula: the San Felipe Desert, the Central Coast Desert, the Vizcaíno Desert and the Magdalena Plain Desert.

Cedros Island

Cedros Island (Isla de Cedros, "island of cedars" in Spanish) is an island in the Pacific Ocean belonging to the state of Baja California, Mexico. The dry and rocky island had a population of 1,350 in 2005 and has an area of 348 square kilometres (134 sq mi) which includes the area of several small nearby islands. Cedros Island is mountainous, reaching a maximum elevation of 1,205 metres (3,953 ft). The economy is based on commercial fishing and salt mining. Cedros has a distinctive flora and the traces of some of the earliest human beings in the New World. The ocean around the island is popular with sports fishermen.

The American Indian inhabitants when the island was first visited by Spanish explorers in the 16th century called it Huamalgua, the "Island of Fogs." The Indian inhabitants have been given the name Huamalgueños by modern day scholars. They were relocated to the mainland of Baja California by Jesuit missionaries in 1732 and ceased to exist as an identifiable people.

Edmundsella vansyoci

Edmundsella vansyoci is a species of sea slug, an aeolid nudibranch, a marine gastropod mollusc in the family Flabellinidae.

Eisenia arborea

Eisenia arborea, or the southern sea palm (not to be confused with the sea palm), is a dominant species of kelp that is found in the Northern and Eastern Pacific from Vancouver Island, Canada south to Isla Magdalena, Mexico, and along the coast of Baja California. They are commonly found from the midtidal areas stretching to the subtidal areas. It is an edible seaweed, a source of nutrients for grazing marine invertebrates and a source of alginic acid, a food thickener. Some of the algas have a hollow stripe above its holdfast with two branches terminating in multiple blades. Eisenia arborea is studied in order to predict environmental stress in oceans intertidal zones. Hollow stripes where present when the Eisenia arborea did not receive essential nutrients for its thalli development. Eisenia arborea with hollow stripes are believed to be evolved algae in order to increase their survival in harsh living conditions. They play a huge role in determining environmental stress.

Phlorofucofuroeckol-B, a phlorotannin can be isolated from E. arborea.

Hermissenda opalescens

Hermissenda opalescens is a species of brightly coloured sea slug or nudibranch, a marine gastropod mollusc in the family Facelinidae.This species is commonly known as the "opalescent sea slug."

Hurricane Elida (2002)

Hurricane Elida was the first hurricane of the 2002 Pacific hurricane season to reach Category 5 strength on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. Forming on July 23 from a tropical wave, the storm rapidly intensified from a tropical depression into a Category 5 in two days and lasted for only six hours at that intensity before weakening. It was one of only sixteen known hurricanes in the East Pacific east of the International Date Line to have reached such an intensity. Although heavy waves were able to reach the Mexican coastline, no damages or casualties were reported in relation to the hurricane.

The hurricane moved westward due to a high pressure ridge while undergoing two eyewall replacement cycles: the first was around peak intensity and was completed when the hurricane moved over cooler waters, and the second was a brief cycle shortly after the hurricane began to weaken. The last advisory was issued while the hurricane was west of Mexico, but it was not until the remnants were west of Los Angeles, California that they finally dissipated. Elida's rapid intensification and unsteady weakening after reaching its peak intensity caused large errors in the intensity forecasting of the hurricane. Although the intensity forecasts were off, the track forecasts were better than usual compared to the ten-year period prior to that year.

Hurricane Howard (2004)

Hurricane Howard was a powerful Category 4 hurricane which produced large swells along the coasts of the Baja California Peninsula and southern California. The eighth named storm of the 2004 Pacific hurricane season, Howard originated out of a tropical wave off the coast of Mexico on August 30. Traveling towards the northwest, the storm gradually strengthened, becoming a hurricane on September 1 and reaching its peak intensity the following day with winds of 140 mph (220 km/h). Decreasing sea surface temperatures then caused the storm to weaken. By September 4, Howard was downgraded to a tropical storm. The next day, it degenerated into a non-convective remnant low pressure area which persisted for another five days before dissipating over open waters.

Although the storm never made landfall, the fringe effects of the storm produced significant flooding across the Baja California Peninsula which damaged agricultural land and dozens of homes. Howard also produced large swells which reached 18 ft (5.4 m) along the Baja coastline and 10 ft (3 m) along the California coastline. About 1,000 lifeguard rescues took place in California due to the waves. Moisture from the storm also enhanced rainfall in parts of Arizona, leading to minor accumulations.

Hurricane Lester (1992)

Hurricane Lester was the first Pacific tropical cyclone to enter the United States as a tropical storm since 1967. The twelfth named storm and seventh hurricane of the 1992 Pacific hurricane season, Lester formed on August 20 from a tropical wave southwest of Mexico. The tropical storm moved generally northwestward while steadily intensifying. After turning to the north, approaching the Mexican coast, Lester attained hurricane status. The hurricane reached peak winds of 85 mph (140 km/h) before making landfall on west-central Baja California. The system weakened while moving across the peninsula and then over northwestern Mexico. Not long after entering Arizona, Lester weakened to a tropical depression, and dissipated on August 24, 1992, over New Mexico.

In Mexico, the hurricane resulted in $3 million in damage (1992 USD, $4.7 million 2011 USD). It also left 5,000 people homeless, and was responsible for three fatalities. The remnants of Lester also produced moderate rainfall and minor flooding across southern California, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico, as well as rare August snow in the Rocky Mountains.

Isla Natividad

Isla Natividad is an island in the Pacific Ocean 6 km west off Punta Eugenia, the northwestern headland of the Mexican state of Baja California Sur. 200 meters off its northwestern end lies Roca María at 27°53′33″N 115°13′19″W, with an area of 0.074 km2. Isla Natividad is separated from the mainland at Punta Eugenia by Canal de Dewey (Dewey's Channel), and from Cedros Island (Baja California), which is 15 km to the north, by Canal de Keller (Canal Kellett).The island is part of Bahía Tortugas delegación of Mulegé municipality. It is 8.655 km2 in area. At the 2001 census, the island had a population of 384, centered in Natividad, a community of abalone, lobster, and clam fishermen, at the southeastern end (27°51′09″N 115°10′09″W). Connection to the mainland is facilitated by an airstrip. There is a lighthouse in the northern part.

Niebla contorta

Niebla contorta is a fruticose lichen that grows along the fog regions of the Pacific Coast of North America on the Vizcaíno Peninsula and on the Isla Santa Margarita of Baja California. The epithet, contorta, is in regard to the twisted branches of the thallus.

Niebla rugosa

Niebla rugosa is a fruticose lichen that grows on rocks along the foggy Pacific Coast of Baja California in the Vizcaíno Desert. The epithet, rugosa is in reference to the wrinkled reticulated surface of the thallus.

Pagurus samuelis

Pagurus samuelis, the blueband hermit crab, is a species of hermit crab from the west coast of North America, and the most common hermit crab in California. It is a small species, with distinctive blue bands on its legs. It prefers to live in the shell of the black turban snail, and is a nocturnal scavenger of algae and carrion.

Platydoris macfarlandi

Platydoris macfarlandi is a species of sea slug, a dorid nudibranch, shell-less marine opisthobranch gastropod mollusks in the family Discodorididae.

Sea otter

The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a marine mammal native to the coasts of the northern and eastern North Pacific Ocean. Adult sea otters typically weigh between 14 and 45 kg (31 and 99 lb), making them the heaviest members of the weasel family, but among the smallest marine mammals. Unlike most marine mammals, the sea otter's primary form of insulation is an exceptionally thick coat of fur, the densest in the animal kingdom. Although it can walk on land, the sea otter is capable of living exclusively in the ocean.

The sea otter inhabits nearshore environments, where it dives to the sea floor to forage. It preys mostly on marine invertebrates such as sea urchins, various molluscs and crustaceans, and some species of fish. Its foraging and eating habits are noteworthy in several respects. First, its use of rocks to dislodge prey and to open shells makes it one of the few mammal species to use tools. In most of its range, it is a keystone species, controlling sea urchin populations which would otherwise inflict extensive damage to kelp forest ecosystems. Its diet includes prey species that are also valued by humans as food, leading to conflicts between sea otters and fisheries.

Sea otters, whose numbers were once estimated at 150,000–300,000, were hunted extensively for their fur between 1741 and 1911, and the world population fell to 1,000–2,000 individuals living in a fraction of their historic range. A subsequent international ban on hunting, conservation efforts, and reintroduction programs into previously populated areas have contributed to numbers rebounding, and the species occupies about two-thirds of its former range. The recovery of the sea otter is considered an important success in marine conservation, although populations in the Aleutian Islands and California have recently declined or have plateaued at depressed levels. For these reasons, the sea otter remains classified as an endangered species.

Timeline of the 2014 Pacific hurricane season

The 2014 Pacific hurricane season was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. It officially began on May 15 in the eastern Pacific—defined as the region east of 140°W—and began on June 1 in the central Pacific, defined as the region west of 140°W to the International Date Line; both ended on November 30.

The season produced twenty-three tropical depressions. All but one further intensified into tropical storms and sixteen further intensified to become hurricanes, which broke the record holding the most number of hurricanes within the basin tied with the 1990 and 1992 seasons. The first named storm of the season, Amanda, developed on May 22 before intensifying into a hurricane on May 24. At 0300 UTC on May 25, it intensified into Category 3 on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale, becoming the second-earliest major hurricane on record, behind 2012's Hurricane Bud. At 1500 UTC, Amanda reached its peak intensity with winds of 155 mph (250 km/h), becoming the strongest May hurricane on record in the eastern Pacific. In mid-June, Hurricane Cristina intensified to become the earliest second major hurricane on the record in the East Pacific, beating the previous record set by Hurricane Darby in 2010. On August 24, Hurricane Marie became the first Category 5 Pacific hurricane since Hurricane Celia in 2010, and it was the sixth most intense Pacific hurricane on record in terms of minimum atmospheric pressure.This timeline includes information that was not operationally released, meaning that data from post-storm reviews by the National Hurricane Center, such as a storm that was not operationally warned upon, has been included. The timeline also documents tropical cyclone formations, strengthening, weakening, landfalls, extratropical transitions, and dissipations during the season.

Timeline of the 2017 Pacific hurricane season

The 2017 Pacific hurricane season was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation, in which tropical cyclones form in the eastern Pacific Ocean. The season officially started on May 15 in the eastern Pacific—east of 140°W—and on June 1 in the central Pacific—between the International Date Line and 140°W—and ended on November 30. These dates typically cover the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the eastern Pacific basin.Four time zones are utilized in the basin: Central for storms east of 106°W, Mountain between 114.9°W and 106°W, Pacific between 140°W and 115°W, and Hawaii–Aleutian for storms between the International Date Line and 140°W. However, for convenience, all information is listed by Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) first with the respective local time included in parentheses. This timeline includes information that was not operationally released, meaning that data from post-storm reviews by the National Hurricane Center is included. This timeline documents tropical cyclone formations, strengthening, weakening, landfalls, extratropical transitions, and dissipations during the season.

Tropical Storm Norma (1970)

Tropical Storm Norma was the fourteenth named tropical cyclone of the 1970 Pacific hurricane season. The storm formed off the coast of Mexico and intensified rapidly, peaking as a strong tropical storm on September 3 before starting a weakening trend which saw it dissipate before making landfall on Baja California.

While the storm never made landfall, the remnants from the storm fueled the Labor Day Storm of 1970, which caused floods in Arizona that resulted in heavy damage and loss of life. The rainfall from this storm broke records, mostly for 24-hour rainfall totals. Despite not being tropical when the damages were done, Norma is considered to be the deadliest system in Arizona history.

Vermilacinia howei

Vermilacinia howei is a fruticose lichen that grows on trees and shrubs in the fog regions along the Pacific Coast of North America in the coastal scrub region of the Channel Islands of California, and around Bahía de San Quintín, Baja California and further south in the Vizcaíno Desert. The epithet is in honor of Reginald Heber Howe, Jr. for his contributions to lichenology, especially acknowledged for providing images of the type (biology) specimens in his revision of the genus Ramalina.

Vermilacinia paleoderma

Vermilacinia paleoderma is a pale yellow-green fruticose lichen that occurs commonly along the fog zone of the Pacific Coast of Northern Vizcaíno Desert region of Baja Californica and occasionally in the Chaparral Islands of California.

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