Punjab

The Punjab (/pʌnˈdʒɑːb/ (listen), /-ˈdʒæb/, /ˈpʌndʒɑːb/, /-dʒæb/), also spelled Panjab (from Persian panj, "five" + āb, "water" or "river", thus land of "five rivers";[1]), is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India. The boundaries of the region are ill-defined and focus on historical accounts.

Until the Partition of Punjab in 1947, the British Punjab Province encompassed the present-day Indian states and union territories of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Chandigarh, and Delhi; and the Pakistani provinces of Punjab and Islamabad Capital Territory. It bordered the Balochistan and Pashtunistan regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, and Rajasthan and Sindh to the south. The Partition of Punjab divided the Land of the Five Rivers between India and Pakistan, yet, geographically, it stands as one indivisible unit.[2]

The people of the Punjab today are called Punjabis, and their principal language is Punjabi. The main religions of the Indian Punjab region are Sikhism and Hinduism. The main religion of the Pakistani Punjab region is Islam. Other religious groups are Christianity, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, and Ravidassia. The Punjab region has been inhabited by the Indus Valley Civilisation, Indo-Aryan peoples, and Indo-Scythians, and has seen numerous invasions by the Persians, Greeks, Kushans, Ghaznavids, Timurids, Mughals, Pashtuns, British, and others. Historic foreign invasions mainly targeted the most productive central region of the Punjab known as the Majha region,[3] which is also the bedrock of Punjabi culture and traditions.[4] The Punjab region is often referred to as the breadbasket in both India and Pakistan.[5][6][7]

Punjab
Region
Location of Punjab in south Asia
Location of Punjab in south Asia
Countries
  • India
  • Pakistan
Areassee below
Area
 • Total355,591 km2 (137,294 sq mi)
Demonym(s)Punjabi
Time zonesUTC+5 (PKT (Pakistan))
UTC+05:30 (IST (India))
Language(s)Punjabi and its dialects

Etymology

The region was originally called Sapta Sindhu,[8] the Vedic land of the seven rivers flowing into the ocean.[9]

The origin of the word Punjab can probably be traced to the Sanskrit "pancha-nada" (IAST: panca-nada), which literally means "five rivers", and is used as the name of a region in the Mahabharata.[10][11] The later name of the region, Punjab, is a compound of two Persian words,[1][12] Panj (five) and āb (water), introduced to the region by the Turko-Persian conquerors[13] of India, and more formally popularised during the Mughal Empire.[14][15] Punjab thus means "The Land of Five Waters", referring to the rivers Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, and Beas.[16] All are tributaries of the Indus River, the Sutlej being the largest.

The Greeks referred to the region as Pentapotamia.[17][18][19]

Political geography

There are two main definitions of the Punjab region: the 1947 definition and the older 1846–1849 definition. A third definition incorporates both the 1947 and the older definitions but also includes northern Rajasthan on a linguistic basis and ancient river movements.

1947 definition

The 1947 definition defines the Punjab region with reference to the dissolution of British India whereby the then British Punjab Province was partitioned between India and Pakistan. In Pakistan, the region now includes the Punjab province and Islamabad Capital Territory. In India, it includes the Punjab state, Chandigarh, Haryana,[20] and Himachal Pradesh.

Using the 1947 definition, the Punjab borders the Balochistan and Pashtunistan regions to the west, Kashmir to the north, the Hindi Belt to the east, and Rajasthan and Sindh to the south. Accordingly, the Punjab region is very diverse and stretches from the hills of the Kangra Valley to the plains and to the Cholistan Desert.

Present day maps

Punjab-Map

Punjab, Pakistan

Punjab district map 2014

Punjab, India, 2014

India Haryana map

Haryana, India

Map of Himachal Pradesh

Himachal Pradesh, India

Major cities

Night View of Badshahi Mosque (King’s Mosque)

Badshahi Mosque, Lahore

Golden Temple India

Golden Temple, Amritsar

Clock Tower Faisalabad by Usman Nadeem

Clock Tower, Faisalabad

Aerial view of Multan Ghanta Ghar chawk

Aerial view of Multan Ghanta Ghar chawk

Open Hand monument, Chandigarh

Open Hand monument, Chandigarh

Faisal Masjid21

Faisal Masjid (Margalla Hills)

Using the 1947 definition of the Punjab region, some of the major cities of the area include Lahore, Faisalabad and Ludhiana.

Older 1846–1849 definition

PunjabmapJDCunninghamHistoryoftheSikhs
The Punjab, 1849
Pope1880Panjab3
The Punjab, 1880

The older definition of the Punjab region focuses on the collapse of the Sikh Empire and the creation of the British Punjab province between 1846 and 1849. According to this definition, the Punjab region incorporates, in Pakistan, Azad Kashmir including Bhimber and Mirpur[21] and parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (especially Peshawar[22] known in the Punjab region as Pishore).[23] In India the wider definition includes parts of Delhi and Jammu Division.[24][25][26]

Using the older definition of the Punjab region, the Punjab region covers a large territory and can be divided into five natural areas:[1]

  • the eastern mountainous region including Jammu Division and Azad Kashmir;
  • the trans-Indus region including Peshawar;
  • the central plain with its five rivers;
  • the north-western region, separated from the central plain by the Salt Range between the Jhelum and the Indus rivers;
  • the semi-desert to the south of the Sutlej river.

The formation of the Himalayan Range of mountains to the east and north-east of the Punjab is the result of a collision between the north-moving Indo-Australian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. The plates are still moving together, and the Himalayas are rising by about 5 millimetres (0.2 in) per year.

The upper regions are snow-covered the whole year. Lower ranges of hills run parallel to the mountains. The Lower Himalayan Range runs from north of Rawalpindi through Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and further south. The mountains are relatively young, and are eroding rapidly. The Indus and the five rivers of the Punjab have their sources in the mountain range and carry loam, minerals and silt down to the rich alluvial plains, which consequently are very fertile.[27]

Major cities

According to the older definition, some of the major cities include Jammu, Peshawar and parts of Delhi.

Bahu Fort, Jammu, India

Bahu Fort, Jammu, India

Peshawar Museum

Peshawar Museum

Jama Masjid

Jama Masjid, Delhi

City-view.00

City view, Mirpur

Greater Punjab

The third definition of the Punjab region adds to the definitions cited above and includes parts of Rajasthan[28][29][30][31] on linguistic lines and takes into consideration the location of the Punjab rivers in ancient times. In particular, the Sri Ganganagar and Hanumangarh districts are included in the Punjab region.[32]

Anupgarh fort

Anupgarh fort in Anupgarh city

Hanumangarh Bhatner fort

Bhatner fort in Hanumangarh city

Climate

Himalayas, Punjab region
The snow-covered Himalayas

The climate is a factor contributing to the economy of the Punjab. It is not uniform over the whole region, with the sections adjacent to the Himalayas receiving heavier rainfall than those at a distance.[33]

There are three main seasons and two transitional periods. During the hot season from mid-April to the end of June, the temperature may reach 49 °C (120 °F). The monsoon season, from July to September, is a period of heavy rainfall, providing water for crops in addition to the supply from canals and irrigation systems. The transitional period after the monsoon is cool and mild, leading to the winter season, when the temperature in January falls to 5 °C (41 °F) at night and 12 °C (54 °F) by day. During the transitional period from winter to the hot season, sudden hailstorms and heavy showers may occur, causing damage to crops.[34]

History

Taxila Pakistan juillet 2004
Taxila in Pakistan is a World Heritage Site

The Punjab region of India and Pakistan has a historical and cultural link to Indo-Aryan peoples as well as partially to various indigenous communities. As a result of several invasions from Central Asia and the Middle East, many ethnic groups and religions make up the cultural heritage of the Punjab.

In prehistoric times, one of the earliest known cultures of South Asia, the Indus Valley civilisation was located in the region.

The epic battles described in the Mahabharata are described as being fought in what is now the State of Haryana and historic Punjab. The Gandharas, Kambojas, Trigartas, Andhra, Pauravas, Bahlikas (Bactrian settlers of the Punjab), Yaudheyas and others sided with the Kauravas in the great battle fought at Kurukshetra.[35] According to Dr Fauja Singh and Dr L. M. Joshi: "There is no doubt that the Kambojas, Daradas, Kaikayas, Andhra, Pauravas, Yaudheyas, Malavas, Saindhavas and Kurus had jointly contributed to the heroic tradition and composite culture of ancient Punjab".[36]

MenandrosCoin
Menander I Soter (165/155 –130 BCE), conqueror of the Punjab, carved out a Greek kingdom in the Punjab and ruled the Punjab until his death in 130 BC.[37][38]

In 326 BCE, Alexander the Great invaded Pauravas and defeated King Porus. His armies entered the region via the Hindu Kush in northwest Pakistan and his rule extended up to the city of Sagala (present-day Sialkot in northeast Pakistan). In 305 BCE the area was ruled by the Maurya Empire. In a long line of succeeding rulers of the area, Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka stand out as the most renowned. The Maurya presence in the area was then consolidated in the Indo-Greek Kingdom in 180 BCE. Menander I Soter "The Saviour" (known as Milinda in Indian sources) is the most renowned leader of the era, he conquered the Punjab and made Sagala the capital of his Empire.[37] Menander carved out a Greek kingdom in the Punjab and ruled the region till his death in 130 BCE.[38] The neighbouring Seleucid Empire rule came to an end around 12 BCE, after several invasions by the Yuezhi and the Scythian people.

In 711–713 CE, the 18-year-old Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim of Taif, a city in what is now Saudi Arabia, came by way of the Arabian Sea with Arab troops to defeat Raja Dahir. Bin Qasim then led his troops to conquer the Sindh and Punjab regions for the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate, making him the first to bring Islam to the region.

July 9 2005 - The Lahore Fort-Pavillion adjacent to the Shish Mahal
A section of the Lahore Fort built by the Mughal emperor Akbar

During the establishment and consolidation of the Muslim Turkic Mughal Empire prosperity, growth, and relative peace were established, particularly under the reign of Jahangir. Muslim empires ruled the Punjab for approximately 1,000 years. The period was also notable for the emergence of Guru Nanak (1469–1539), the founder of Sikhism.

The Afghan forces of Durrani Empire also known as Afghan Empire under the command of Ahmad Shah Durrani entered Punjab in 1749, and captured Punjab, with Lahore being governed by Pashtuns, and Kashmir regions. In 1758, Punjab came under the rule of Marathas, who captured the region by defeating the Afghan forces of Ahmad Shah Abdali. Following Third Battle of Panipat against Marathas, Durranis reconsolidated it's power and dominion over Punjab, Kashmir regions. Abdali's Indian invasion weakened the Maratha influence. After the death of Ahmad Shah, the Punjab was freed from the Afghan rule by Sikhs for a brief period between 1773 and 1818. At the time of the formation of the Dal Khalsa in 1748 at Amritsar, the Punjab had been divided into 36 areas and 12 separate Sikh principalities, called misl. From this point onward, the beginnings of a Punjabi Sikh Empire emerged. Out of the 36 areas, 22 were united by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. The other 14 accepted British sovereignty. After Ranjit Singh's death, assassinations and internal divisions severely weakened the empire. Six years later the British East India Company was given an excuse to declare war, and in 1849, after two Anglo-Sikh wars, the Punjab was annexed by the British.

In the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the Sikh rulers backed the East India Company, providing troops and support,[39] but in Jhelum 35 British soldiers of HM XXIV regiment were killed by the local resistance, and in Ludhiana a rebellion was crushed with the assistance of the Punjab chiefs of Nabha and Malerkotla.

The British Raj had political, cultural, philosophical, and literary consequences in the Punjab, including the establishment of a new system of education. During the independence movement, many Punjabis played a significant role, including Madan Lal Dhingra, Sukhdev Thapar, Ajit Singh Sandhu, Bhagat Singh, Udham Singh, Kartar Singh Sarabha, Bhai Parmanand, Muhammad Iqbal, Chaudhary Rehmat Ali, and Lala Lajpat Rai.

At the time of partition in 1947, the province was split into East and West Punjab. East Punjab (48%) became part of India, while West Punjab (52%) became part of Pakistan.[40] The Punjab bore the brunt of the civil unrest following the end of the British Raj, with casualties estimated to be in the millions.

Timeline

People

Major ethnic groups of Pakistan in 1980 borders removed
Ethnic Punjabis in Pakistan

Ethnic background

Punjabi Folk dance Gaidda Boliya and Bhangara 28
Punjabi Folk dance

Ethnic ancestries of modern Punjabis include a mixture of Indo-Aryan and Indo-Scythian. Semitic ancestries can also be found in lesser numbers. With the advent of Islam, settlers from Turkestan, Afghanistan, and Kashmir have also integrated into the Muslim Punjabi society. However, the majority of Punjab is still made up of the Arains, Dalits, Gujjars, Jats, Khatris, Tarkhans, Brahmins, Bhats, Awans, Kambojs, Rajputs Sainis, Kumhars, and others. In the past, the most densely populated area has been the Majha region of Punjab.

Languages

Dialects Of Punjabi
Dialects of Punjabi

The major language spoken in the Punjab is Punjabi. In the Indian Punjab this is written in the Gurmukhi script. Pakistan uses the Shahmukhi script, that is closer to Urdu script. Hindi, written in the Devanagri script, is used widely in the Indian states of Himanchal Pradesh and Haryana. Several dialects of Punjabi are spoken in the different regions. The Majhi dialect is considered to be textbook Punjabi and is shared by both countries.

Religions

The vast majority of Pakistani Punjabis are Sunni Muslim by faith, but also include large minority faiths mostly Shia Muslim, Ahmadis and Christians. Sikhism, founded by Guru Nanak is the main religion practised in the post-1966 Indian Punjab state. About 57.7% of the population of Punjab state is Sikh, 38.5% is Hindu, and the rest are Muslims, Christians, and Jains.[41] Punjab state contains the holy Sikh cities of Amritsar, Anandpur Sahib, Tarn Taran Sahib, Fatehgarh Sahib and Chamkaur Sahib.

The Indian states of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh are mostly Hindu-majority.

The Punjab was home to several Sufi saints, and Sufism is well established in the region.[42] Also, Kirpal Singh revered the Sikh Gurus as saints.[43]

Population trends for major religious groups in the Punjab Province of British India (1881–1941)[44]
Religious
group
Population
% 1881
Population
% 1891
Population
% 1901
Population
% 1911
Population
% 1921
Population
% 1931
Population
% 1941
Islam 47.6% 47.8% 49.6% 51.1% 51.1% 52.4% 53.2%
Hinduism 43.8% 43.6% 41.3% 35.8% 35.1% 30.2% 29.1%
Sikhism 8.2% 8.2% 8.6% 12.1% 12.4% 14.3% 14.9%
Christianity 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.8% 1.3% 1.5% 1.5%
Other religions / No religion 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 1.6% 1.3%

Religion in Punjab Region (2011)[45]

  Islam (64.8%)
  Hinduism (19.05%)
  Sikhism (15.4%)
  Others (0.75%)

Punjabi festivals

Punjabis celebrate the following cultural, seasonal and religious festivals:

Punjabi clothing

Traditional Punjabi clothing includes the following:

Economy

Patiala Phulkari
Phulkari embroidery from Patiala

The historical region of Punjab is considered to be one of the most fertile regions on Earth. Both east and west Punjab produce a relatively high proportion of India and Pakistan's food output respectively.

The region has been used for extensive wheat farming, in addition rice, cotton, sugarcane, fruit, and vegetables are also grown.

The agricultural output of the Punjab region in Pakistan contributes significantly to Pakistan's GDP. Both Indian and Pakistani Punjab are considered to have the best infrastructure of their respective countries. Indian Punjab has been estimated to be the second richest state in India.[46] Pakistani Punjab produces 68% of Pakistan's food grain production.[47] Its share of Pakistan's GDP has historically ranged from 51.8% to 54.7%.[48]

Called "The Granary of India" or "The Bread Basket of India", Indian Punjab produces 1% of the world's rice, 2% of its wheat, and 2% of its cotton.[49] In 2001, it was recorded that farmers made up 39% of Indian Punjab's workforce.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c H K Manmohan Siṅgh. "The Punjab". The Encyclopedia of Sikhism, Editor-in-Chief Harbans Singh. Punjabi University, Patiala. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
  2. ^ Singh, Mohinder (1988). History and Culture of Panjab. Atlantic Publishers & Distri.
  3. ^ Jatiinder Aulakh. Archaeological History of Majha: Research Book about Archaeology and Mythology with Rare Photograph. Createspace Independent Pub, 2014
  4. ^ Arrain, Anabasis, V.22, p.115
  5. ^ "Punjab, bread basket of India, hungers for change". Reuters. 30 January 2012.
  6. ^ "Columbia Water Center Released New Whitepaper: "Restoring Groundwater in Punjab, India's Breadbasket" – Columbia Water Center". Water.columbia.edu. 7 March 2012. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
  7. ^ "Pakistan flood: Sindh braces as water envelops southern Punjab". Guardian. 6 August 2010. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  8. ^ D. R. Bhandarkar, 1989, Some Aspects of Ancient Indian Culture: Sir WIlliam Meyers Lectures, 1938–39, Asia Educational Services, p. 2.
  9. ^ A.S. valdiya, "River Sarasvati was a Himalayn-born river", Current Science, vol 104, no.01, ISSN 0011-3891.
  10. ^ Kenneth Pletcher, ed. (2010). The Geography of India: Sacred and Historic Places. Britannica Educational Publishing. p. 199. ISBN 978-1-61530-202-4. The word's origin can perhaps be traced to panca nada, Sanskrit for “five rivers” and the name of a region mentioned in the ancient epic the Mahabharata.
  11. ^ Rajesh Bala (2005). "Foreign Invasions and their Effect on Punjab". In Sukhdial Singh (ed.). Punjab History Conference, Thirty-seventh Session, March 18-20, 2005: Proceedings. Punjabi University. p. 80. ISBN 978-81-7380-990-3. The word Punjab is a compound of two words-Panj (Five) and aab (Water), thus signifying the land of five watrers or rivers. This origin can perhaps be traced to panch nada, Sanskrit for 'Five rivers' the word used before the advent of Muslims with a knowledge of Persian to describe the meeting point of the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej rivers, before they joined the Indus.
  12. ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (2013). Punjab: A History from Aurangzeb to Mountbatten. New Delhi, India, Urbana, Illinois: Aleph Book Company. p. 1 ("Introduction"). ISBN 978-93-83064-41-0.
  13. ^ Canfield, Robert L. (1991). Turko-Persia in Historical Perspective. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 1 ("Origins"). ISBN 978-0-521-52291-5.
  14. ^ Gandhi, Rajmohan (2013). Punjab: A History from Aurangzeb to Mountbatten. New Delhi, India, Urbana, Illinois: Aleph Book Company. ISBN 978-93-83064-41-0.
  15. ^ Shimmel, Annemarie (2004). The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture. London, United Kingdom: Reaktion Books Ltd. ISBN 1-86189-1857.
  16. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed., vol. 20, Punjab, p.107
  17. ^ Lassen, Christian (1827). Commentatio Geographica atque Historica de Pentapotamia Indica [A Geographical and Historical Commentary on Indian Pentapotamia]. Weber. p. 4. Pars ea indiae, quam hodie Persico nomine Penjab vocamus, lingua Indorum sacra Panchanada appellatur; utrumque nomen Graece reddi potest per Πενταποταμια. Prioris nominis origo Persica haud est dubia, quanquam vocabula, ex quibus est compositum, aeque Indica sunt ac Persica ... At vero postremum hoc vocabulum ab Indis nunquam, quod sciam, in nominibus propriis hunc in modium componendis usurpatur; nomina contra Persica exstant permulta, quae vocabulo isto terminantur, ex. gr. Doab, Nilab, alia. Unde probabile fit, Penjabi nomen, quod hodie in omnibus libris geographicis obtinet, recentioris esse originis atque regibus Indiae Moslemiticis, quibus maxime in usu fuit lingua Persica, tribuendum. Nomen Panchanada Indicum esse priscum et genuinum, inde patet, quod in Rameïde et Bharatea, carminibus Indorum antiquissimis, iam legitur, nec praeter hoc aliud apud Indos exstat; Panchála enim, quod per Penjab reddunt interpretes Rameïdos Angli ... nomen est alius regionis, a Pentapotamia prorsus diversae, ut infra videbimus.
    That part of India which today we call by the Persian name Penjab is named Panchanada in the sacred language of the Indians; either of which names may be rendered in Greek by Πενταποταμια. The Persian origin of the former name is not at all in doubt, although the words of which it is composed are both Indian and Persian ... But, in truth, that final word is never, to my knowledge, used by the Indians in proper names compounded in this way; on the other hand, there exist multiple Persian names which end with that word, e.g., Doab and Nilab. Therefore it is probable that the name Penjab, which is today found in all geographical books, is of more recent origin and is to be attributed to the Muslim kings of India, among whom the Persian language was mostly in use. That the Indian name Panchanada is ancient and genuine is evident from the fact that it is already seen in the Ramayana and Mahabharata, the most ancient Indian poems, and that no other exists in addition to it among the Indians; for Panchála, which English translations of the Ramayana render with Penjab, ... is the name of another region, entirely distinct from Pentapotamia, as we shall see below.
  18. ^ Latif, Syad Muhammad (1891). History of the Panjáb from the Remotest Antiquity to the Present Time. Calcultta Central Press Company. p. 1. The Panjáb, the Pentapotamia of the Greek historians, the north-western region of the empire of Hindostán, derives its name from two Persian words, panj (five), an áb (water, having reference to the five rivers which confer on the country its distinguishing features."
  19. ^ Khalid, Kanwal (2015). "Lahore of Pre Historic Era" (PDF). Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan. 52 (2): 73. The earliest mention of five rivers in the collective sense was found in Yajurveda and a word Panchananda was used, which is a Sanskrit word to describe a land where five rivers meet. [...] In the later period the word Pentapotamia was used by the Greeks to identify this land. (Penta means 5 and potamia, water ___ the land of five rivers) Muslim Historians implied the word "Punjab " for this region. Again it was not a new word because in Persian speaking areas, there are references of this name given to any particular place where five rivers or lakes meet.
  20. ^ Darpan, Pratiyogita (1 October 2009). "Pratiyogita Darpan". Pratiyogita Darpan. Archived from the original on 20 September 2016 – via Google Books.
  21. ^ History of Panjab Hill States, Hutchison, Vogel 1933 Mirpur was made a part of Jammu and Kashmir in 1846
  22. ^ Changes in the Socio-economic Structures in Rural North-West Pakistan By Mohammad Asif Khan [1] Archived 14 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine Peshawar was separated from Punjab Province in 1901.
  23. ^ Nadiem, Ihsan H. (2007). Peshawar: heritage, history, monuments. Sang-e-Meel Publications. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
  24. ^ "Jammu and Kashmir". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 10 March 2016.
  25. ^ "Epilogue, Vol 4, Issue 11". Archived from the original on 4 February 2016.
  26. ^ Pritam Singh Gill (1978). History of Sikh nation: foundation, assassination, resurrection. University of Michigan: New Academic Pub. Co. p. 380.
  27. ^ G. S. Gosal. "Physical Geography of the Punjab" (PDF). University of California, Santa Barbara. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 June 2012. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  28. ^ The Times Atlas of the World, Concise Edition. London: Times Books. 1995. p. 36. ISBN 0 7230 0718 7.
  29. ^ Grewal, J S (2004). Historical Geography of the Punjab (PDF). Punjab Research Group, Volume 11, No 1. Journal of Punjab Studies. pp. 4, 7, 11. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 December 2012.
  30. ^ see the Punjab Doabs
  31. ^ Pritam Singh and Shinder S. Thandi, ed. (1996). Globalisation and the region: explorations in Punjabi identity. Coventry Association for Punjab Studies, Coventry University. p. 361.
  32. ^ Balder Raj Nayat (1966). Minority Politics in the Punjab. Archived from the original on 5 February 2016. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
  33. ^ Maps of India, Climate of Punjab Archived 30 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ Royal Geographical Society Climate and Landscape of the Punjab Archived 30 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  35. ^ Buddha Parkash, Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Panjab, p 36.
  36. ^ History of Panjab, Vol I, p. 4, Dr L. M. Joshi, Dr Fauja Singh.
  37. ^ a b Hazel, John (2013). Who's Who in the Greek World. Routledge. p. 155. ISBN 9781134802241. Menander king in India, known locally as Milinda, born at a village named Kalasi near Alasanda (Alexandria-in-the-Caucasus), and who was himself the son of a king. After conquering the Punjab, where he made Sagala his capital, he made an expedition across northern India and visited Patna, the capital of the Mauraya empire, though he did not succeed in conquering this land as he appears to have been overtaken by wars on the north-west frontier with Eucratides.
  38. ^ a b Ahir, D. C. (1971). Buddhism in the Punjab, Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh. Maha Bodhi Society of India. p. 31. OCLC 1288206. Demetrius died in 166 B.C., and Apollodotus, who was a near relation of the King died in 161 B.C. After his death, Menander carved out a kingdom in the Punjab. Thus from 161 B.C. onward Menander was the ruler of Punjab till his death in 145 B.C. or 130 B.C.
  39. ^ Ganda Singh (August 2004). "The Truth about the Indian Mutiny". Sikh Spectrum. Archived from the original on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  40. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 February 2016. Retrieved 11 February 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link). Daily Times (10 May 2012). Retrieved 12 July 2013.
  41. ^ "Census Reference Tables, C-Series Population by religious communities". Census of India. 2001. Archived from the original on 1 July 2010. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  42. ^ "Sufi Saints of the Punjab". Punjabics.com. Archived from the original on 30 December 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  43. ^ Kirpal Singh, Sant. "The Punjab – Home of Master Saints". Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  44. ^ Gopal Krishan. "Demography of the Punjab (1849–1947)" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  45. ^ "Population by religion community – 2011". Census of India, 2011. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015.
  46. ^ "Punjab second richest state in country: CII", The Times of India, 8 April 2004.
  47. ^ Pakistani government statistics Archived 8 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 14 April 2007.
  48. ^ Provincial Accounts of Pakistan: Methodology and Estimates 1973–2000 Template:Date=June 2016
  49. ^ Yadav, Kiran (11 February 2013). "Punjab". Agropedia. Archived from the original on 6 March 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2013.

Further reading

  • Narang, K.S.; Gupta, Dr H.R. (1969). History of the Punjab 1500–1858 (PDF). U. C. Kapur & Sons, Delhi. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  • [Quraishee 73] Punjabi Adab De Kahani, Abdul Hafeez Quaraihee, Azeez Book Depot, Lahore, 1973.
  • [Chopra 77] Punjab as a Sovereign State, Gulshan Lal Chopra, Al-Biruni, Lahore, 1977.
  • Patwant Singh. 1999. The Sikhs. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-50206-0.
  • The Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Panjab, 1971, Buddha Parkash.
  • Social and Political Movements in ancient Panjab, Delhi, 1962, Buddha Parkash.
  • History of Porus, Patiala, Buddha Parkash.
  • History of the Panjab, Patiala, 1976, Fauja Singh, L. M. Joshi (Ed).
  • The Legacy of the Punjab, 1997, R. M. Chopra.
  • The Rise Growth and Decline of Indo-Persian Literature, R. M. Chopra, 2012, Iran Culture House, New Delhi. 2nd revised edition, published in 2013.
  • Sims, Holly. "The State and Agricultural Productivity: Continuity versus Change in the Indian and Pakistani Punjabs." Asian Survey, 1 April 1986, Vol. 26(4), pp. 483–500.

External links

Coordinates: 31°N 74°E / 31°N 74°E

Amritsar

Amritsar (Punjabi: [əmːˈɾɪtsəɾ] (listen)), historically also known as Rāmdāspur and colloquially as Ambarsar, is a city in northwestern India which is the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar district and is located in the Majha region of the Indian state of Punjab.

According to the 2011 census, the population of Amritsar was 1,132,761. It is one of ten Municipal Corporations in the state and Karamjit Singh Rintu is the current mayor of the city. The city is situated 217 km (135 mi) northwest of state capital Chandigarh and 455 km (283 miles) northwest of New Delhi, the national capital. It is near Pakistan, with the Wagah Border being only 28 km (17.4 mi) away.

Amritsar has been chosen as one of the heritage cities for HRIDAY - Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme of Government of India. Amritsar is home to the Harmandir Sahib, popularly known as "the Golden Temple," one of Sikhism's most spiritually significant and most-visited gurudwaras. The city is also known for its wooden chessboards and chess pieces manufacturing industry.

Chandigarh

Chandigarh (local pronunciation: [tʃə̃ˈɖiːɡəɽʱ] (listen)) is a city and a union territory in India that serves as the capital of the two neighbouring states of Punjab and Haryana. The city is unique as it is not a part of either of the two states but is governed directly by the Union Government, which administers all such territories in the country.

Chandigarh is bordered by the state of Punjab to the north, the west and the south, and by the state of Haryana to the east. It is considered to be a part of the Chandigarh capital region or Greater Chandigarh, which includes Chandigarh, and the city of Panchkula (in Haryana) and cities of Kharar, Kurali, Mohali, Zirakpur (in Punjab). It is located 260 km (162 miles) north of New Delhi, 229 km (143 miles) southeast of Amritsar.

It was one of the early planned cities in post-independent India and is internationally known for its architecture and urban design. The master plan of the city was prepared by Swiss-French architect Le Corbusier, which transformed from earlier plans created by the Polish architect Maciej Nowicki and the American planner Albert Mayer. Most of the government buildings and housing in the city were designed by the Chandigarh Capital Project Team headed by Le Corbusier, Jane Drew and Maxwell Fry. In 2015, an article published by BBC named Chandigarh as one of the few master-planned cities in the world to have succeeded in terms of combining monumental architecture, cultural growth and modernisation.Chandigarh's Capitol Complex was in July 2016 declared by UNESCO as World Heritage at the 40th session of World Heritage Conference held in Istanbul. UNESCO inscription was under "The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier an outstanding contribution to the Modern Movement". The Capitol Complex buildings include the Punjab and Haryana High Court, Punjab and Haryana Secretariat and Punjab and Haryana Assembly along with monuments Open hand, Martyrs Memorial, Geometric Hill and Tower of Shadow and the Rock Garden

The city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the country. The city was reported to be one of the cleanest in India based on a national government study. The union territory also heads the list of Indian states and territories according to Human Development Index. In 2015, a survey by LG Electronics, ranked it as the happiest city in India over the happiness index. The metropolitan area of Chandigarh–Mohali–Panchkula collectively forms a Tri-city, with a combined population of over 1,611,770.

Diljit Dosanjh

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Diljit Dosanjh (born 6 January 1984) is an Indian singer, actor, television presenter and social media celebrity who works in Punjabi and Hindi cinema. He is recognised as one of the leading artists in the Indian music industry. He also acts in Punjabi movies, with many of them being notable hits, including Jatt & Juliet, Jatt & Juliet 2, Punjab 1984, Sardaar Ji, Ambarsariya, Sardaar Ji 2, Super Singh, Soorma, Sajjan Singh Rangroot and Shadaa – which are among the most successful Punjabi movies in history. His first recorded mainstream performance was his solo track and music video Ishq Da Uda Ada from his 2004 album produced by Finetone Cassettes. He made his Bollywood debut with Udta Punjab in 2016 for which he earned the Filmfare Award for Best Male Debut. He mostly works with White Hill Productions. He is also a judge in Rising Star.

Jallianwala Bagh massacre

The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar massacre, took place on 13 April 1919 when troops of the British Indian Army under the command of Acting Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer fired rifles into a crowd of unarmed Indian civilians who had gathered in Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, Punjab. The civilians had assembled for a peaceful protest to condemn the arrest and deportation of two national leaders, Satya Pal and Saifuddin Kitchlew, and to honour the Sikh festival of Baisakhi.

The Jallianwalla Bagh is a public garden of 6 to 7 acres (2.8 ha), walled on all sides, with five entrances.On Sunday, 13 April 1919, Dyer was convinced of a major insurrection and he banned all meetings; however this notice was not widely disseminated. This was the day of Baisakhi, an important Sikh festival, and many villagers had gathered in the Bagh to celebrate. On hearing that a meeting had assembled at Jallianwala Bagh, Dyer went with troops from the British Indian Army. Dyer and his troops entered the garden, blocking the main entrance behind them, took up position on a raised bank, and on Dyer's orders opened fire on the crowd for about ten minutes, directing their bullets largely towards the few open gates through which people were trying to flee, until the ammunition supply was almost exhausted. The following day Dyer stated in a report to the General Officer Commanding that "I hear that between 200 and 300 of the crowd were killed. My party fired 1,650 rounds", a number apparently derived by counting empty cartridge cases picked up by the troops afterwards. The Hunter Commission report on the incident, published the following year by the Government of India, criticised both Dyer and the Government of the Punjab for failing to compile a casualty count, so quoted a figure offered by the Sewa Samati (a Social Services Society) of 379 identified dead, with approximately 1,100 wounded, of which 192 were seriously injured. The casualty number estimated by the Indian National Congress was more than 1,500 injured, with approximately 1,000 dead.

This "brutality stunned the entire nation", resulting in a "wrenching loss of faith" of the general Indian public in the intentions of the UK. The ineffective inquiry, together with the initial accolades for Dyer by the House of Lords, fuelled great widespread anger against the British among the Indian populace, later leading to the Non-cooperation Movement of 1920–22.Dyer was initially lauded for his actions in Britain and became a hero among many of the people who were directly benefiting from the British Raj, for example, members of the House of Lords. However he was widely criticised in the House of Commons and in July 1920 a committee of investigation set up by the British Parliament censured him. No penal or strict disciplinary action could be given because his actions had been approved of by his military superiors, but he was disciplined by being removed from his current appointment, turned down for a proposed promotion, and barred from further employment in India. This forced him to retire from the army, and he returned to England, where he died in 1927.Eminent author Rudyard Kipling declared at the time that Dyer "did his duty as he saw it". This incident shocked Rabindranath Tagore (the first Asian Nobel laureate) to such extent that he stated that "such mass murderers aren't worthy of giving any title to anyone". The massacre, some historians have argued, caused a re-evaluation by the British Army of its military role, in which the new policy became minimal force whenever possible; however, later British actions during the Mau Mau insurgencies in Kenya have led Huw Bennett to question this school of thought. The army was retrained and developed less violent tactics for crowd control. Some historians consider the episode a decisive step towards the end of British rule in India.

Khalistan movement

The Khalistan movement is a Sikh separatist movement, which seeks to create a separate country called Khalistān ("The Land of the Khalsa") in the Punjab region to serve as a homeland for Sikhs. The territorial definition of the proposed country Khalistan consists of Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, and Rajasthan.The Khalistan movement began as an expatriate venture. In 1971, the first explicit call for Khalistan was made in an advertisement published in The New York Times by an expat Jagjit Singh Chohan. With financial and political support of the Sikh diaspora the movement flourished in the Indian state of Punjab, which has a Sikh-majority population and reached its zenith in the late 1970s and 1980s, when the secessionist movement caused large-scale violence among the local population including assassination of PM Indira Gandhi and bombing of Air India plane killing 328 passengers. Various pro-Khalistan outfits have been involved in a separatist movement against the Government of India ever since. In the 1990s the insurgency petered out, and the movement failed to reach its objective due to multiple reasons including a heavy police crackdown on separatists, divisions among the Sikhs and loss of support from the Sikh population. The extremist violence had started with targeting of the Nirankaris and followed by attack on the government machinery and the Hindus. Ultimately the Sikhs also targeted other Sikhs with opposing viewpoints. This led to further loss of public support and the militants were eventually brought under control of law enforcement agencies by 1993.In early 2018, some militant groups were arrested by police in Punjab. Chief Minister of Punjab Amarinder Singh claimed the recent extremism is backed by Pakistan's ISI and "Khalistani sympathisers" in Canada, Italy, and the UK. There is some support from fringe groups abroad, especially in Canada but the Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau has declared that his country would not support the revival of the separatist movement.

Kings XI Punjab

The Kings XI Punjab (KXIP) are a franchise cricket team based in Mohali (Chandigarh CR), Punjab, that plays in the Indian Premier League. Established in 2008, the franchise is jointly owned by Bollywood actress Preity Zinta, Ness Wadia, Mohit Burman and Karan Paul. The team plays its home matches at the PCA Stadium, Mohali. Since the 2010 IPL, they have been playing some of their home games at either Dharamsala or Indore.

The Kings XI Punjab's catchment areas are Kashmir, Jammu, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana, also evident from the letter sequence "K J H P H" in the banner of the team's logo. Apart from the 2014 season when they topped the league table and finished runners-up, the team has made only one other playoffs appearance in 11 seasons.

Lahore

Lahore (; Punjabi: لہور; Urdu: لاہور‎) is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab. Lahore is the country's second-most populous city after Karachi and is one of Pakistan's wealthiest cities, with an estimated GDP of $58.14 billion (PPP) as of 2015. Lahore is the largest city, and historic cultural centre of the Punjab region, and one of Pakistan's most socially liberal, progressive, and cosmopolitan cities.Lahore's origins reach into antiquity. The city has been controlled by numerous empires throughout the course of its history, including the Hindu Shahis, Ghaznavids, Ghurids, and Delhi Sultanate by the medieval era. Lahore reached the height of its splendour under the Mughal Empire between the late 16th and early 18th century, and served as its capital city for a number of years. The city was captured by the forces of the Afsharid ruler Nader Shah in 1739, and fell into a period of decay while being contested between the Afghans and the Sikhs. Lahore eventually became capital of the Sikh Empire in the early 19th century, and regained much of its lost grandeur. Lahore was then annexed to the British Empire, and made capital of British Punjab. Lahore was central to the independence movements of both India and Pakistan, with the city being the site of both the declaration of Indian Independence, and the resolution calling for the establishment of Pakistan. Lahore experienced some of the worst rioting during the Partition period preceding Pakistan's independence. Following independence in 1947, Lahore was declared capital of Pakistan's Punjab province.

Lahore exerts a strong cultural influence over Pakistan. Lahore is a major center for Pakistan's publishing industry, and remains the foremost center of Pakistan's literary scene. The city is also a major centre of education in Pakistan, with some of Pakistan's leading universities based in the city. Lahore is also home to Pakistan's film industry, Lollywood, and is a major centre of Qawwali music. The city also hosts much of Pakistan's tourist industry, with major attractions including the Walled City, the famous Badshahi and Wazir Khan mosques and Sikh shrines. Lahore is also home to the Lahore Fort and Shalimar Gardens, both of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Lala Lajpat Rai

Lala Lajpat Rai pronunciation , (28 January 1865 – 17 November 1928) was an Indian freedom fighter. He played a pivotal role in the Indian Independence movement. He was popularly known as Punjab Kesari. He was one third of the Lal Bal Pal triumvirate. He was also associated with activities of Punjab National Bank and Lakshmi Insurance Company in their early stages in 1894.

Partition of India

The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan. The Dominion of India is today the Republic of India and Dominion of Pakistan, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the People's Republic of Bangladesh. The partition involved the division of two provinces, Bengal and the Punjab, based on district-wise Hindu or Muslim majorities. It also involved the division of the British Indian Army, the Royal Indian Navy, the Indian Civil Service, the railways, and the central treasury, between the two new dominions. The partition was set forth in the Indian Independence Act 1947 and resulted in the dissolution of the British Raj, or Crown rule in India. The two self-governing countries of India and Pakistan legally came into existence at midnight on 14–15 August 1947.

The partition displaced between 10 and 12 million people along religious lines, creating overwhelming refugee crises in the newly constituted dominions; there was large-scale violence, with estimates of loss of life accompanying or preceding the partition disputed and varying between several hundred thousand and two million. The violent nature of the partition created an atmosphere of hostility and suspicion between India and Pakistan that plagues their relationship to the present.

The term partition of India does not cover the secession of Bangladesh from Pakistan in 1971, nor the earlier separations of Burma (now Myanmar) and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) from the administration of British India. The term also does not cover the political integration of princely states into the two new dominions, nor the disputes of annexation or division arising in the princely states of Hyderabad, Junagadh, and Jammu and Kashmir, though violence along religious lines did break out in some princely states at the time of the partition. It does not cover the incorporation of the enclaves of French India into India during the period 1947–1954, nor the annexation of Goa and other districts of Portuguese India by India in 1961. Other contemporaneous political entities in the region in 1947, Sikkim, Bhutan, Nepal, and The Maldives were unaffected by the partition.

Punjab, India

Punjab ( (listen)) is a state in northern India. Forming part of the larger Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, the state is bordered by the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir to the north, Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana to the south and southeast, Rajasthan to the southwest, and the Pakistani province of Punjab to the west. The state covers an area of 50,362 square kilometres, 1.53% of India's total geographical area. It is the 20th-largest Indian state by area. With 27,704,236 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Punjab is the 16th-largest state by population, comprising 22 districts. Punjabi is the most widely spoken and official language of the state. The main ethnic group are the Punjabis, with Sikhs (58%) forming the demographic majority. The state capital is Chandigarh, a Union Territory and also the capital of the neighbouring state of Haryana. The five tributary rivers of the Indus River from which the region took its name are Sutlej, Ravi, Beas, Chenab and Jhelum Rivers; Sutlej, Ravi and Beas are part of the Indian Punjab.

The history of Punjab has witnessed the migration and settlement of innumerable races, forming a melting pot of Punjabi civilization. The first traces of human habitation in India were found in the Punjab region. The Indus Valley Civilization flourished in antiquity before recorded history until their decline around 1900 BCE. The Punjab has had numerous recorded invasions, starting with the Vedic tribes. Punjab was enriched during the height of the Vedic period, but declined in predominance with the rise of the Mahajanapadas. The region formed the frontier of initial empires during antiquity including the Achaemenid, Alexander's, Seleucid, and Maurya Empires. After the fall of the Maurya Empire, the region was splintered into multiple kingdoms and republics. Punjab was subsequently conquered by the Kushan Empire, Gupta Empire, and then Harsha's Empire. Punjab continued to be settled by nomadic people; including the Huna, Turkic and the Mongols. Circa 1000, the Punjab was invaded by Muslims and was part of the Delhi Sultanate, Mughal Empire, and Durrani Empire. Sikhism originated in Punjab and resulted in the formation of the Sikh Confederacy after the fall of the Mughal Empire and ensuing conflict with the Durrani Empire. This confederacy was united into the Sikh Empire by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Greater Punjab region was annexed by the British East India Company from the Sikh Empire in 1849. In 1947, the Punjab Province of British India was divided along religious lines into West Punjab and East Punjab. The western part was assimilated into the new country of Pakistan while the east stayed in India. The Indian Punjab as well as PEPSU was divided into three parts on the basis of language in 1966. Haryanvi-speaking areas (a dialect of Hindi) were carved out as Haryana, while the hilly regions and Pahari-speaking areas formed Himachal Pradesh, alongside the current state of Punjab. Punjab's government has three branches – executive, judiciary and legislative. Punjab follows the parliamentary system of government with the Chief Minister as the head of the state.

The economy of Punjab is the 14th-largest state economy in India with ₹5.18 lakh crore (US$75 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹153,000 (US$2,200). Punjab has the third highest ranking among Indian states in human development index. Punjab is primarily agriculture-based due to the presence of abundant water sources and fertile soils. Other major industries include the manufacturing of scientific instruments, agricultural goods, electrical goods, financial services, machine tools, textiles, sewing machines, sports goods, starch, tourism, fertilisers, bicycles, garments, and the processing of pine oil and sugar. Minerals and energy resources also contribute to Punjab's economy to a much lesser extent. Punjab has the largest number of steel rolling mill plants in India, which are in "Steel Town"—Mandi Gobindgarh in the Fatehgarh Sahib district.

Punjab, Pakistan

Punjab (Urdu, Punjabi: پنجاب, panj-āb, "five waters": listen ) is Pakistan's second largest province by area, after Balochistan, and it is the most populated province, with an estimated population of 110,012,442 as of 2017. Forming the bulk of the transnational Punjab region, it is bordered by the Pakistan provinces of Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the enclave of Islamabad, and Azad Kashmir. It also shares borders with the Indian states of Punjab, Rajasthan and Jammu and Kashmir. The provincial capital of Punjab is the city of Lahore, a cultural, historical, economic and cosmopolitan centre of Pakistan where the country's cinema industry, and much of its fashion industry, are based.Punjab has been inhabited since ancient times. The Indus Valley Civilization, dating to 2600 BCE, was first discovered at Harappa. Punjab features heavily in the Hindu epic poem, the Mahabharata, and is home to Taxila, site of what is considered by many to be the oldest university in the world. In 326 BCE, Alexander the Great defeated King Porus at the Battle of the Hydaspes near Mong, Punjab. The Umayyad empire conquered Punjab in the 8th century CE. In the subsequent centuries, Punjab was invaded and conquered by the Ghaznavids, Ghurids, Delhi Sultanate, Mughals, Durranis and the Sikhs. Punjab reached the height of its splendour during the reign of the Mughal Empire, which for a time ruled from Lahore. During the 18th century, Nader Shah’s invasion of the Mughal Empire caused Mughal authority in the Punjab to fall apart and it thus fell into chaos. The Durranis under Ahmad Shah Durrani wrested control of Punjab only to lose it to the Sikhs after a successful rebellion which allowed Sikh armies to claim Lahore in 1759. The Sikh Empire was ruled by Ranjit Singh with his capital based in Lahore, until its defeat by the British. Punjab was central to the independence movements of both India and Pakistan, with Lahore being site of both the Declaration of Indian Independence, and the resolution calling for the establishment of Pakistan. The province was formed when the Punjab province of British India was divided along religious boundaries in 1947 by the Radcliffe Line after Partition.Punjab is Pakistan's most industrialised province with the industrial sector making up 24% of the province's gross domestic product. Punjab is known in Pakistan for its relative prosperity, and has the lowest rate of poverty amongst all Pakistani provinces. A clear divide is present between the northern and southern portions of the province; with poverty rates in prosperous northern Punjab amongst the lowest in Pakistan, while some in south Punjab are amongst the most impoverished. Punjab is also one of South Asia's most urbanized regions with approximately 40% of people living in urban areas. Its human development index rankings are high relative to the rest of Pakistan.

The province has been strongly influenced by Sufism, with numerous Sufi shrines spread across Punjab which attract millions of devotees annually. The founder of the Sikh faith, Guru Nanak, was born in the Punjab town of Nankana Sahib near Lahore. Punjab is also the site of the Katasraj Temple, which features prominently in Hindu mythology. Several UNESCO World Heritage Sites are located in Punjab, including the Shalimar Gardens, the Lahore Fort, the archeological excavations at Taxila, and the Rohtas Fort.

Punjab Province (British India)

Punjab, also spelled Panjab, was a province of British India. Most of the Punjab region was annexed by the East India Company in 1849, and was one of the last areas of the Indian subcontinent to fall under British control. In 1858, the Punjab, along with the rest of British India, came under the direct rule of the British crown. The province comprised five administrative divisions, Delhi, Jullundur, Lahore, Multan and Rawalpindi and a number of princely states. In 1947, the partition of India led to the province being divided into East Punjab and West Punjab, in the newly created Union of India and Dominion of Pakistan respectively.

Punjabi cinema

Punjabi cinema (Punjabi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਸਿਨਮਾ (Gurmukhi); پنجابی سینما (Shahmukhi)), sometimes metonymously referred to as Pollywood, is the Punjabi language film industry centred around the states of Punjab in India and Pakistan based out of Amritsar, Punjab with its sister- subsidiary in Mohali.

The cinema of Punjab has its beginnings with the 1928 production of Daughters of Today, the earliest feature film produced in Punjab. The first sound film, Heer Ranjha, using the sound-on-disc technology, was released in 1932. Since then, many films have been produced in Punjabi cinema, a number of which have received international recognition. Many actors and filmmakers started their careers in Punjabi films, a number of whom have acquired international reputations, and a number of whom have found greater financial benefits in careers in larger film producing industries.

Recently, a book on the history of Punjabi cinema has been published.

Punjabi cuisine

Punjabi cuisine is a culinary style originating in the Punjab, a region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, which is now divided between Punjab, India and Punjab, Pakistan. This cuisine has a rich tradition of many distinct and local ways of cooking. One is a special form of tandoori cooking that is now famous in other parts of India, UK, Canada, Hong Kong and in many parts of the world.

The local cuisine of Punjab is heavily influenced by the agriculture and farming lifestyle prevalent from the times of the ancient Harappan Civilization. Locally grown staple foods form the major part of the local cuisine. Distinctively Punjabi cuisine is known for its rich, buttery flavours along with the extensive vegetarian and meat dishes. Main dishes include sarhon dā sâg (a stew whose main ingredient is mustard greens) and [[makki di roti]] (flatbreads made with cornmeal).

Basmati rice is the indigenous variety of Punjab and many varieties of rice dishes have been developed with this variety. Many vegetable and meat based dishes are developed for this type of rice.

Punjabi language

Punjabi (English: ; Punjabi: [pəɲˈdʒaːbi] ਪੰਜਾਬੀ / پنجابی pañjābī) is an Indo-Aryan language with more than 100 million native speakers in the Indian subcontinent and around the world. It is the native language of the Punjabi people, an ethnolinguistic group of the cultural region called the Punjab, which encompasses northwest India and eastern Pakistan.

Punjabi is the most widely spoken language in Pakistan, the 11th most widely spoken language in India, and the third most-spoken native language in the Indian subcontinent. It is also the fifth most-spoken native language in Canada after English, French, Mandarin and Cantonese.

Punjabi is unusual among Indo-European languages in its use of lexical tone; see § Tone below for examples. The Punjabi language is written in one of two alphabets: Shahmukhi or Gurmukhi. In the Punjab, both writing systems are used (a rare occurrence called synchronic digraphia): Shahmukhi is used mainly by Punjabi Muslims and Gurmukhi is used mainly by Punjabi Sikhs. There are over 31 types of sub-accents in Punjabi language.

Punjabis

The Punjabis (Punjabi: پنجابی, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) or Punjabi people are an Indo-Aryan ethnolinguistic group associated with the Punjab region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, presently divided between Punjab, India and Punjab, Pakistan. They speak Punjabi, a language from the Indo-Aryan language family. The name Punjab literally means the land of five waters in Persian: panj ("five") āb ("waters"). The name of the region was introduced by the Turko-Persian conquerors of the Indian subcontinent. The historical Punjab region (see the partition of Punjab for important historical context) is often referred to as the breadbasket in both India and Pakistan.The coalescence of the various tribes, castes and the inhabitants of the Punjab into a broader common "Punjabi" identity initiated from the onset of the 18th century CE. Prior to that the sense and perception of a common "Punjabi" ethno-cultural identity and community did not exist, even though the majority of the various communities of the Punjab had long shared linguistic, cultural and racial commonalities.Traditionally, Punjabi identity is primarily linguistic, geographical and cultural. Its identity is independent of historical origin or religion, and refers to those who reside in the Punjab region, or associate with its population, and those who consider the Punjabi language their mother tongue. Integration and assimilation are important parts of Punjabi culture, since Punjabi identity is not based solely on tribal connections. More or less all Punjabis share the same cultural background.Historically, the Punjabi people were a heterogeneous group and were subdivided into a number of clans called biradari (literally meaning "brotherhood") or tribes, with each person bound to a clan. However, Punjabi identity also included those who did not belong to any of the historical tribes. With the passage of time, tribal structures are coming to an end and are being replaced with a more cohesive and holistic society, as community building and group cohesiveness form the new pillars of Punjabi society. In relative contemporary terms, Punjabis can be referred to in three most common subgroups; Punjabi Muslims, Punjabi Sikhs and Punjabi Hindus.

Sikh Empire

The Sikh Empire (also Sikh Khalsa Raj or Sarkar-i Khalsa) was a major power originating in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who established a secular empire based in the Punjab. The empire existed from 1799, when Ranjit Singh captured Lahore, to 1849 and was forged on the foundations of the Khalsa from a collection of autonomous Sikh misls. At its peak in the 19th century, the Empire extended from the Khyber Pass in the west to western Tibet in the east, and from Mithankot in the south to Kashmir in the north. Religiously diverse, with an estimated population of 3.5 million in 1831 (making it the 19th most populous country at the time), it was the last major region of the Indian subcontinent to be annexed by the British.

The foundations of the Sikh Empire can be traced to as early as 1707, the year of Aurangzeb's death and the start of the downfall of the Mughal Empire. With the Mughals significantly weakened, the Sikh army, known as the Dal Khalsa, a rearrangement of the Khalsa inaugurated by Guru Gobind Singh, led expeditions against them and the Afghans in the west. This led to a growth of the army which split into different confederacies or semi-independent misls. Each of these component armies controlled different areas and cities. However, in the period from 1762 to 1799, Sikh commanders of the misls appeared to be coming into their own as independent warlords.

The formation of the empire began with the capture of Lahore, by Maharaja Ranjit Singh, from its Afghan ruler, Zaman Shah Durrani, and the subsequent and progressive expulsion of Afghans from the Punjab, by defeating them in the Afghan-Sikh Wars, and the unification of the separate Sikh misls. Ranjit Singh was proclaimed as Maharaja of the Punjab on 12 April 1801 (to coincide with Vaisakhi), creating a unified political state. Sahib Singh Bedi, a descendant of Guru Nanak, conducted the coronation. Ranjit Singh rose to power in a very short period, from a leader of a single misl to finally becoming the Maharaja of Punjab. He began to modernise his army, using the latest training as well as weapons and artillery. After the death of Ranjit Singh, the empire was weakened by internal divisions and political mismanagement. Finally, by 1849 the state was dissolved after the defeat in the Anglo-Sikh wars. The Sikh Empire was divided into four provinces: Lahore, in Punjab, which became the Sikh capital, Multan, also in Punjab, Peshawar and Kashmir from 1799 to 1849.

Sikhs

Sikhs ( or ; Punjabi: ਸਿੱਖ, sikkh, [sɪkkʰ]) are people associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century, in the Punjab region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, based on the revelation of Guru Nanak. The term Sikh has its origin in the Sanskrit words शिष्य (śiṣya), meaning a disciple or a student. A Sikh, according to Article I of the Sikh Rehat Maryada (the Sikh code of conduct), is "any human being who faithfully believes in One Immortal Being; ten Gurus, from Guru Nanak to Guru Gobind Singh; Guru Granth Sahib; the teachings of the ten Gurus and the baptism bequeathed by the tenth Guru".The Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent has been the historic homeland of the Sikhs and was ruled by the Sikhs for significant parts of the 18th and 19th centuries. Today, the Punjab state in northwest India has a majority Sikh population, and sizeable communities of Sikhs exist around the world. Many countries, such as the United Kingdom, recognize Sikhs as a designated religion on their censuses. The American non-profit organization United Sikhs has sought to have Sikh included on the US census as an ethnicity, arguing that Sikhs "self-identify as an 'ethnic minority'" and believe "that they are more than just a religion".Male Sikhs generally have "Singh" (Lion) as their middle or last name (not all Singhs are Sikhs), and female Sikhs have "Kaur" (Princess) as their middle or last name. Sikhs who have undergone the Khanḍe-kī-Pahul (the Sikh initiation ceremony) may also be recognized by the five Ks: Kesh, uncut hair which is kept covered, usually by a turban; Kara, an iron or steel bracelet; Kirpan, a sword tucked into a gatra strap or a kamal kasar belt; Kachehra, a cotton undergarment; and Kanga, a small wooden comb.

Sunny Deol

Ajay Singh Deol (born 19 October 1956), better known as Sunny Deol, is an Indian film Actor, Director, Producer, Politician and Current Member of Parliament from Gurdaspur (Lok Sabha constituency) of Punjab State. He known for his work in Hindi cinema and has won two National Film Awards and two Filmfare Awards.

Deol made his debut opposite fellow debutante Amrita Singh in Betaab (1982), for which he received a Filmfare Best Actor Award nomination. Subsequently, he went on to star in numerous successful films in the 1980s and 1990s.

With his portrayal of an amateur boxer wrongly accused of his brother's murder in Rajkumar Santoshi's Ghayal in 1990, Deol gained wide recognition and praise and won the Filmfare Award for Best Actor and the National Film Award – Special Jury Award / Special Mention (Feature Film). His portrayal of a lawyer in the film Damini – Lightning (1993) won him the National Film Award for Best Supporting Actor and the Filmfare Award for Best Supporting Actor. Anil Sharma's Gadar: Ek Prem Katha (2001), in which Deol portrayed a lorry driver who falls in love with a Muslim girl, was the highest grossing Bollywood film ever at the time of its release, and garnered him a Filmfare Best Actor Award nomination.

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