Pulitzer Prize

The Pulitzer Prize /ˈpʊlɪtsər/[1] is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature, and musical composition in the United States. It was established in 1917 by provisions in the will of American (Hungarian-born) Joseph Pulitzer who had made his fortune as a newspaper publisher, and is administered by Columbia University in New York City.[2] Prizes are awarded yearly in twenty-one categories. In twenty of the categories, each winner receives a certificate and a US$15,000 cash award (raised from $10,000 in 2017).[3] The winner in the public service category of the journalism competition is awarded a gold medal.[4][5]

Pulitzer Prize
2018 Pulitzer Prize
Gen pulitzer
Pulitzer prize for public service gold medal (designed by Daniel Chester French)
Awarded forExcellence in newspaper journalism, literary achievements, musical composition
CountryUnited States
Presented byColumbia University
First awarded1917
Websitewww.pulitzer.org

Entry and prize consideration

The Pulitzer Prize does not automatically consider all applicable works in the media, but only those that have specifically been entered.[6] (There is a $75 entry fee, for each desired entry category.) Entries must fit in at least one of the specific prize categories, and cannot simply gain entrance for being literary or musical.[6] Works can also only be entered in a maximum of two categories, regardless of their properties.

Each year, 102 jurors are selected by the Pulitzer Prize Board to serve on 20 separate juries for the 21 award categories; one jury makes recommendations for both photography awards. Most juries consist of five members, except for those for Public Service, Investigative Reporting, Explanatory Reporting, Feature writing and Commentary categories, which have seven members; however all book juries have at least three members.[2] For each award category, a jury makes three nominations. The board selects the winner by majority vote from the nominations or bypasses the nominations and selects a different entry following a 75% majority vote. The board can also vote to issue no award. The board and journalism jurors are not paid for their work; however, the jurors in letters, music, and drama receive a $2,000 honorarium for the year, and each chair receives $2,500.[2]

Difference between entrants and nominated finalists

Anyone whose work has been submitted is called an entrant. The jury selects a group of nominated finalists and announces them, together with the winner for each category. However, some journalists who were only submitted, but not nominated as finalists, still claim to be Pulitzer nominees in promotional material.

For example, Bill Dedman of msnbc.com (the recipient of the 1989 Investigative Reporting Prize) pointed out in 2012 that financial journalist Betty Liu was described as "Pulitzer Prize-Nominated" in her Bloomberg Television advertising and the jacket of her book, while National Review writer Jonah Goldberg made similar claims of "Pulitzer nomination" to promote his books. Dedman wrote, "To call that submission a Pulitzer 'nomination' is like saying that Adam Sandler is an Oscar nominee if Columbia Pictures enters That's My Boy in the Academy Awards. Many readers realize that the Oscars don't work that way—the studios don't pick the nominees. It's just a way of slipping 'Academy Awards' into a bio. The Pulitzers also don't work that way, but fewer people know that."[7]

History

Newspaper publisher Joseph Pulitzer gave money in his will to Columbia University to launch a journalism school and establish the Prize. It allocated $250,000 to the prize and scholarships.[8] He specified "four awards in journalism, four in letters and drama, one in education, and four traveling scholarships."[2] After his death, the first Pulitzer Prizes were awarded June 4, 1917; they are now announced each April. The Chicago Tribune under the control of Colonel McCormick felt that the Pulitzer Prize was nothing more than a 'mutual admiration society' and not to be taken seriously; the paper refused to compete for the prize during McCormick's tenure up until 1961.[9][10]

Repeat recipients

Individuals

Many people have won more than one Pulitzer Prize. Nelson Harding, Stanley Forman and Andrew Schneider have received Prizes in consecutive years.

Arts & Letters

Four prizes
Three prizes
Two prizes

Arts & Letters and Journalism

Three prizes
  • William Allen White, Editorial Writing, Special Citation (presented to Sallie Lindsay White; posthumous), Autobiography (posthumous)
Two prizes

Journalism

Four prizes
  • Carol Guzy, Breaking News Photography, Feature Photography, Spot News Photography (2)
Three prizes
Two prizes

Newspapers

Nominally, the Pulitzer Prize for Public Service is awarded only to news organizations, not individuals. In rare instances, contributors to the entry are singled out in the citation in a manner analogous to individual winners.[12][13] Journalism awards may be awarded to individuals or newspapers or newspaper staffs; infrequently, staff Prize citations also distinguish the work of prominent contributors.[14]

Categories

Awards are made in categories relating to journalism, arts, letters and fiction. Reports and photographs by United States–based newspapers, magazines and news organizations (including news websites) that "[publish] regularly"[15] are eligible for the journalism prize. Beginning in 2007, "an assortment of online elements will be permitted in all journalism categories except for the competition's two photography categories, which will continue to restrict entries to still images."[16] In December 2008 it was announced that for the first time content published in online-only news sources would be considered.[17]

Although certain winners with magazine affiliations (most notably Moneta Sleet, Jr.) were allowed to enter the competition due to eligible partnerships or concurrent publication of their work in newspapers, the Pulitzer Prize Advisory Board and the Pulitzer Prize Board historically resisted the admission of magazines into the competition, resulting in the formation of the National Magazine Awards at the Columbia Journalism School in 1966.

In 2015, magazines were allowed to enter for the first time in two categories (Investigative Reporting and Feature Writing). By 2016, this provision had expanded to three additional categories (International Reporting, Criticism and Editorial Cartooning).[18] That year, Kathryn Schulz (Feature Writing) and Emily Nussbaum (Criticism) of The New Yorker became the first magazine affiliates to receive the Prize under the expanded eligibility criterion.[19]

In October 2016, magazine eligibility was extended to all journalism categories.[20] Hitherto confined to the local reporting of breaking news, the Breaking News Reporting category was expanded to encompass all domestic breaking news events in 2017.[21]

Definitions of Pulitzer Prize categories as presented in the December 2017 Plan of Award:[22]

  • Public Service – for a distinguished example of meritorious public service by a newspaper, magazine or news site through the use of its journalistic resources, including the use of stories, editorials, cartoons, photographs, graphics, videos, databases, multimedia or interactive presentations or other visual material. Often thought of as the grand prize, and mentioned first in listings of the journalism prizes, the Public Service award is only given to the winning news organization. Alone among the Pulitzer Prizes, it is awarded in the form of a gold medal.
  • Breaking News Reporting – for a distinguished example of local, state or national reporting of breaking news that, as quickly as possible, captures events accurately as they occur, and, as time passes, illuminates, provides context and expands upon the initial coverage.
  • Investigative Reporting – for a distinguished example of investigative reporting, using any available journalistic tool.
  • Explanatory Reporting – for a distinguished example of explanatory reporting that illuminates a significant and complex subject, demonstrating mastery of the subject, lucid writing and clear presentation, using any available journalistic tool.
  • Local Reporting – for a distinguished example of reporting on significant issues of local concern, demonstrating originality and community expertise, using any available journalistic tool.[16]
  • National Reporting – for a distinguished example of reporting on national affairs, using any available journalistic tool.
  • International Reporting – for a distinguished example of reporting on international affairs, using any available journalistic tool.
  • Feature Writing – for distinguished feature writing giving prime consideration to quality of writing, originality and concision, using any available journalistic tool.
  • Commentary – for distinguished commentary, using any available journalistic tool.
  • Criticism – for distinguished criticism, using any available journalistic tool.
  • Editorial Writing – for distinguished editorial writing, the test of excellence being clearness of style, moral purpose, sound reasoning, and power to influence public opinion in what the writer conceives to be the right direction, using any available journalistic tool.
  • Editorial Cartooning – for a distinguished cartoon or portfolio of cartoons, characterized by originality, editorial effectiveness, quality of drawing and pictorial effect, published as a still drawing, animation or both.
  • Breaking News Photography, previously called Spot News Photography – for a distinguished example of breaking news photography in black and white or color, which may consist of a photograph or photographs.
  • Feature Photography – for a distinguished example of feature photography in black and white or color, which may consist of a photograph or photographs.

There are six categories in letters and drama:

  • Fiction – for distinguished fiction by an American author, preferably dealing with American life.
  • Drama – for a distinguished play by an American playwright, preferably original in its source and dealing with American life.
  • History – for a distinguished and appropriately documented book on the history of the United States.
  • Biography or Autobiography – for a distinguished biography, autobiography or memoir by an American author.
  • Poetry – for a distinguished volume of original verse by an American poet.
  • General Non-Fiction – for a distinguished and appropriately documented book of non-fiction by an American author that is not eligible for consideration in any other category.

There is one prize given for music:

  • Pulitzer Prize for Music – for distinguished musical composition by an American that has had its first performance or recording in the United States during the year.

There have been dozens of Special Citations and Awards: more than ten each in Arts, Journalism, and Letters, and five for Pulitzer Prize service, most recently to Joseph Pulitzer, Jr. in 1987.

In addition to the Prizes, Pulitzer Travelling Fellowships are awarded to four outstanding students of the Graduate School of Journalism as selected by the faculty.

Changes to categories

Over the years, awards have been discontinued either because the field of the award has been expanded to encompass other areas; the award has been renamed because the common terminology changed; or the award has become obsolete, such as the prizes for telegraphic reporting.

An example of a writing field that has been expanded was the former Pulitzer Prize for the Novel (awarded 1918–1947), which has been changed to the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, which also includes short stories, novellas, novelettes, and poetry, as well as novels.

Chronology of Pulitzer Prize categories
10s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s Current Categories
7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 Journalism
7 9 1 0 2 5 1 3 8 2 Editorial Writing
7 9 8 7 Reporting
7 0 5 0 Public Service
8 Newspaper History Award
2 3 6 0 5 3 Editorial Cartooning
9 7 Correspondence
2 7 Telegraphic Reporting - International
8 7 International Reporting
2 3 7 Telegraphic Reporting - National
8 1 National Reporting
2 7 Photography
8 Feature Photography
8 9 Spot News Photography
0 Breaking News Photography
5 0 Specialized Reporting
1 6 Beat Reporting
8 2 7 Local Reporting
3 3 Local Reporting - Edition time[a]
4 4 Local General or Spot News Reporting[a]
5 0 General News Reporting
1 7 Spot News Reporting
8 1 Breaking News Reporting
3 3 Local Reporting - No Edition time[a]
4 4 Local Investigative Specialized Reporting[a]
5 Investigative Reporting
0 Commentary
0 2 Criticism
9 4 4 Feature Writing
5 7 Explanatory Journalism
8 Explanatory Reporting
10s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s Letters, drama, music
7 2 Biography or Autobiography
7 9 4 4 History
7 9 2 4 7 1 3 4 6 8 2 4 6 7 6 Drama
7 0 1 6 7 Novel
8 4 7 4 1 4 7 2 Fiction
2 6 Poetry
3 3 4 5 1 Music
2 General Nonfiction
10s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s Others
Special Awards & Citations
7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 Current Categories
   awarded, category still exists (one small number marks the year since this category exists)
   awarded, category renamed (two small numbers marking the first and the last year this category existed under that name)
   awarded, category no longer exists (two small numbers marking the first and the last year this category existed)
   not awarded, although there were nominees and a category in this year
  • The small single numbers mark the last digit of the year and are linked to the corresponding Pulitzer Prize article of that year.
  1. ^ a b c d Category Local Reporting - Edition time was renamed Local General or Spot News Reporting and Local Reporting - No Edition time was renamed Local Investigative Specialized Reporting. But it could be the other way too. Until now a citation is still needed.
  1. ^ a b c d Category Local Reporting - Edition time was renamed Local General or Spot News Reporting and Local Reporting - No Edition time was renamed Local Investigative Specialized Reporting. But it could be the other way too. Until now a citation is still needed.

Board

The 19-member Pulitzer Prize Board[23] convenes semiannually in the Joseph Pulitzer World Room at Columbia University's Pulitzer Hall. It comprises major editors, columnists and media executives in addition to six members drawn from academia and the arts, including the president of Columbia University, the dean of the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism and the administrator of the Prizes, who serves as the Board's secretary. The administrator and the dean (who has served on the Board since 1976) participate in the deliberations as ex officio members but cannot vote. Aside from the president and dean (who serve as permanent members for the duration of their respective appointments) and the administrator (who is reelected annually), the Board elects its own members for a three-year term; members may serve a maximum of three terms. Members of the Board and the juries are selected with close attention "given to professional excellence and affiliation, as well as diversity in terms of gender, ethnic background, geographical distribution and size of news organization." The current administrator is former New York Times senior editor Dana Canedy, who contributed to the Times staff entry that received the 2001 National Reporting Prize.[24][25]

Following the retirement of Joseph Pulitzer Jr. (a grandson of the endower who served as permanent chair of the Board for 31 years) in 1986, the chair has typically rotated to the most senior member (or members, in the case of concurrent elections) on an annual basis.[26]

Since 1975, the Board has made all prize decisions; prior to this point, the Board's recommendations were ratified by a majority vote of the trustees of Columbia University.[2] Although the administrator's office and staff are housed alongside the Graduate School of Journalism at Columbia's Pulitzer Hall and several administrators have held faculty appointments at the School of Journalism, the Board and administration have been operationally separate from the School since 1950.[27]:121

Controversies

  • Call for revocation of journalist Walter Duranty's 1932 Pulitzer Prize.
  • Call for revocation of journalist William L. Laurence's 1946 Pulitzer Prize.
  • 1941 Novel Prize: The Advisory Board elected to overrule the jury and recommended For Whom the Bell Tolls by Ernest Hemingway. However, Columbia University president Nicholas Murray Butler implored the committee to reconsider, citing the potential association between the University and the novel's frank sexual content; instead, no award was given.[27]:118 Twelve years later, Hemingway was awarded the 1953 Fiction Prize for The Old Man and the Sea.
  • 1962 Biography Prize: Citizen Hearst: A Biography of William Randolph Hearst by W. A. Swanberg was recommended by the jury and Advisory Board but overturned by the trustees of Columbia University (then charged with final ratification of the Prizes) because its subject, Hearst, was not an "eminent example of the biographer's art as specified in the prize definition."[28]
  • 1974 Fiction Prize: Gravity's Rainbow by Thomas Pynchon was recommended by the three-member fiction jury but the Advisory Board overturned that decision and no award was given by the trustees.[29]
  • Shortly after receiving a Special Citation for Roots: The Saga of an American Family in the spring of 1977, Alex Haley was charged with plagiarism in separate lawsuits by Harold Courlander and Margaret Walker Alexander. Courlander, an anthropologist and novelist, charged that Roots was copied largely from his novel The African (1967). Walker claimed that Haley had plagiarized from her Civil War-era novel Jubilee (1966). Legal proceedings in each case were concluded late in 1978. Courlander's suit was settled out of court for $650,000 (equivalent to $2.5 million in 2018) and an acknowledgment from Haley that certain passages within Roots were copied from The African.[30] Walker's case was dismissed by the court, which, in comparing the content of Roots with that of Jubilee, found that "no actionable similarities exist between the works."[31][32]
  • Forfeiture of Janet Cooke's 1981 Pulitzer Prize for Feature Writing for story fabrication.
  • 1994 History Prize: Gerald Posner's Case Closed; Lee Harvey Oswald and the Assassination of JFK, Lawrence Friedman's Crime and Punishment in American History and Joel Williamson's William Faulkner and Southern History were nominated unanimously for the award; however, no award was given.[33] The decision not to give an award to one of the three books created a public controversy. One of the 19 members of the Pulitzer Board, John Dotson, said that all of the three nominated books were "flawed in some way."[34] But another Board member, Edward Seaton, editor of the Manhattan Mercury, disagreed, saying it was "unfortunate" that no award had been given.[34]
  • 2010 Drama Prize: Next to Normal received the award despite not having been among the jury-provided nominees.[35][36]

Criticism and studies

Some critics of the Pulitzer Prize have accused the organization of favoring those who support liberal causes or oppose conservative causes. Syndicated columnist L. Brent Bozell said that the Pulitzer Prize has a "liberal legacy", particularly in its prize for commentary.[37] He pointed to a 31-year period in which only five conservatives won prizes for commentary. The claim is also supported by a statement from the 2010 Pulitzer Prize winner for commentary, Kathleen Parker: "It's only because I'm a conservative basher that I'm now recognized."[38]

A 2012 academic study by journalism professor Yong Volz and Chinese University journalism professor Francis Lee found "that only 27% of Pulitzer winners since 1991 were females, while newsrooms are about 33% female."[39][40] The researchers concluded female winners were more likely to have traditional academic experience, such as attendance at Ivy League schools, metropolitan upbringing, or employment with an elite publication such as the New York Times.[41] The findings suggest a higher level of training and connectedness are required for a female applicant to be awarded the prize, compared to male counterparts.[41]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "FAQ". Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved May 14, 2014. 29. How is 'Pulitzer' pronounced? The correct pronunciation is 'PULL it sir.'
    The mistaken pronunciation /ˈpjuːlɪtsər/, starting off like "pew", is quite common, and included in the major British and American dictionaries.
  2. ^ a b c d e Topping, Seymour (2008). "History of The Pulitzer Prizes". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. Retrieved September 13, 2011. Updated 2013 by Sig Gissler.
  3. ^ "Pulitzer Board raises prize award to $15,000". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. January 3, 2017. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  4. ^ Topping, Seymour (2008). "Administration". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. Retrieved January 31, 2013. Updated 2013 by Sig Gissler.
  5. ^ "The Medal". Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
  6. ^ a b Entry Form For a Pulitzer Prize in Journalism Pulitzer.org
  7. ^ Abad-Santos, Alexander (June 26, 2012). "Journalists, Please Stop Saying You Were 'Pulitzer Prize-Nominated'". what matters now. the Atlantic wire.
  8. ^ Morris, James McGrath (2010). Pulitzer: A Life in Politics, Print, and Power. New York, NY: HarperCollins. p. 461. ISBN 978-0-06-079870-3. Retrieved Sep 12, 2011.
  9. ^ Reardon, Patrick T (June 8, 1997). "A Parade of Pulitzers". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 27, 2013. for more than two decades [...] the Tribune refused to compete for the awards.
  10. ^ Epstein, Joseph (August 1997). "The Colonel and the Lady" (PDF). Commentary. p. 48. He viewed the Pulitzer Prize as a 'mutual admiration society,' and hence not to be taken seriously.
  11. ^ Snyder is frequently cited as a four-time winner because of his oversight of The Dallas Morning News's 2006 Breaking News Photography Prize-winning coverage of Hurricane Katrina as the newspaper's photo director; however, he was not listed as a named contributor in the citation and did not contribute any photographs to the entry. "Staff of The Dallas Morning News". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved April 13, 2017.
  12. ^ "The 2000 Pulitzer Prize Winner in Public Service: The Washington Post, notably for the work of Katherine Boo". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
  13. ^ "The 1996 Pulitzer Prize Winner in Public Service: The News & Observer (Raleigh, NC), for the work of Melanie Sill, Pat Stith and Joby Warrick". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
  14. ^ "The 2009 Pulitzer Prize Winner in Local Reporting: Detroit Free Press Staff, and notably Jim Schaefer and M.L. Elrick". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
  15. ^ "2017 Journalism Submission Guidelines, Requirements and FAQs". The Pulizer Prize Board. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
  16. ^ a b "Pulitzer Board Widens Range of Online Journalism in Entries" (Press release). Pulitzer Prize Board. November 27, 2006. Retrieved April 12, 2010.
  17. ^ "Pulitzer Prizes Broadened to Include Online-Only Publications Primarily Devoted to Original News Reporting" (Press release). Pulitzer Prize Board. December 8, 2008. Retrieved April 12, 2010.
  18. ^ "Expanded eligibility for three journalism categories" (Press release). Pulitzer Prize Board. October 26, 2015. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
  19. ^ "2016 Pulitzer Prizes". Pulitzer Prize Board. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
  20. ^ "Pulitzer Prizes open all journalism categories to magazines" (Press release). Pulitzer Prize Board. October 18, 2016. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
  21. ^ "The Pulitzer Prizes". Pulitzer.org. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
  22. ^ "The Pulitzer Prizes". Pulitzer.org. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
  23. ^ "Elizabeth Alexander elected to Pulitzer Prize Board" (Press release). Pulitzer Prize Board. May 30, 2016. Retrieved March 4, 2017.
  24. ^ "The Pulitzer Prizes". Pulitzer.org. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
  25. ^ "The Pulitzer Prizes". Pulitzer.org. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
  26. ^ Topping, Seymour. "Biography of Joseph Pulitzer". The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved May 16, 2017. Updated 2013 by Sig Gissler.
  27. ^ a b Boylan, James (June 2003). Pulitzer's School: Columbia University's School of Journalism, 1903-2003. New York: Columbia University Press. OCLC 704692556. Retrieved March 4, 2017 – via Google Books.
  28. ^ Hohenberg, John. The Pulitzer Diaries: Inside America's Greatest Prize. 1997. p. 109.
  29. ^ McDowell, Edwin. "Publishing: Pulitzer Controversies". The New York Times, May 11, 1984: C26.
  30. ^ Fein, Esther B. (March 3, 1993). "Book Notes". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 11, 2007. Retrieved February 12, 2017.
  31. ^ (1978, September 21). "Judge Rules "Roots" Original", Associated Press
  32. ^ (1978, September 22). "Suit against Alex Haley is dismissed", United Press International
  33. ^ Complete Historical Handbook of the Pulitzer Prize System 1917-2000: Decision-Making Processes in all Award Categories Based on Unpublished Sources, by Heinz D. Fischer and Erika J. Fischer, The Pulitzer Prize Archive, Walter de Gruyer, 2003, p. 325
  34. ^ a b "Pulitzer Decision Angers Juror Ignoring Nominations, Panel Didn't Know History Prize," San Jose Mercury News, April 23, 1994, p. 2B
  35. ^ "unknown". Los Angeles Times. April 13, 2010. Archived from the original on April 15, 2010.
  36. ^ Simonson, Robert (April 16, 2010). "Playbill.com's Theatre Week In Review, April 10-April 16: The Pulitzer Paradox". Playbill. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
  37. ^ Bozell, Brent (April 22, 2007). "Pulitzers' liberal legacy". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Archived from the original on January 31, 2013. Retrieved October 14, 2010.
  38. ^ Hagey, Keach (October 4, 2010). "Kathleen Parker: 'Smallish-town girl' hits cable". Politico. Retrieved October 14, 2010.
  39. ^ Yong Z. Volz; Francis LF Lee (August 30, 2012). "Who wins the Pulitzer Prize in international reporting? Cumulative advantage and social stratification in journalism". Journalism. doi:10.1177/1464884912455905. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
  40. ^ Kelly Burdick (October 18, 2012). "New study says women may need connections to win a Pulitzer". Melville House Publishing. Retrieved October 18, 2012.
  41. ^ a b "Female Pulitzer Prize winners require higher qualifications, study finds". Phys.org. October 18, 2012. Retrieved October 18, 2012.

References

  • Auxier, George W. (March 1940). "Middle Western Newspapers and the Spanish–American War, 1895–1898". Mississippi Valley Historical Review. Organization of American Historians. 26 (4): 523. doi:10.2307/1896320. JSTOR 1896320.

External links

Alfred A. Knopf

Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. () is a New York publishing house that was founded by Alfred A. Knopf Sr. and Blanche Knopf in 1915. Blanche and Alfred traveled abroad regularly and were known for publishing European, Asian, and Latin American writers in addition to leading American literary trends. It was acquired by Random House in 1960, which was later acquired by Bertelsmann in 1998, and is now part of the Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. The Knopf publishing house is associated with its borzoi colophon, which was designed by co-founder Blanche Knopf in 1925.

Detroit Free Press

The Detroit Free Press is the largest daily newspaper in Detroit, Michigan, US. The Sunday edition is titled the Sunday Free Press. It is sometimes referred to as the "Freep" (reflected in the paper's web address, www.freep.com). It primarily serves Wayne, Oakland, Macomb, Livingston, Washtenaw, and Monroe counties.

The Free Press is also the largest city newspaper owned by Gannett, which also publishes USA Today. The Free Press has received ten Pulitzer Prizes and four Emmy Awards. Its motto is "On Guard for 188 Years".

In 2018, the Detroit Free Press has received two Salute to Excellence awards from the National Association of Black Journalists.

Fort Worth Star-Telegram

The Fort Worth Star-Telegram is a U.S. daily newspaper serving Fort Worth and Tarrant County, the western half of the North Texas area known as the Metroplex. It is owned by The McClatchy Company.

Los Angeles Times

The Los Angeles Times (sometimes abbreviated as LA Times or L.A. Times) is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, and is the largest U.S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues particularly salient to the U.S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters. It has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of these and other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, and the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine.In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910. The paper's profile grew substantially in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, and other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, and in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.

Miami Herald

The Miami Herald is a daily newspaper owned by the McClatchy Company and headquartered in Doral, Florida, a city in western Miami-Dade County and the Miami metropolitan area, several miles west of downtown Miami. Founded in 1903, it is the second largest newspaper in South Florida, serving Miami-Dade, Broward, and Monroe Counties. It also circulates throughout Latin America and the Caribbean.

Newsday

Newsday is an American daily newspaper that primarily serves Nassau and Suffolk counties and the New York City borough of Queens on Long Island, although it is also sold throughout the New York metropolitan area. As of 2009, its weekday circulation of 377,500 was the 11th-highest in the United States, and the highest among suburban newspapers. In 2012, Newsday expanded to include Rockland and Westchester county news on its website. As of January 2014, Newsday's total average circulation was 437,000 on weekdays, 434,000 on Saturdays and 495,000 on Sundays.The newspaper's headquarters is in Melville, New York, in Suffolk County.

Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography

The Pulitzer Prize for Biography is one of the seven American Pulitzer Prizes that are annually awarded for Letters, Drama, and Music. It has been presented since 1917 for a distinguished biography, autobiography or memoir by an American author or co-authors, published during the preceding calendar year. Thus it is one of the original Pulitzers, for the program was inaugurated in 1917 with seven prizes, four of which were awarded that year.

Pulitzer Prize for Drama

The Pulitzer Prize for Drama is one of the seven American Pulitzer Prizes that are annually awarded for Letters, Drama, and Music. It is one of the original Pulitzers, for the program was inaugurated in 1917 with seven prizes, four of which were awarded that year. (No Drama prize was given, however, so that one was inaugurated in 1918, in a sense.) It recognizes a theatrical work staged in the U.S. during the preceding calendar year.

Through 2006 the Drama Prize was unlike the majority of the other Pulitzer Prizes: during these years, the eligibility period for the drama prize ran from March 1 to March 2, to reflect the Broadway 'season' rather than the calendar year. The decision was made, however, that the 2007 Prize would consider works staged during an eligibility period of January 1 to December 31, 2006—thus bringing the schedule for the Drama Prize in line with those of the other prizes.

The drama jury, which consists of one academic and four critics, attends plays in New York and in regional theaters. The Pulitzer board has the authority to overrule the jury's choice, however, as happened in 1986 when the jury chose the CIVIL warS to receive the prize, but due to the board's opposition no award was given.

In 1955 Joseph Pulitzer, Jr. pressured the prize jury into presenting the Prize to Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, which the jury considered the weakest of the five shortlisted nominees ("amateurishly constructed... from the stylistic points of view annoyingly pretentious"), instead of Clifford Odets' The Flowering Peach (their preferred choice) or The Bad Seed, their second choice. Edward Albee's Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? was selected for the 1963 Pulitzer Prize for Drama by that award's committee. However, the committee's selection was overruled by the award's advisory board, the trustees of Columbia University, because of the play's then-controversial use of profanity and sexual themes. Had Albee been awarded, he would be tied with Eugene O'Neill for the most Pulitzer Prizes for Drama (four).

Pulitzer Prize for Fiction

The Pulitzer Prize for Fiction is one of the seven American Pulitzer Prizes that are annually awarded for Letters, Drama, and Music. It recognizes distinguished fiction by an American author, preferably dealing with American life, published during the preceding calendar year. As the Pulitzer Prize for the Novel, it was one of the original Pulitzers; the program was inaugurated in 1917 with seven prizes, four of which were awarded that year. (No Novel prize was awarded in 1917; the first was awarded in 1918.)Finalists have been announced since 1980, ordinarily a total of three.

Pulitzer Prize for General Nonfiction

The Pulitzer Prize for General Nonfiction is one of the seven American Pulitzer Prizes that are annually awarded for Letters, Drama, and Music. It has been presented since 1962 for a distinguished book of non-fiction by an American author, published during the preceding calendar year, that is not eligible for consideration in another category.

Finalists have been announced from 1980, ordinarily two others beside the winner.

Pulitzer Prize for History

The Pulitzer Prize for History, administered by Columbia University, is one of the seven American Pulitzer Prizes that are annually awarded for Letters, Drama, and Music. It has been presented since 1917 for a distinguished book about the history of the United States. Thus it is one of the original Pulitzers, for the program was inaugurated in 1917 with seven prizes, four of which were awarded that year. The Pulitzer Prize program has also recognized some historical work with its Biography prize, from 1917, and its General Non-Fiction prize, from 1952.

Finalists have been announced from 1980, ordinarily two others beside the winner.

Pulitzer Prize for Music

The Pulitzer Prize for Music is one of seven Pulitzer Prizes awarded annually in Letters, Drama, and Music. It was first given in 1943. Joseph Pulitzer arranged for a music scholarship to be awarded each year, and this was eventually converted into a prize: "For a distinguished musical composition of significant dimension by an American that has had its first performance in the United States during the year." Because of the requirement that the composition have its world premiere during the year of its award, the winning work had rarely been recorded and sometimes had received only one performance. In 2004 the terms were modified to read, "For a distinguished musical composition by an American that has had its first performance or recording in the United States during the year."

Pulitzer Prize for Poetry

The Pulitzer Prize for Poetry is one of the seven American Pulitzer Prizes that are annually awarded for Letters, Drama, and Music. It has been presented since 1922 for a distinguished volume of original verse by an American author, published during the preceding calendar year.

Finalists have been announced since 1980, ordinarily two others beside the winner.

Tampa Bay Times

The Tampa Bay Times, previously named the St. Petersburg Times through 2011, is an American newspaper published in St. Petersburg, Florida, United States. It has won twelve Pulitzer Prizes since 1964, and in 2009, won two in a single year for the first time in its history, one of which was for its PolitiFact project. It is published by the Times Publishing Company, which is owned by The Poynter Institute for Media Studies, a nonprofit journalism school directly adjacent to the University of South Florida St. Petersburg campus. Many issues are available through Google News Archive. A daily electronic version is also available for the Amazon Kindle and iPad.

The Charlotte Observer

The Charlotte Observer is a newspaper serving Charlotte and its metro area. It has the largest circulation in North Carolina and South Carolina. It is owned by The McClatchy Company.

The Denver Post

The Denver Post is a daily newspaper and website that has been published in the Denver, Colorado, area since 1892. As of March 2016, it has an average weekday circulation of 134,537 and Sunday circulation of 253,261. Its 2012-2013 circulation (416,676) made it the 9th highest in the US. The Denver Post receives roughly six million monthly unique visitors generating more than 13 million page views, according to comScore.

The Kansas City Star

The Kansas City Star is a newspaper based in Kansas City, Missouri. Published since 1880, the paper is the recipient of eight Pulitzer Prizes. The Star is most notable for its influence on the career of President Harry Truman and as the newspaper where a young Ernest Hemingway honed his writing style. It was also central to government-mandated divestiture of radio and television outlets by newspaper concerns in the late 1950s.

The Oregonian

The Oregonian is a daily newspaper based in Portland, Oregon, United States, owned by Advance Publications. It is the oldest continuously published newspaper on the U.S. west coast, founded as a weekly by Thomas J. Dryer on December 4, 1850, and published daily since 1861. It is the largest newspaper in Oregon and the second largest in the Pacific Northwest by circulation. It is one of the few newspapers with a statewide focus in the United States. The Sunday edition is published under the title The Sunday Oregonian. The regular edition was published under the title The Morning Oregonian from 1861 until 1937.The Oregonian received the 2001 Pulitzer Prize for Public Service, the only gold medal annually awarded by the organization. The paper's staff or individual writers have received seven other Pulitzer Prizes, most recently the award for Editorial Writing in 2014.The Oregonian is home-delivered throughout Multnomah, Washington, Clackamas, and Yamhill counties in Oregon and Clark County, Washington four days a week (Wednesday, Friday, Saturday and Sunday); it is also home-delivered in parts of Marion and Columbia counties. Although some independent dealers do deliver the newspaper outside that area, in 2006 it ceased to be available in far eastern Oregon and the southern Oregon Coast and, starting in December 2008, "increasing newsprint and distribution costs" caused the paper to stop delivery to all areas south of Albany.

The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City. The Journal, along with its Asian and European editions, is published six days a week by Dow Jones & Company, a division of News Corp. The newspaper is published in the broadsheet format and online. The Journal has been printed continuously since its inception on July 8, 1889, by Charles Dow, Edward Jones, and Charles Bergstresser.

The Wall Street Journal is one of the largest newspapers in the United States by circulation, with a circulation of about 2.475 million copies (including nearly 1,590,000 digital subscriptions) as of June 2018, compared with USA Today's 1.7 million. The Journal publishes the luxury news and lifestyle magazine WSJ, which was originally launched as a quarterly but expanded to 12 issues as of 2014. An online version was launched in 1996, which has been accessible only to subscribers since it began.The newspaper is notable for its award-winning news coverage, and has won 37 Pulitzer Prizes (as of 2017). The editorial pages of the Journal are frequently conservative in their position. The Journal editorial board has promoted fringe views on the science of climate change, acid rain, and ozone depletion, as well as on the health harms of second-hand smoke, pesticides and asbestos.

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