Pueblos jóvenes (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈpweβlos ˈxoβenes] (listen), "young towns") is the nickname given to the vast shanty towns that surround Lima and other cities of Peru. Many of these towns have developed into significant districts in Lima such as Villa El Salvador and Comas.
They are populated almost exclusively by Black, Amerindian, and mestizo campesinos who since the 1940s have migrated in great waves from Peru's countryside in search of economic opportunity, turning Lima into the fourth-largest city in America. Like many other rapidly industrializing cities, Lima's job market has largely been unable to keep up with this influx of people, forcing many to accept any housing available. Most of the inhabitants of the pueblos jóvenes also came in order to escape terrorism during the 1980s.
The towns are composed of poorly constructed shacks which generally lack running water, and other basic services although electricity is usually available on a pirated DIY basis. In both appearance and culture, they are similar to the favelas of Brazil and other Latin American cities. Crime is rampant.
Many of the dwellings are painted with the colors of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), the Socialist Party of Peru, or political candidates. Some still bear the logo of now convicted three-term president Alberto Fujimori, sometimes because the resident hasn't had the time or money to repaint their dwelling, sometimes because they still support Fujimori.
President Alejandro Toledo, Fujimori's successor, pushed through various initiatives to encourage peasants to return to the farming and mining communities whence they came, but they have not been effective.
The Peruvian government has permitted these communities to continue largely because it realizes that, were they to eradicate them, the inhabitants would simply move elsewhere in the city's peripheral areas.
Arequipa (Spanish pronunciation: [aɾeˈkipa]) is the capital and largest city of the Arequipa Region and the seat of the Constitutional Court of Peru. It is Peru's second most populous city with 861,145 inhabitants, as well as its second most populous metropolitan area as of 2016, according to the National Institute of Statistics and Informatics (INEI) Arequipa is the second most industrialized and commercialized city in Peru. Its industrial activity includes manufactured goods and camelid wool products for export. The city has close trade ties with Chile, Bolivia and Brazil.
The city was founded on 15 August 1540, by Garcí Manuel de Carbajal as "Villa Hermosa de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción". During the Colonial period, Arequipa became highly important for its economic prosperity and for its loyalty to the Spanish Crown.After Peru gained its independence from Spain in 1821, Arequipa acquired greater political significance, and was declared the capital city of Peru from 1835 to 1883.The historic center of Arequipa spans an area of 332 hectares and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Its historic heritage, natural scenery and cultural sites make the city a major tourist destination. Its religious, colonial, and republican architectural styles blend European and native characteristics into a unique style called "Escuela Arequipeña".Asociacion SOLAC
Asociación SOLAC, a Peruvian non-profit organization, was founded (under this name) in 2003 by students of the Universidad Catolica de Lima and has grown to include a cooperative membership of scholars and students from the United States and Peru. The organization regularly carries out projects in the vicinity of Lima, oriented towards social and economic development.Cambio 90
Change 90 (Spanish: Cambio 90), was a Centre-right Peruvian political party which entered the political spectrum in early 1990, and by June 1991 was the most powerful political force in the nation. Cambio 90 was the ruling party of Peru from 1990 to 2000.Cantegril
Cantegril is the local nickname given to the shanty towns that surround Montevideo and other cities of Uruguay.
The name is meant to be ironic, as Cantegril is one of the most expensive neighbourhoods of the international seaside resort Punta del Este., originally it comes from Provençal dialect cante gril which means cricket sing, probably taken from homonymous novel by Raymond Escholier in 1921.
According to 2007 data, ca. 6% of the total Uruguayan population (174,393 people) lived in cantegriles.Colonia (United States)
In the United States, colonias are low-income, unincorporated, slum-areas, located along the Mexico–United States border region that began to emerge with the advent of informal housing. Colonias consist of peri-urban subdivisions of substandard housing lacking in basic services such as potable water, electricity, paved roads, proper drainage, and waste management. Often situated in geographically inferior locations, such as former agricultural floodplains, colonias suffer from associated issues like flooding. Furthermore, urbanization practices have amplified the issues, such as when developers strip topsoil from the ground in order to subdivide land, the resulting plains become breeding grounds for mosquitoes and disease. Traditional homeownership financing methods are rare amongst colonias residents, and therefore these areas consist of ramshackle housing units built incrementally with found material on expanses of undeveloped land. Colonias have a predominant Latino population where 85 percent of those Latinos under the age of 18 are United States citizens. The U.S. has viewed border communities as a place of lawlessness, poverty, backwardness, and ethnic difference.Despite the economic development, liberalization and intensification of trade, and strategic geographic location, the southern U.S. border is one of the poorest regions in the nation. Most cases had shown that these communities formed when unscrupulous landowners illegally sold and subdivided rural lands, often to buyers who did not understand the terms under which this land was being sold. The contract for deed through which plots were offered by land developers often made false promises that utilities would be installed.The majority of these communities have no water infrastructures and lack wastewater or sewage services. Where sewer systems do exist there are no treatment plants in the area, and untreated wastewater is dumped into arroyos and creeks that flow into the Rio Grande or the Gulf of Mexico.More than 2,000 colonias are identified within the U.S. The highest concentration is in Texas, with others in New Mexico, Arizona, and California. Evidence suggests that there are more than 1,800 designated colonias in Texas, around 138 in New Mexico, 77 in Arizona, and 32 in California. These settlements are part of an informal sector or informal economy that is not bound by the structures of government regulations within labor, tax, health and safety, land use, environmental, civil rights, and immigration laws.Section 916 of the National Affordable Housing Act (NAHA) defines colonias as any "identifiable community" determined by objective criteria that include the lack of potable water and adequate sewage systems, the lack of decent, safe, and sanitary housing, and which were in existence before the passage of the Cranston–Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act (1990). According to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), the term colonias has a specific meaning within the U.S., referring to a community within the rural Mexico–U.S. border region with marginal conditions related to housing and infrastructure. Other definitions and criteria for a colonia are used by the Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Texas Code.Compulsory sterilization
Compulsory sterilization, also known as forced or coerced sterilization, programs are government policies which force people to undergo surgical or other sterilization. The reasons governments implement sterilization programs vary in purpose and intent. In the first half of the 20th century, several such programs were instituted in countries around the world, usually as part of eugenics programs intended to prevent the reproduction of members of the population considered to be carriers of defective genetic traits.Other bases for compulsory sterilization have included general population growth management, sex discrimination, "sex-normalizing" surgeries of intersex persons, limiting the spread of HIV, and reducing the population of ethnic groups. The last is counted as an act of genocide under the Statute of Rome. Some countries require transgender people to undergo sterilization before gaining legal recognition of their gender, a practice that Juan E. Méndez, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment cites as a violation of the Yogyakarta Principles.Cono Sur (Lima)
The Cono Sur is one of the six areas that make up the Lima Metropolitan Area. It is located in the southern part of the metropolis hence its name. This socioeconomic levels of this district are varied. Most of the population however belongs to the lower and middle classes. An exception to this, however, would be the districts of Chorrillos, San Bartolo, and Santa Maria who have a large population belonging to the middle to upper classes. Many of the residents belonging to these districts are immigrants from various regions of the country. As they settled there, some developed successful communities such as Villa El Salvador, while others still live in poor housing known as Pueblos jóvenes. The area is popular for its beaches and its coastal population greatly increases during the summer months.Favela
A favela (Portuguese pronunciation: [fɐˈvɛlɐ]), is a unique, low and middle-income, and unregulated neighborhood in Brazil that has experienced historical governmental neglect. The first favela, now known as Providência in the center of Rio de Janeiro, appeared in the late 19th century, built by soldiers who had nowhere to live following the Canudos War. Some of the first settlements were called bairros africanos (African neighborhoods). Over the years, many former enslaved Africans moved in. Even before the first favela came into being, poor citizens were pushed away from the city and forced to live in the far suburbs. However, most modern favelas appeared in the 1970s due to rural exodus, when many people left rural areas of Brazil and moved to cities. Unable to find places to live, many people found themselves in favelas. Census data released in December 2011 by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) showed that in 2010, about 6 percent of the Brazilian population lived in slums.Geography of Peru
Peru is a country on the central western coast of South America facing the Pacific Ocean. It lies wholly in the Southern Hemisphere, its northernmost extreme reaching to 1.8 minutes of latitude or about 3.3 kilometres (2.1 mi) south of the equator. Peru shares land borders with Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia, and Chile, with its longest land border shared with Brazil.History of Lima
The history of Lima, the capital of Peru, began with its foundation by Francisco Pizarro on January 18, 1535. The city was established on the valley of the Rímac River in an area populated by the Ichma polity. It became the capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru and site of a Real Audiencia in 1543. In the 17th century, the city prospered as the center of an extensive trade network despite damage from earthquakes and the threat of pirates. However, prosperity came to an end in the 18th century due to an economic downturn and the Bourbon Reforms.
The population of Lima played an ambivalent role in the 1821–1824 Peruvian War of Independence; the city suffered exactions from Royalist and Patriot armies alike. After independence, Lima became the capital of the Republic of Peru. It enjoyed a short period of prosperity in the mid-19th century until the 1879–1883 War of the Pacific when it was occupied and looted by Chilean troops. After the war, the city went through a period of demographic expansion and urban renewal. Population growth accelerated in the 1940s spurred by immigration from the Andean regions of Peru. This gave rise to the proliferation of shanty towns as public services failed to keep up with the city expansion.Lima
Lima (, Spanish pronunciation: [ˈlima], Quechua: [ˈlɪma], Aymara: [ˈlima]) is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. With a population of more than 9 million, Lima is the most populous metropolitan area of Peru and the third-largest city in the Americas (as defined by "city proper"), behind São Paulo and Mexico City.
Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on 18 January 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes in the agricultural region known by the Indians as Limaq, name that acquired over time. It became the capital and most important city in the Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru (República del Perú). Around one-third of the national population lives in the metropolitan area.
Lima is home to one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the New World. The National University of San Marcos, founded on 12 May 1551, during the Spanish colonial regime, is the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas.
Nowadays the city is considered as the political, cultural, financial and commercial center of the country. Internationally, it is one of the thirty most populated urban agglomerations in the world. Due to its geostrategic importance, it has been defined as a "beta" city.
Jurisdictionally, the metropolis extends mainly within the province of Lima and in a smaller portion, to the west, within the constitutional province of Callao, where the seaport and the Jorge Chávez airport are located. Both provinces have regional autonomy since 2002.
In October 2013, Lima was chosen to host the 2019 Pan American Games, these games will be held at venues in and around Lima, and will be the largest sporting event ever hosted by the country. It also hosted the United Nations Climate Change Conference in December 2014 and the Miss Universe 1982 contest.List of slums
This is a list of slums. A slum as defined by the United Nations agency UN-Habitat, is a run-down area of a city characterized by substandard housing, squalor, and lacking in tenure security. According to the United Nations, the percentage of urban dwellers living in slums decreased from 47 percent to 37 percent in the developing world between 1990 and 2005. However, due to rising population, and the rise especially in urban populations, the number of slum dwellers is rising. One billion people worldwide live in slums and the figure is projected to grow to 2 billion by 2030.Lorenzo Palacios Quispe
Lorenzo Palacios Quispe (April 26, 1950 in Lima, Peru – June 24, 1994) was a Peruvian singer and musician. He arose under the artist name Chacalón (Big Jackal). He was called by his fans El Faraón de la Chicha ("The Pharaoh of Chicha music-('Peruvian Cumbia')).Rímac District
Rímac is a district in the Lima Province, Peru. It lies directly to the north of downtown Lima, to which it is connected by six bridges over the Rímac River. The district also borders the Independencia, San Martín de Porres, and San Juan de Lurigancho districts. Vestiges of Lima's colonial heyday remain today in an area of the Rímac district known as the Historic centre of Lima, which was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988.
Downtown Rímac District has, like its southern counterpart, its eastern and western sides divided by Jirón Trujillo, which connects to Lima District's Jirón de la Unión through the Puente de Piedra, the oldest bridge in the whole city. Rímac's East side features the Plaza de Acho, the most famous bullfighting arena in South America and one of the most well known in the world.
Looking directly from Puente Ricardo Palma on downtown Lima district's East side can be seen a large building with the logo of Cristal beer, one of two famous Peruvian brands. This was the main brewery until the Backus company moved operations to Ate in the 1990s.
North of the plant goes the Alameda de los Descalzos, a short boulevard with a large planted median leading into the Convento de los Descalzos (Discalced Monks convent). Built in the 18th century by the Spanish colonial government, it is one of the best features in this lower-middle-class district.
Northern Rímac, or Amancaes, once romanticized in ballads as "La Flor de Amancaes", a hilly prairie, is now overrun with pueblos jóvenes (shanty towns). The Cerro San Cristóbal, which is the highest point in the Lima Province, is located in the district.Shanty town
A shanty town or squatter area is a settlement of improvised housing which is known as shanties or shacks, made of plywood, corrugated metal, sheets of plastic, and cardboard boxes.Sometimes called a squatter, or spontaneous settlement, a typical shanty town often lacks adequate infrastructure, including proper sanitation, safe water supply, electricity, hygienic streets, or other basic necessities to support human settlements.
Shanty towns are mostly found in developing nations, but also in some parts of developed nations. Such settlements are usually found on the periphery of cities, in public parks, or near railroad tracks, rivers, lagoons or city trash dump sites.Squatting
Squatting is the action of occupying an abandoned or unoccupied area of land or a building, usually residential, that the squatter does not own, rent or otherwise have lawful permission to use.
Author Robert Neuwirth suggested in 2004 that there were one billion squatters globally. Yet, according to Kesia Reeve, "squatting is largely absent from policy and academic debate and is rarely conceptualised, as a problem, as a symptom, or as a social or housing movement."Squatting can be related to political movements, such as anarchist, autonomist, or socialist. It can be a means to conserve buildings or simply to provide affordable housing.
In many of the world's poorer countries, there are extensive slums or shanty towns, typically built on the edges of major cities and consisting almost entirely of self-constructed housing built without the landowner's permission. While these settlements may, in time, grow to become both legalised and indistinguishable from normal residential neighbourhoods, they start off as squats with minimal basic infrastructure. Thus, there is no sewerage system, drinking water must be bought from vendors or carried from a nearby tap, and if there is electricity, it is stolen from a passing cable.
During the Great Recession and increased housing foreclosures in the late 2000s, squatting became far more prevalent in Western, developed nations.Besides being residences, some squats are used as social centres or host give-away shops, pirate radio stations or cafés. In Spanish-speaking countries, squatters receive several names, such as okupas in Spain, Chile or Argentina (from the verb ocupar meaning "to occupy"), or paracaidistas in Mexico (meaning "parachuters", because they "parachute" themselves at unoccupied land).Sullana
Sullana is the name of the capital of the Sullana Province, in the north-western coastal plains of Peru on the Chira valley.Villa miseria
A villa miseria (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈbiʃa miˈseɾja]), or just villa, is a type of shanty town or slum found in Argentina, mostly around the largest urban settlements.