Puducherry (/pʊdʊˈtʃɛri/, literally New Town in Tamil), formerly known as Pondicherry (/pɒndɪˈtʃɛri/; French: Pondichéry), is a union territory in India. It was formed out of four exclaves of former French India, namely Pondichéry (Pondicherry; now Puducherry), Karikal (Karaikal), Mahé and Yanam (Yanam). It is named after the largest district, Puducherry. Historically known as Pondicherry (Pāṇṭiccēri), the territory changed its official name to Puducherry (Putuccēri) on 20 September 2006.
Puducherry lies in the southern part of the Indian Peninsula. The areas of Puducherry district and Karaikal district are bound by the state of Tamil Nadu, while Yanam district and Mahé district are enclosed by the states of Andhra Pradesh and Kerala respectively. Puducherry is the 29th most populous and the third most densely populated of the states and union territories of India. It has a gross domestic product (GDP) of ₹0.21 lakh crore (US$2.9 billion) and ranks 25th in India.
Aerial view of Puducherry
Seal of Puducherry
Location of Puducherry (marked in red) in India
|French India colony of the French colonial empire||1673|
|de facto transfer to India||1 November 1954|
|de jure transfer to India||16 August 1962|
|Capital and Largest city||Pondicherry|
|• Lieutenant Governor||Kiran Bedi|
|• Chief Minister||V Narayanasamy (INC) |
|• Chief Secretary||Ashwani Kumar, IAS|
|• Director General of Police||Sunil Kumar Gautam, IPS|
|• Legislature||Unicameral (33*seats) |
|• Total||483 km2 (186 sq mi)|
|• Density||2,600/km2 (6,700/sq mi)|
|• Official||Tamil (in Pondicherry and Karaikal)  Malayalam (in Mahé), Telugu (in Yanam), English and French|
|Time zone||UTC+05:30 (IST)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-PY|
|Vehicle registration||PY 01, PY 02, PY 03, PY 04, PY 05, PY 05V|
|^* 30 elected, 3 nominated|
|State symbols of Puducherry|
|Song||Invocation to Tamil Goddess (written by Bharathidasan)|
|Flower||Cannonball tree flower|
|Tree||Bael fruit tree|
The earliest recorded history of the municipality of Puducherry can be traced to the 2nd century AD. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea mentions a marketplace named Poduke (ch 60). G. W. B. Huntingford suggested this might be a site about 2 miles from the modern Puducherry, which was possibly the location of Arikamedu (now part of Ariyankuppam). Huntingford noted that Roman pottery was found at Arikamedu in 1937. In addition, archaeological excavations between 1944 and 1949 showed that it was "a trading station to which goods of Roman manufacture were imported during the first half of the 1st century CE" Subsequent investigation by Vimala Begley from 1989 to 1992 modified this assessment, and now place the period of occupation from the 3rd or 2nd century BCE to the 8th century CE. to .
In 1674, the municipality of Pondicherry (Pondichéry) became a French colony of the French colonial empire. Together with Chandernagor (already French since 1673), Mahé (since 1721), Yanam (Yanaon) (since 1731), Karaikal (Karikal) (since 1739) and Masulipatam (1760), it formed the French colony of French India, under a single French governor in Pondicherry, although French rule over one or more of these enclaves was repeatedly interrupted by British occupations. The territories of French India were completely transferred to the Republic of India de facto on 1 November 1954, and de jure on 16 August 1962, when French India ceased to exist, becoming the present Indian constituent union territory of Pondicherry, combining four coastal enclaves (with the exception of Chandernagor, which merged with the state of West Bengal in 1954).
The union territory of Puducherry consists of four small unconnected districts: Puducherry district (293 km2 (113 sq mi)), Karaikal district (161 km2 (62 sq mi)) and Yanam district (20 km2 (7.7 sq mi)) on the Bay of Bengal and Mahé district (9 km2 (3.5 sq mi)) on the Arabian Sea, covering a total area of 483 km2 (186 sq mi). Puducherry and Karaikal have the largest areas and population, and are both enclaves of Tamil Nadu. Yanam and Mahé are enclaves of Andhra Pradesh and Kerala, respectively. Its population, as per the 2011 Census, is 1,244,464.
Some of Puducherry's regions are themselves amalgamations of non-contiguous enclaves, often called pockets in India. The Puducherry region is made of 11 such pockets, some of which are very small and entirely surrounded by the territory of Tamil Nadu. Mahé region is made up of three pockets. This unusual geography is a legacy of the colonial period with Puducherry retaining the borders of former French India.
All four regions of Puducherry are located in the coastal region. Five rivers in Puducherry district, seven in Karaikal district, two in Mahé district and one in Yanam district drain into the sea, but none originates within the territory.
Puducherry is a Union Territory of India rather than a state, which implies that governance and administration falls directly under federal authority. However, Puducherry is one of only two union territories in India (the other being Delhi), that is entitled by a special constitutional amendment to have an elected legislative assembly and a cabinet of ministers, thereby conveying partial statehood.
The Centre is represented by the Lieutenant Governor, who resides at the Raj Nivas (Le Palais du Gouverneur) at the Park, the former palace of the French governor. The central government is more directly involved in the territory's financial well-being unlike states, which have a central grant that they administer. Consequently, Puducherry has at various times, enjoyed lower taxes, especially in the indirect category.
According to the Treaty of Cession of 1956, the four territories of former French India territorial administration are permitted to make laws with respect to specific matters. In many cases, such legislation may require ratification from the federal government or the assent of the President of India.
Article II of the Treaty states:
“The Establishments will keep the benefit of the special administrative status which was in force prior to 1 November 1954. Any constitutional changes in this status which may be made subsequently shall be made after ascertaining the wishes of the people.”
French was the official language according to Article XXVIII of the "Traité de Cession" (Treaty of Cession) of 1956. According to the treaty, "the French language shall remain the official language of the Establishments so long as the elected representatives of the people shall not decide otherwise". Through the 1963 Union Territories Act, Tamil, Telugu and Malayalam became official languages used region-wise. French did not lose its official status even after the adoption of The Pondicherry Official Language Act 1965 (Act No. 3 of 1965). This act stated that "the Tamil language shall (...) be the language to be used for all or any of the official purposes of the Union territory". It also provides for the use of the Malayalam and Telugu languages in the Mahé and Yanam districts. The law also states that English "may be used for all or any of the official purposes of the Union territory". As of today, the official gazette of Puducherry is still published in French, albeit with a marginal use.
The plan of the city of Pondicherry is based on the French grid pattern and features perpendicular streets. The town is divided into two sections: the French Quarter (Ville Blanche or 'White Town') and the Indian quarter (Ville Noire or 'Black Town'). Many streets retain French names, and villas in French architectural styles are a common sight. In the French quarter, the buildings are typically in French colonial style, with long compounds and stately walls. The Indian quarter consists of houses lined with verandas and with large doors and grilles. These French- and Indian-style houses are preserved from destruction by an organisation named INTACH. The French language can be seen on signs and menus, and heard in Puducherry. Puducherry has residents with French passports: Most are of Indian descent and a small number are of non-Indian descent. At the time of Puducherry's transfer to India in 1954, residents were given a choice to retain their French citizenship or to gain Indian citizenship. Those with French passports today are generally descendants of residents who chose to keep their French citizenship.
Several monuments in the city pertain to the French period. A French Consulate is in Puducherry, along with cultural organisations. Another important building is Le Foyer du Soldat, a veterans legion hall for soldiers who served in French wars. Among the French cultural organisations, the French Institute of Pondicherry, the Puducherry Centre of the École française d'Extrême-Orient and a branch of the Alliance Française are noteworthy. A French high school (Lycée français de Pondichéry) operates under the aegis of the French Minister of National Education.
The gross state domestic product of Puducherry, at market prices estimated by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in crores of Indian rupees grew from 184 to 25,819 crore rupees from 1980– 2014.
|Year||Gross State Domestic Product|
The potential for fisheries is substantial in the Union Territory. The four regions of the Union Territory have a coastline of 45 km with 675 of inshore waters, 1.347 hectares (3.33 acres) of inland water and 800 ha of brackish water. 27 marine fishing villages and 23 inland fishing villages host a fishermen population of about 65,000 of which 13,000 are actively engaged in fishing. Tanks and ponds are also tapped for commercial fish rearing.
Puducherry is one of the most popular tourist spots for national and international tourists. Out of 274 Paadal Petra Sthalam Shiva Temples, the Puducherry region is owning 1 temple and in Karaikal regions it is having 4 temples which itself a clear proof that the Puducherry territory is also a part of the spiritual and sacramental of Shaivism principles. Besides in Villianur, Bahour and in so many areas of Puducherry region there are so many Shiva temples built up during the golden period of King Chola empire which gives immense pleasure to be proud of that our Puducherry territory was administered under the control of such golden rulers. So visiting such ancient temples would definitely give more spiritual vibrations to the tourists. For every year the Puducherry territory administration also declares official Holiday for performing the grand Car Festivals to the temples situates in Villianur, Veerampattinam that too the Lieutenant Governor of Puducherry and the Chief Minister of Puducherry also participates in such grand Car Festival. Besides in Kizhoor, Puducherry which is 22 km away from Puducherry therein on 18-10-1954 a referendum was conducted to ensure that whether the erstwhile French establishments of Puducherry shall continue with French administration or to merge with Indian Union and finally decided to merge with Indian Union. Puducherry was the residence of Sri Aurobindo (1872–1950) and the Sri Aurobindo Ashram still operates from Puducherry. A unique experimental city Auroville, the brainchild of the Mother, whose inhabitants are drawn from all parts of the world is situated on the outskirts of the city. There are several temples, churches, monuments, parks and mosques which attract tourists.
Puducherry has a network all weather metalled roads connecting the territory. Puducherry has a road length of 2,552 km (road length per 4.87 km2), the highest in the country.
|Road length comparison with Tamil Nadu and India as a whole|
|Total road length (in Puducherry)||2,552 km|
|Road length per 1000 km2||Puducherry||Tamil Nadu||India|
|Sl. No.||Type of road||Length in (km)|
|3||District & other roads|
|Puducherry – 173.384|
|Karaikal – 55.162|
|Mahé – 19.622|
|Yanam – 26.460|
|Puducherry – 164.964|
|Karaikal – 83.470|
Puducherry Airport is situated at Lawspet. The Puducherry Government upgraded the airport in 2012 with a new terminal building and apron to accommodate larger aircraft. The new terminal building was inaugurated in January 2013 and scheduled flights to Bengaluru were launched. A MoU has been signed with Airports Authority of India for expansion of Puducherry Airport in two phases. Karaikal Airport is a planned greenfield airport and will be the India's first airport to be built entirely with private capital.
Puducherry has a literacy rate of 100%. Pondicherry University is a central university located in Puducherry. Other colleges include Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER), Indira Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute (Government of Puducherry),Tagore arts and science college, Indira Gandhi College of Arts and science (Govt of Puducherry), Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, National Institute of Technology, Puducherry, Perunthalaivar Kamarajar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Pondicherry Engineering College, Mother Theresa Post Graduate and Research Institute of Health Sciences, Achariya College of Engineering & Technology ACET, Rajiv Gandhi College of Engineering and Technology, Rajiv Gandhi College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Christ institute of technology, Sri Manakula Vinayagar Engineering College, Shri Krishnaa College of Engineering & Technology, Sri Ganesh College Of Engineering and Technology and Sri Venkateshwaraa Medical College Hospital and Research Centre.
The 2019 Indian general election is currently being held in seven phases from 11 April to 19 May 2019 to constitute the 17th Lok Sabha. The counting of votes will be conducted on 23 May, and on the same day the results will be declared. About 900 million Indian citizens are eligible to vote in one of the seven phases depending on the region.
Legislative Assembly elections in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Odisha and Sikkim will be held simultaneously with the general election.All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) (English: All India Anna Dravidian Progressive Party) is an Indian political party in the state of Tamil Nadu and in the union territory of Puducherry. It is currently in power in the state of Tamil Nadu and is the third largest party in the Lok Sabha (House of the Peoples). AIADMK is a Dravidian party founded by M. G. Ramachandran (MGR) on 17 October 1972 as a breakaway faction of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK). From 1989 to 2016, AIADMK was led by Jayalalithaa, who served as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu on several occasions. The party has won majorities in the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly seven times, making it the most successful political outfit in the state's history. The party headquarters is located in the Royapettah neighbourhood of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, in a building donated to the party in 1986 by Janaki Ramachandran, MGR's wife.Bharathidasan
KanakaSubburathinam (Tamil: பாரதிதாசன்; 29 April 1891 – 21 April 1964, popularly called Bharathidasan) was a 20th-century Tamil poet and writer rationalist whose literary works handled mostly socio-political issues. He was deeply influenced by Tamil Poet Mahakavi Subramania Bharati and named himself as Bharathidasan. His writings served as a catalyst for the growth of the Dravidian movement in Tamil Nadu. In addition to poetry, his views found expression in other forms such as plays, film scripts, short stories and essays. The Government of Puducherry union territory has adopted the song of invocation to Goddess Tamil written by Bharathidasan as the state song of Puducherry.Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (Dravidian Progressive Conference) is an Indian state political party in the state of Tamil Nadu and Union Territory of Puducherry. It is a Dravidian party founded by C. N. Annadurai in 1949 as a breakaway faction from the Dravidar Kazhagam (known as Justice Party until 1944) headed by Periyar E. V. Ramasamy. DMK was headed by M. Karunanidhi from 1969 until his death on 7 August 2018. He served as Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu five times. DMK was the first party other than the Indian National Congress to win state-level elections with a clear majority on its own in any state in India. The head office of the party is called Anna Arivalayam, which is located at Anna Salai, Teynampet, Chennai, Tamil Nadu.List of State Highways in Puducherry
State Highways or RC Roads are the major roads next to National Highways in Puducherry District designated with numbering. Public Works Department (PWD), Puducherry is primarily responsible for planning, design, construction and maintenance of RC Roads.List of lakes of India
This is a list of notable lakes in India.M. Night Shyamalan
Manoj Nelliyattu "M. Night" Shyamalan ( SHAH-mə-lahn; born August 6, 1970) is an American filmmaker and actor. He is known for making films with contemporary supernatural plots and twist endings. He was born in Mahé, Puducherry, India, and raised in Penn Valley, Pennsylvania.
He made his directorial debut in 1992 with his first movie Praying with Anger. His second movie was the comedy-drama film Wide Awake (1998). His most well-received films include the supernatural thriller The Sixth Sense (1999), the superhero thriller Unbreakable (2000), the science fiction thriller Signs (2002) and the period-piece thriller The Village (2004). For The Sixth Sense, Shyamalan received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Director and the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay. Afterward, Shyamalan released a series of poorly received but sometimes financially successful movies, including the dark fantasy Lady in the Water (2006), the eco-thriller The Happening (2008), The Last Airbender (2010) (an adaptation of the animated TV series Avatar: The Last Airbender), and the science fiction film After Earth (2013). Following the financial failure of After Earth, Shyamalan's career was revived with the release of the found footage horror film The Visit (2015) and the psychological thriller Split (2016). His latest film is the superhero thriller Glass (2019), which is the third and final chapter of his Unbreakable film series.
In addition to his directorial work, Shyamalan was a producer for the horror film Devil (2010). He was also instrumental in the creation of the Fox science fiction series Wayward Pines (2015–2016), for which he executive produced and directed the pilot episode. He also appeared in an episode of the series Entourage. Shyamalan was also called in for an uncredited rewrite for the teen film She's All That (1998) and also served as a writer for the film Stuart Little (1999).
Shyamalan is also known for filming and setting his films in and outside of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Most of his commercially successful films were co-produced and released by the Walt Disney Studios' Touchstone and Hollywood film imprints. In 2008, Shyamalan was awarded the Padma Shri by the government of India.Mahé, Puducherry
Mahé, natively known as Mayyazhi, is a small town at the mouth of the Mahé River and is surrounded on all sides by the State of Kerala. The Kannur District surrounds Mahé on three sides and Kozhikode District from one side.
Formerly part of French India, Mahé now forms a municipality in Mahé district, one of the four districts of the Union Territory of Puducherry. Mahé has one member (MLA) in the Puducherry Legislative Assembly.National Highway 332 (India)
National Highway 332 (NH 332) is a national highway in India. It is a secondary route of National Highway 32. NH-332 runs in the state of Tamil Nadu and Puducherry U.T. in India.Pondicherry
Pondicherry ( or ), officially known as Puducherry, is the capital and the most populous city of the Indian Union Territory of Puducherry, with a population of 657,209 and an area of 492 sq km. The city is in the Puducherry district of the union territory and is surrounded by the state of Tamil Nadu to which it shares most of its culture. It is affectionately called Pondy and short code as "Pdy," and has been officially known by the alternative name Puducherry in Tamil (New Town) since 2006.Pondicherry city consists of 42 wards. Wards 1–10 are north of the city. Wards 11–19 are in Boulevard Town and remaining wards are southwest of the city centre.Pondicherry Airport
Pondicherry Airport (IATA: PNY, ICAO: VOPC) is an airport located at Lawspet in Pondicherry, a Union territory of India. It is situated 8.1 km from the international community of Auroville. The airport has scheduled flights and operations of the local flying training school. In 2007, the Pondicherry Government decided to expand the airport to accommodate larger aircraft and commissioned a new terminal building. The new terminal was inaugurated on 18 January 2013 with the arrival of a SpiceJet flight from Bangalore. After a gap of three years, the airport was operationalised again under the UDAN scheme in August 2017 with a daily flight to Hyderabad AirportPuducherry Legislative Assembly
The Puducherry Legislative Assembly is the unicameral legislature of the Indian union territory (UT) of Puducherry, which comprises four districts: Puducherry, Karaikal, Mahé and Yanam. The legislative assembly has 30 seats, of which 5 are reserved for candidates from scheduled castes. Members are elected directly by the people on the basis of universal adult franchise.
Geographically, the area under the Puducherry UT consists of three disjointed regions, with Puducherry and Karaikal districts surrounded by districts of Tamil Nadu, Yanam district an enclave of East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, and Mahé district bordered by districts of Kerala. The four districts were ruled by French before they were integrated into India in 1962. For ease of administration, during French rule, the area under these four districts was divided into 39 assembly constituencies. After becoming a UT of India, Puducherry was divided into 30 assembly constituencies, which were restructured in 2005 by the Delimitation Commission of India.Puducherry Munnetra Congress
The Puducherry Munnetra Congress, formerly known as the Pondicherry Munnetra Congress, (PMC or புமுக) is a political party in India active in the Union Territory of Puducherry. It was formed by P. Kannan on 11 May 2005. Its symbol is bridge.
At present, the party holds 3 seats in the Puducherry Legislative Assembly which they won during the 2006 elections with All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) as its ally.
During the general election of 2009, the party switched camps and now supports the Indian National Congress.Puducherry Pradesh Congress Committee
Puducherry Pradesh Congress Committee (or Puducherry PCC) is the affiliate of the Indian National Congress in the union territory of Puducherry. It is headed by A. Namachivayam.Puducherry Prevention of Anti-Social Activities Act
The Puducherry Prevention of Anti-Social Activities Act, 2008 (PPASA) is an act of the Puducherry assembly which provides for preventive detention of boot-leggers, dangerous persons, forest offenders, gamblers, goondas and property grabbers for prevention of their anti-social and dangerous activities prejudicial to the maintenance of public order.The bill was introduced in the assembly on 20 October 2008, and the act came into effect from 27 October 2010.Puducherry cricket team
The Puducherry cricket team is a cricket team representing the state of Puducherry in Indian domestic competitions. In July 2018, the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) named the team as one of the nine new sides that would compete in domestic tournaments for the 2018–19 season, including the Ranji Trophy and the Vijay Hazare Trophy.In August 2018, Abhishek Nayar, who previously played for Mumbai, decided to join the team. In September 2018, they won their opening fixture of the 2018–19 Vijay Hazare Trophy, beating Manipur by 8 wickets. However, the next day, the BCCI revoked the team's allowance around players from outside the state the team is located in, after concerns were raised that no local cricketers had played in the match. Eight players were found to be outside the BCCI's eligibility criteria.In their first season in the Vijay Hazare Trophy, they finished in third place in the Plate Group, with five wins and two defeats from their eight matches. The other two matches finished as no results. Paras Dogra finished as the leading run-scorer, with 257 runs, and Fabid Ahmed was the leading wicket-taker for the team, with eleven dismissals.In November 2018, they played in their first match in the Ranji Trophy, against Meghalaya, in the 2018–19 tournament. In their opening match in the tournament, Paras Dogra became the first batsman for Puducherry to score a century in the Ranji Trophy. The match was affected by rain and finished in a draw. They finished the 2018–19 tournament third in the table, with four wins from their eight matches.In March 2019, Puducherry finished seventh in Group E of the 2018–19 Syed Mushtaq Ali Trophy, with one win from their seven matches. Paras Dogra was the leading run-scorer for the team in the tournament, with 255 runs, and Parandaman Thamaraikannan was the leading wicket-taker, with seven dismissals.Puducherry district
Puducherry district (French: District de Pondichéry, Tamil: புதுச்சேரி மாவட்டம்), formerly Pondicherry district is one of the four districts of the union territory of Puducherry in southern India. The district occupies an area of 290 square kilometres (110 sq mi), spread over 11 non-contiguous enclaves lying on or near the Bay of Bengal within a compact area in the state of Tamil Nadu. According to the 2011 census, the district has a population of 946,600.Union territory
A union territory is a type of administrative division in the Republic of India. Unlike the states of India, which have their own governments, union territories are federal territories ruled directly by the union government (central government), hence the name "union territory"V. Narayanasamy
Velu Narayanasamy (born 30 May 1947) is an Indian National Congress politician, who is the current and 10th Chief Minister of the Union Territory of Puducherry since June 2016.
He previously served as Member of Parliament, representing Puducherry in the Lok Sabha. He served as a Union Minister of State in the Prime Minister's Office in the Manmohan Singh government.
In the 2014 general elections, he was defeated by the NDA candidate R. Radhakrishnan, who was backed by the ruling All India N.R. Congress. He is a member of the Congress Working Committee as well as All India Congress Committee's General Secretary.
Union Territory of Puducherry
|Places of interest|