Public relations

Public relations (PR) is the practice of deliberately managing the spread of information between an individual or an organization (such as a business, government agency, or a nonprofit organization) and the public.[1] Public relations may include an organization or individual gaining exposure to their audiences using topics of public interest and news items that do not require direct payment.[2] This differentiates it from advertising as a form of marketing communications. Public relations is the idea of creating coverage for clients for free, rather than marketing or advertising. But now advertising is also a part of greater PR Activities.[3] An example of good public relations would be generating an article featuring a client, rather than paying for the client to be advertised next to the article.[4] The aim of public relations is to inform the public, prospective customers, investors, partners, employees, and other stakeholders and ultimately persuade them to maintain a positive or favorable view about the organization, its leadership, products, or political decisions. Public relations professionals typically work for PR and marketing firms, businesses and companies, government, and public officials as PIOs and nongovernmental organizations, and nonprofit organizations. Jobs central to public relations include account coordinator, account executive, account supervisor, and media relations manager.[5]

Public relations specialists establish and maintain relationships with an organisation's target audience, the media, relevant trade media, and other opinion leaders. Common responsibilities include designing communications campaigns, writing news releases and other content for news, working with the press, arranging interviews for company spokespeople, writing speeches for company leaders, acting as an organisation's spokesperson, preparing clients for press conferences, media interviews and speeches, writing website and social media content, managing company reputation (crisis management), managing internal communications, and marketing activities like brand awareness and event management [6] Success in the field of public relations requires a deep understanding of the interests and concerns of each of the company's many stakeholders. The public relations professional must know how to effectively address those concerns using the most powerful tool of the public relations trade, which is publicity.[7]

Definitions

Ivy Lee, the man who turned around the Rockefeller name and image, and his friend, Edward Louis Bernays, established the first definition of public relations in the early 1900s as follows: "a management function, which tabulates public attitudes, defines the policies, procedures and interests of an organization... followed by executing a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance."[8] However, when Lee was later asked about his role in a hearing with the United Transit Commission, he said "I have never been able to find a satisfactory phrase to describe what I do."[9] In 1948, historian Eric Goldman noted that the definition of public relations in Webster's would be "disputed by both practitioners and critics in the field."[9]

According to Bernays, the public relations counsel is the agent working with both modern media of communications and group formations of society in order to provide ideas to the public's consciousness. Furthermore, he is also concerned with ideologies and courses of actions as well as material goods and services and public utilities and industrial associations and large trade groups for which it secures popular support.[10]

In August 1978, the World Assembly of Public Relations Associations defined the field as

"the art and social science of analyzing trends, predicting their consequences, counseling organizational leaders and implementing planned programs of action, which will serve both the organization and the public interest."[11]

Public Relations Society of America, a professional trade association,[12] defined public relations in 1982 as:

"Public relations helps an organization and its publics adapt mutually to each other."[13]

In 2011 and 2012, the PRSA solicited crowd supplied definitions for the term and allowed the public to vote on one of three finalists. The winning definition stated that:

"Public relations is a strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationships between organizations and their publics."[14]

Public relations can also be defined as the practice of managing communication between an organization and its publics.[15]

Public relations is to speak out its advocacy in public, and it builds up a talking platform to achieve its goals and protect the interests of people.[16]

History

Public relations is not a phenomenon of the 20th century, but rather has historical roots. Most textbooks consider the establishment of the Publicity Bureau in 1900 to be the founding of the public relations profession. However, academics have found early forms of public influence and communications management in ancient civilizations, during the settling of the New World and during the movement to abolish slavery in England. Basil Clark is considered the founder of public relations in the United Kingdom for his establishment of Editorial Services in 1924.

Propaganda was used by the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and others to rally for domestic support and demonize enemies during the World Wars, which led to more sophisticated commercial publicity efforts as public relations talent entered the private sector. Most historians believe public relations became established first in the US by Ivy Lee or Edward Bernays, then spread internationally. Many American companies with PR departments spread the practice to Europe when they created European subsidiaries as a result of the Marshall plan.

The second half of the 1900s is considered the professional development building era of public relations. Trade associations, PR news magazines, international PR agencies, and academic principles for the profession were established. In the early 2000s, press release services began offering social media press releases. The Cluetrain Manifesto, which predicted the effect of social media in 1999, was controversial in its time, but by 2006, the effect of social media and new internet technologies became broadly accepted.

Career prospects

United Kingdom

Cosmopolitan reported that the average annual salary for a "public relations director" was £77,619 in 2017.[17]The remuneration is very similar to that of British members of parliament, thereby highlighting the similarity of the skill sets involved. One notable former PR practitioner was former Prime Minister David Cameron[18].

United States

Education

Public relations practitioners typically have a bachelor's degree in journalism, communications, public relations, marketing, or English.[19] Many senior practitioners have advanced degrees; a 2015 survey found that forty-percent of chief communications officers at Fortune 500 companies had master's degrees.[20]

In 2013, a survey of the 21,000 members of the Public Relations Society of America found that 18-percent held the Accreditation in Public Relations.[21]

Salary

The BLS reports the median annual wage for public relations specialists was $67,990 in 2017. The best-paid 10 percent in the field made approximately $112,260, while the bottom 10 percent made approximately $32,840.[22]

According to the United States Department of Labor, the Bureau of Labor Statistics reports an 9 percent growth in job outlook from 2016-2026. [23]

According to a 2017 survey by Spring Associates, public relations practitioners in the United States private sector – working at PR agencies - earn salaries which range from $54,900 for an early career position as an account executive, to $118,400 for a mid-career position as an account director, to $174,200 for a senior position as an executive vice-president.[24] Those working in the private sector within a company or organization's PR department earn salaries ranging from $77,600 for an early-career position as a PR specialist, to $149,300 in a mid-career position as a PR director, to $185,000 for a senior position as a vice-president of public relations.[24] Salaries tended to be higher for persons employed in major media markets such as New York and Los Angeles, and lower for those employed in tertiary markets.[24]

The c-level position of chief communications officer (CCO), used in some private companies, usually earned more than $220,000 annually as of 2013.[25] CCOs at Fortune 200 companies, meanwhile, had an average compensation package of just over $1 million annually, according to a 2009 survey by Fortune; this amount included base salary, bonus, and stock options.[26]

The position of chief reputation officer is concerned with "reputational risk" from sources including social media and inappropriate individual or corporate behaviour, and deals with public relations from that angle.[27] This kind of risk was seen as a growing concern for many companies since at least the mid-2010s, related to the rise of social media.[28]

The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reported public relations specialists had a median annual salary of $59,020 in 2016.[19]

Within the U.S. federal government, public affairs workers[a] had a 2016 average salary of approximately $101,922, with the U.S. Forest Service employing the most such professionals.[30] Of federal government agencies employing more than one public affairs worker, those at the Federal Aviation Administration earned the most, on average, at approximately $150,130.[30] The highest-earning public affairs worker within the U.S. government, meanwhile, earned $229,333.[30]

Salaries of public relations specialists in local government vary widely. The chief communications officer of the Utah Transit Authority earned $258,165 in total compensation in 2014 while an early-career public information officer for the city of Conway, South Carolina had a pay range beginning at approximately $59,000 per year in 2017.[31][32]

Tactics

Public relations professionals present the face of an organization or individual, usually to articulate its objectives and official views on issues of relevance, primarily to the media. Public relations contributes to the way an organization is perceived by influencing the media and maintaining relationships with stakeholders. According to Dr. Jacquie L’Etang from Queen Margaret University, public relations professionals can be viewed as "discourse workers specializing in communication and the presentation of argument and employing rhetorical strategies to achieve managerial aims."[33]

Specific public relations disciplines include:

  • Financial public relations – communicating financial results and business strategy
  • Consumer/lifestyle public relations – gaining publicity for a particular product or service
  • Crisis communication – responding in a crisis
  • Internal communications – communicating within the company itself
  • Government relations – engaging government departments to influence public policy
  • Media relations – a public relations function that involves building and maintaining close relationships with the news media so that they can sell and promote a business.
  • Social Media/Community Marketing - in today's climate, public relations professionals leverage social media marketing to distribute messages about their clients to desired target markets
  • In-house public relations – a public relations professional hired to manage press and publicity campaigns for the company that hired them.

Building and managing relationships with those who influence an organization or individual's audiences has a central role in doing public relations.[34][35] After a public relations practitioner has been working in the field, they accumulate a list of relationships that become an asset, especially for those in media relations.

Within each discipline, typical activities include publicity events, speaking opportunities, press releases, newsletters, blogs, social media, press kits, and outbound communication to members of the press. Video and audio news releases (VNRs and ANRs) are often produced and distributed to TV outlets in hopes they will be used as regular program content.

Audience targeting

A fundamental technique used in public relations is to identify the target audience and to tailor messages to be relevant to each audience.[36] Sometimes the interests of differing audiences and stakeholders common to a public relations effort necessitate the creation of several distinct but complementary messages. These messages however should be relevant to each other, thus creating a consistency to the overall message and theme. Audience targeting tactics are important for public relations practitioners because they face all kinds of problems: low visibility, lack of public understanding, opposition from critics, and insufficient support from funding sources.[37]

On the other hand, stakeholder theory identifies people who have a stake in a given institution or issue.[38] All audiences are stakeholders (or presumptive stakeholders), but not all stakeholders are audiences. For example, if a charity commissions a public relations agency to create an advertising campaign to raise money to find a cure for a disease, the charity and the people with the disease are stakeholders, but the audience is anyone who is likely to donate money. Public relations experts possess deep skills in media relations, market positioning, and branding. They are powerful agents that help clients deliver clear, unambiguous information to a target audience that matters to them.[39]

The Publics in Public Relations

The public is any group whose members have a common interest or common values in a particular subject, such as political party. Those members would then be considered stakeholders, which are people who have a stake or an interest in an organization or issue that potentially involves the organization or group they're interested in. The Publics in Public Relations are:

  • Traditional Publics: Groups with which the individual has an ongoing and long term relationship with, this may include; Employees, Media, Governments, Investors, and Customers[40]
  • Non-Traditional Publics: Groups that are typically unfamiliar with the organization and the individual has not had a relationship with but may become traditional publics due to changes in the organization, in society or if a group changing event occurs.[40]
  • Latent Publics: A group whose values have come into contact with the values of the organization but whose members haven't yet realized it; the members of that public are not yet aware of the relationship.[40]
  • Aware Publics: A group of members who are aware of the existence of a commonality of values or interests with your organization, but have not organized or attempted to respond to that commonality.
  • Intervening Publics: Any public that helps an individual send a message to another public, could be the media or someone with stature.[40]
  • Primary Publics: If a public can directly affect an organization's pursuit of its values-driven goals. This publics would include media, employees, government, shareholder, financial institutions, and the immediate community.[40]
  • Secondary Publics: Have high interest in the company such as the primary publics but will not be directly affected by decisions of the organization.[40]
  • Internal Publics: People within an organization[40]
  • External Publics: People outside of an organization[40]
  • Domestic Publics: Those within the country[40]
  • International Publics: Those outside of the country and when communicating with this publics individuals must be wary of that areas culture, beliefs, values, ethic, and other valuable cultural difference as to not offend anyone.[40]

Messaging

Messaging is the process of creating a consistent story around: a product, person, company, or service. Messaging aims to avoid having readers receive contradictory or confusing information that will instill doubt in their purchasing choices, or other decisions that affect the company. Brands aim to have the same problem statement, industry viewpoint, or brand perception shared across sources and media.

Social media marketing

Digital marketing is the use of Internet tools and technologies such as search engines, Web 2.0 social bookmarking, new media relations, blogging, and social media marketing. Interactive PR allows companies and organizations to disseminate information without relying solely on mainstream publications and communicate directly with the public, customers and prospects.

PR practitioners have always relied on the media such as TV, radio, and magazines, to promote their ideas and messages tailored specifically to a target audience. Social media marketing is not only a new way to achieve that goal, it is also a continuation of a strategy that existed for decades. Lister et al. said that "Digital media can be seen as a continuation and extension of a principal or technique that was already in place".[41]

PR professionals are well aware of the fact that digital technology is used in a practically different way than before. For instance, cellphones are no longer just devices we use to talk to one another. They are also used for online shopping, dating, learning and getting the most up to date news around the world.[42]

As digital technology has evolved, the methods to measure effective online public relations effectiveness have improved. The Public Relations Society of America, which has been developing PR strategies since 1947, identified 5 steps to measure online public relations effectiveness.

  1. Engagement: Measure the number of people who engaged with an item (social shares, likes and comments).
  2. Impressions: Measure the number of people who may have viewed an item.
  3. Items: Measure any content (blog posts, articles, etc.) that originally appeared as digital media.
  4. Mentions: Measure how many online items mention the brand, organization, or product.
  5. Reach: Measure how far the PR campaign managed to penetrate overall and in terms of a particular audience.[43]

Types of Public Relations Arenas

Publicists can work in a host of different types of business verticals such as entertainment, technology, music, travel, television, food, consumer electronics and more. Many publicists build their career in a specific business space to leverage relationships and contacts. There are different kinds of press strategies for such as B2B (business to business) or B2C (business to consumer). Business to business publicity highlights service providers who provide services and products to other businesses. Business to Consumer publicizes products and services for regular consumers, such as toys, travel, food, entertainment, personal electronics and music.

Other techniques

Litigation public relations is the management of the communication process during the course of any legal dispute or adjudicatory processing so as to affect the outcome or its effect on the client's overall reputation (Haggerty, 2003).

Ethics

Public relations professionals both serve the public's interest and private interests of businesses, associations, non-profit organizations, and governments. This dual obligation gave rise to heated debates among scholars of the discipline and practitioners over its fundamental values. This conflict represents the main ethical predicament of public relations.[44] In 2000, the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) responded to the controversy by acknowledging in its new code of ethics "advocacy" – for the first time – as a core value of the discipline.[44]

The field of public relations is generally highly un-regulated, but many professionals voluntarily adhere to the code of conduct of one or more professional bodies to avoid exposure for ethical violations.[45] The Chartered Institute of Public Relations, the Public Relations Society of America, and The Institute of Public Relations are a few organizations that publish an ethical code. Still, Edelman's 2003 semi-annual trust survey found that only 20 percent of survey respondents from the public believed paid communicators within a company were credible.[46] Public relations people are growing increasingly concerned with their company's marketing practices, questioning whether they agree with the company's social responsibility. They seek more influence over marketing and more of a counseling and policy-making role. On the other hand, marketing people are increasingly interested in incorporating publicity as a tool within the realm marketing.[47]

According to Scott Cutlip, the social justification for public relations is the right for an organization to have a fair hearing of their point of view in the public forum, but to obtain such a hearing for their ideas requires a skilled advocate.[48]

Public Relation Code of Ethics

The Public Relation Student Society of America has established a set of fundamental guidelines that people within the public relations professions should practice and use in their business atmosphere. These values are:

  • Advocacy: Serving the public interest by acting as responsible advocates for the clientele. This can occur by displaying the marketplace of ideas, facts and viewpoints to aid informed public debate.
  • Honesty: Standing by the truth and accuracy of all facts in the case and advancing those statements to the public.
  • Expertise: To become and stay informed of the specialized knowledge needed in the field of Public Relations. Taking that knowledge and improving the field through development, research and education. Meanwhile, professionals also build their understanding, credibility, and relationships to understand various audiences and industries.
  • Independence: Provide unbiased work to those that are represented while being accountable for all actions.
  • Loyalty: Stay devoted to the client while remembering that there is a duty to still serve the public interest.
  • Fairness: Honorably conduct business with any and all clients, employers, competitors, peers, vendors, media and general public. Respecting all opinions and right of free expression.[49]

Spin

Spin has been interpreted historically to mean overt deceit that is meant to manipulate the public, but since the 1990s has shifted to describing a "polishing of the truth."[50] Today, spin refers to providing a certain interpretation of information meant to sway public opinion.[51] Companies may use spin to create the appearance of the company or other events are going in a slightly different direction than they actually are.[50] Within the field of public relations, spin is seen as a derogatory term, interpreted by professionals as meaning blatant deceit and manipulation.[52][53] Skilled practitioners of spin are sometimes called "spin doctors."

In Stuart Ewen's PR! A Social History of Spin, he argues that public relations can be a real menace to democracy as it renders the public discourse powerless. Corporations are able to hire public relations professionals and transmit their messages through the media channels and exercise a huge amount of influence upon the individual who is defenseless against such a powerful force. He claims that public relations is a weapon for capitalist deception and the best way to resist is to become media literate and use critical thinking when interpreting the various mediated messages.[54]

The techniques of spin include selectively presenting facts and quotes that support ideal positions (cherry picking), the so-called "non-denial denial," phrasing that in a way presumes unproven truths, euphemisms for drawing attention away from items considered distasteful, and ambiguity in public statements. Another spin technique involves careful choice of timing in the release of certain news so it can take advantage of prominent events in the news.

Negative

Negative public relations, also called dark public relations (DPR) and in some earlier writing "Black PR", is a process of destroying the target's reputation and/or corporate identity. The objective in DPR is to discredit someone else, who may pose a threat to the client's business or be a political rival. DPR may rely on IT security, industrial espionage, social engineering and competitive intelligence. Common techniques include using dirty secrets from the target, producing misleading facts to fool a competitor.[55][56][57][58] In politics, a decision to use negative PR is also known as negative campaigning. Public relations are frequently just recycled information used by a plethora of sources, thus giving way to minimal perspectives regarding events.[59]

Politics and civil society

In Propaganda (1928), Bernays argued that the manipulation of public opinion was a necessary part of democracy.[60] In public relations, lobby groups are created to influence government policy, corporate policy or public opinion, typically in a way that benefits the sponsoring organization.

In fact, Bernays stresses that we are in fact dominated in almost every aspect of our lives, by a relatively small number of persons who have mastered the ‘mental processes and social patterns of the masses,’ which include our behavior, political and economic spheres or our morals.[61] In theory, each individual chooses his own opinion on behavior and public issues. However, in practice, it is impossible for one to study all variables and approaches of a particular question and come to a conclusion without any external influence. This is the reason why the society has agreed upon an ‘invisible government’ to interpret on our behalf information and narrow the choice field to a more practical scale.[62]

When a lobby group hides its true purpose and support base, it is known as a front group.[63] Front groups are a form of astroturfing, because they intend to sway the public or the government without disclosing their financial connection to corporate or political interests. They create a fake grass-roots movement by giving the appearance of a trusted organization that serves the public, when they actually serve their sponsors.

Politicians also employ public relations professionals to help project their views, policies and even personalities to their best advantages.[64][65]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ For historic and legal reasons, the term "public affairs" is typically used in lieu of "public relations" within the U.S. federal government.[29]

References

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  2. ^ Seitel, Fraser P. (2007), The Practice of Public Relations. (10th ed.), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall
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  8. ^ Breakenridge, Deirdre (26 March 2008). PR 2.0: New Media, New Tools, New Audiences. FT Press. ISBN 9780132703970.
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  10. ^ Edward Bernays, "The New Propagandists," in Propaganda, (New York: H. Liverlight, 1928), 38.
  11. ^ Jensen Zhao. Encyclopedia of Business, 2nd. Ed. Retrieved from findarticles.com
  12. ^ Special Events: The Roots and Wings of Celebration. ISBN 978-0-470-14492-3.
  13. ^ Trivitt, Keith. "PRSA's Old Definition of Public Relations". Archived from the original on 4 March 2012.
  14. ^ Stuart Elliot (1 March 2012). "Public Relations Defined, After an Energetic Public Discussion". New York Times.
  15. ^ Grunig, James E. and Hunt, Todd. Managing Public Relations. (Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1984), 6e. Public relations is what you do with what you know and what other think about what you say.
  16. ^ CPRS. "CPRS | What is Public Relations?". www.cprs.ca. Archived from the original on 17 April 2017. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  17. ^ Jones, Eleanor (16 March 2017). "Here are the UK average salary figures for 145 jobs". Cosmopolitan. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
  18. ^ https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2010/feb/20/david-cameron-the-pr-years
  19. ^ a b "Public Relations Specialists". bls.gov. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
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  23. ^ https://www.bls.gov/ooh/media-and-communication/public-relations-specialists.htm. Missing or empty |title= (help)
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  29. ^ Turney, Michael. "Government Public Relations". Online Readings in Public Relations. Northern Kentucky University. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
  30. ^ a b c "Public Affairs Worker - Federal Salaries of 2016". federalpay.org. Federal Pay. Retrieved 25 December 2017.
  31. ^ "Job Listing" (PDF). cityofconway.com. City of Conway. 11 October 2017.
  32. ^ Lee, Jasen (25 March 2015). "UTA board approves new pay plan for executives, managers".
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  36. ^ Franklin, Bob; Hogan, Mike; Langley, Quentin; Mosdell, Nick; Pill, Elliot (2009). "Target audience". Key concepts in public relations. SAGE. p. 227. ISBN 978-1-4129-2318-7.
  37. ^ Smith, Ronald D. Strategic Planning for Public Relations. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2002. Print.
  38. ^ Freeman, R Edward (2004), "The Stakeholder Approach Revisited", Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Unternehmensethik, Rainer Hampp Verlag, 5 (3)
  39. ^ Andrews, Mark. "Climate Change and Public Relations." StarTribune.com: News, Weather, Sports from Minneapolis, St. Paul and Minnesota. Livefyre, 11 Aug. 2014. Web. 25 Nov. 2014.
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j David., Guth, (2012). Public relations : a values-driven approach. Marsh, Charles, 1955- (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN 9780205811809. OCLC 660088137.
  41. ^ Lister, M., Dovey, J., Giddings, S., Grant, I., & Kelly, K. (2009). New media: A critical introduction. (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.
  42. ^ Tapscott, D. (2009). Grown up digital: How the net generation is changing your world. New York: McGraw hill.
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  44. ^ a b Kathy Fitzpatrick and Carolyn Bronstein, " Introduction: Towards a Definitional Framework for Responsible Advocacy," in Ethics in Public Relations, Responsible Advocacy, ed. Kathy Fitzpatrick and Carolyn Bronstein (USA: Sage Publications, Inc. 2006), ix.
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  50. ^ a b Safire, William (1996) The Spinner Spun
  51. ^ "spin" – via The Free Dictionary.
  52. ^ Spin Doctor a Derogatory Term That Needs to Go, Dilenschneider Says. Don Hale PR. Retrieved on 2013-07-16.
  53. ^ Dear Gracie: Is ‘Flack’ a Four-Letter Word? | Beyond PR. Blog.prnewswire.com (2012-02-17). Retrieved on 2013-07-16.
  54. ^ W. Timothy Coombs and Sherry J. Holladay, "Does Society Need Public Relations? Criticisms of Public Relations" in It’s Not Just PR: Public Relations in Society, (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2007), 10.
  55. ^ Wattenberg, Martin P. (22 Aug. 1996). Negative Campaign Advertising: Demobilizer or Mobilizer. eScholarship Repository. UC Irvine, Department of Politics and Society. Retrieved on 29 January 2005
  56. ^ Bike, William S. (28 March 2004). Campaign Guide: Negative Campaigning. CompleteCampaigns.com. City: San Diego. Retrieved on 3 August 2005.
  57. ^ Saletan, William (25 November 1999). "Three Cheers for Negative Campaigning". Slate. Washington.
  58. ^ Does Attack Advertising Demobilize the Electorate? Stephen Ansolabehere, Shanto Iyengar, Adam Simon, Nicholas Valentino, 1994, American Political Science Review, 88:829–838; Winning, But Losing, Ansolabehere and Iyenger, 1996
  59. ^ "Advantages & Disadvantages of A PR Electoral System | UK Engage". www.uk-engage.org. 5 August 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
  60. ^ Edward Bernays Propaganda (1928) p. 10
  61. ^ Edward Bernays, "Organizing Chaos," in Propaganda, (New York: H. Liverlight, 1928), 10.
  62. ^ Edward Bernays, "Organizing Chaos," in Propaganda, (New York: H. Liverlight, 1928), 11.
  63. ^ See Peter Viggo Jakobsen, Focus on the CNN Effect Misses the Point: The Real Media Impact on Conflict Management is Invisible and Indirect, Journal of Peace Research, vol.37, no.2. Institute of Political Science, University of Copenhagen (2000).
  64. ^ Oakes, Laurie (2010), On the Record: Politics, Politicians and Power, Hachette Australia, p. 191, ISBN 978-0-7336-2700-2
  65. ^ Farmer, Yanick (2 January 2018). "Ethical Decision Making and Reputation Management in Public Relations". Journal of Media Ethics. 33 (1): 2–13. doi:10.1080/23736992.2017.1401931. ISSN 2373-6992.

Further reading

Astroturfing

Astroturfing is the practice of masking the sponsors of a message or organization (e.g., political, advertising, religious or public relations) to make it appear as though it originates from and is supported by grassroots participants. It is a practice intended to give the statements or organizations credibility by withholding information about the source's financial connection. The term astroturfing is derived from AstroTurf, a brand of synthetic carpeting designed to resemble natural grass, as a play on the word "grassroots". The implication behind the use of the term is that instead of a "true" or "natural" grassroots effort behind the activity in question, there is a "fake" or "artificial" appearance of support.

Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation

The Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM), also known as Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC), (formerly the Bombay Municipal Corporation and the Municipal Corporation of Greater Bombay (MCGB) till 1996) is the governing civic body of Mumbai, the capital city of Maharashtra. It is India's richest municipal corporation. The MCGM's annual budget exceeds that of some of India's smaller states. It was established under the Bombay Municipal Corporation Act 1888. MCGM is responsible for the civic infrastructure and administration of the city and some suburbs. In 2014, Trushna Vishwasrao became the first female corporator to serve as its leader.

Edward Bernays

Edward Louis Bernays (; German: [bɛɐ̯ˈnaɪs]; November 22, 1891 − March 9, 1995) was an Austrian-American pioneer in the field of public relations and propaganda, referred to in his obituary as "the father of public relations". Bernays was named one of the 100 most influential Americans of the 20th century by Life. He was the subject of a full length biography by Larry Tye called The Father of Spin (1999) and later an award-winning 2002 documentary for the BBC by Adam Curtis called The Century of the Self. More recently, Bernays is noted as the great-uncle of Netflix co-founder, Marc Randolph.

His best-known campaigns include a 1929 effort to promote female smoking by branding cigarettes as feminist "Torches of Freedom" and his work for the United Fruit Company connected with the CIA-orchestrated overthrow of the democratically elected Guatemalan government in 1954. He worked for dozens of major American corporations including Procter & Gamble and General Electric, and for government agencies, politicians, and non-profit organizations.

Of his many books, Crystallizing Public Opinion (1923) and Propaganda (1928) gained special attention as early efforts to define and theorize the field of public relations. Citing works of writers such as Gustave Le Bon, Wilfred Trotter, Walter Lippmann, and his own double uncle Sigmund Freud, he described the masses as irrational and subject to herd instinct—and outlined how skilled practitioners could use crowd psychology and psychoanalysis to control them in desirable ways.

Fashion

Fashion is a popular style, especially in clothing, footwear, lifestyle, accessories, makeup, hairstyle and body. Fashion is a distinctive and often constant trend in the style in which people present themselves. A fashion can become the prevailing style in behaviour or manifest the newest creations of designers, technologists, engineers, and design managers.Because the more technical term costume is regularly linked to the term "fashion", the use of the former has been relegated to special senses like fancy-dress or masquerade wear, while the word "fashion" often refers to clothing, including the study of clothing. Although aspects of fashion can be feminine or masculine, some trends are androgynous.High-flying trendsetters in fashion can aspire to the label haute couture.

Inter-Services Public Relations

The Inter-Services Public Relations (Urdu: بین الخدماتی تعلقات عامہ‎; abbreviated as ISPR), is the media wing of the Pakistan Armed Forces which broadcasts and coordinates military news and information to the country's civilian media and the civic society.The ISPR directorate serves the purpose of aiming to strengthen public relations with the civic society, through interacting with the media. The directorate also works as the principle voice of the Pakistan's military, with its director-general serving as the official spokesperson of the armed forces. In addition, the ISPR provides funds, productions, and assists with the military-produced public relations media– both military dramas and the war films.

Mount Saint Vincent University

Mount Saint Vincent University, often referred to as The Mount, is a primarily undergraduate public university located in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, and was established in 1873. Mount Saint Vincent offers undergraduate programs in Arts, Science, Education, and Professional Studies.The Mount has 13 graduate degrees in areas including Applied Human Nutrition, School Psychology, Child and Youth Study, Education, Family Studies and Gerontology, Public Relations and Women's Studies. The Mount offers a doctorate program, a Ph.D. in Educational Studies, through a joint-initiative with St. Francis Xavier University and Acadia University. The Mount offers more than 190 courses, over 10 full undergraduate degree programs and four graduate degree, programs online.The university attracts many students in part because of its small class sizes, specialty programs, and location. The Mount has Canada Research Chairs in Gender Identity and Social Practices as well as Food Security and Policy Change. This institution is unique nationwide as it has a Chair in learning disabilities, Master of Public Relations program, Bachelor of Science in Communication Studies, and numerous other programs, faculty, and research initiatives.

Ogilvy (agency)

Ogilvy is a New York City-based British advertising, marketing, and public relations agency. It was founded in 1850 by Edmund Mather as a London-based agency. In 1964, the firm became known as Ogilvy & Mather after merging with a New York City agency that was founded in 1948 by David Ogilvy. The agency is known for its work with Dove, American Express, and IBM. It is now part of the WPP Group, one of the largest advertising and public relations companies in the world. The company provides services in six areas: brand strategy, advertising, customer engagement and commerce, public relations and influence, digital transformation, and partnerships. The company's strategy division OgilvyRED became Ogilvy Consulting.

Press release

A press release, news release, media release, press statement or video release is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something ostensibly newsworthy. Typically, they are mailed, faxed, or e-mailed to assignment editors and journalists at newspapers, magazines, radio stations, online media, television stations or television networks.

Public

In public relations and communication science, publics are groups of individual people, and the public (a.k.a. the general public) is the totality of such groupings. This is a different concept to the sociological concept of the Öffentlichkeit or public sphere. The concept of a public has also been defined in political science, psychology, marketing, and advertising. In public relations and communication science, it is one of the more ambiguous concepts in the field. Although it has definitions in the theory of the field that have been formulated from the early 20th century onwards, it has suffered in more recent years from being blurred, as a result of conflation of the idea of a public with the notions of audience, market segment, community, constituency, and stakeholder.The name "public" originates with the Latin publicus (also poplicus), from populus, to the English word 'populace', and in general denotes some mass population ("the people") in association with some matter of common interest. So in political science and history, a public is a population of individuals in association with civic affairs, or affairs of office or state. In social psychology, marketing, and public relations, a public has a more situational definition. John Dewey defined (Dewey 1927) a public as a of who, in facing a , recognize it and organize themselves to address it. Dewey's definition of a public is thus situational: people organized about a situation. Built upon this situational definition of a public is the situational theory of publics by James E. Grunig (Grunig 1983), which talks of nonpublics (who have no problem), latent publics (who have a problem), aware publics (who recognize that they have a problem), and active publics (who do something about their problem)..

In public relations and communication theory, a public is distinct from a stakeholder or a market. A public is a subset of the set of stakeholders for an organization, that comprises those people concerned with a specific issue. Whilst a market has an exchange relationship with an organization, and is usually a passive entity that is created by the organization, a public does not necessarily have an exchange relationship, and is both self-creating and self-organizing. Publics are targeted by public relations efforts. In this, target publics are those publics whose involvement is necessary for achieving organization goals; intervening publics are opinion formers and mediators, who pass information to the target publics; and influentials are publics that the target publics turn to for consultation, whose value judgements are influential upon how a target public will judge any public relations material. The public is often targeted especially in regard to political agendas as their vote is necessary in order to further the progression of the cause. As seen in Massachusetts between 2003 and 2004, it was necessary to "win a critical mass of states and a critical mass of public support" in order to get same-sex marriage passed in the commonwealth.Public relations theory perspectives on publics are situational, per Dewey and Grunig; mass, where a public is simply viewed as a population of individuals; agenda-building, where a public is viewed as a condition of political involvement that is not transitory; and "homo narrans", where a public is (in the words of Gabriel M. Vasquez, assistant professor in the School of Communication at the University of Houston) a collection of "individuals that develop a group consciousness around a problematic situation and act to solve the problematic situation" (Vasquez 1993, pp. 209). Public schools are often under controversy for their "agenda-building," especially in debates over whether to teach a religious or secular curriculum. The promotion of an agenda is commonplace whenever one is in a public environment, but schools have exceptional power in that regard. In the public school system, it is the responsibility of those within the system to determine what agenda is being promoted.

One non-situational concept of a public is that of Kirk Hallahan, professor at Colorado State University, who defines a public as "a group of people who relate to an organization, who demonstrate varying degrees of activity—passivity, and who might (or might not) interact with others concerning their relationship with the organization".Samuel Mateus's 2011 paper "Public as Social Experience" considered to view the concept by an alternative point of view: the public "is neither a simple audience constituted by media consumers nor just a rational-critical agency of a Public Sphere". He argued "the concept should also be seen in the light of a publicness principle, beyond a critic and manipulative publicity (...). In accordance, the public may be regarded as the result of the social activities made by individuals sharing symbolic representations and common emotions in publicness. Seen with lower-case, the concept is a set of subjectivities who look publicly for a feeling of belonging. So, in this perspective, the public is still a fundamental notion to social life although in a different manner in comparison to 18th century Public Sphere's Public. He means above all the social textures and configurations where successive layers of social experience are built up."The general public also sets social norms which causes people to express themselves in socially acceptable manners. Although this is present within every community, this is often especially applicable within the transgender community as they feel the need to "perform" to a certain set of expectations to be seen as their true gender.

Public Relations Society of America

The Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) is a nonprofit trade association for public relations professionals. It was founded in 1947 by combining the American Council on Public Relations and the National Association of Public Relations Councils. That year it had its first annual conference and award ceremony. In the 1950s and 1960s, the society created its code of conduct, accreditation program and a student society called the Public Relations Student Society of America.

Public relations officer

The public relations officer (PRO) or chief communications officer (CCO) or corporate communications officer is the head of communications, public relations, and/or public affairs in an organization. Typically, the CCO of a corporation reports to the chief executive officer (CEO). The CCO may hold an academic degree in communications.

Publicis

Publicis Groupe is a French multinational advertising and public relations company, and is the oldest and one of the largest marketing and communications companies in the world, by revenue, headquartered in Paris.

After 1945 the little-known Paris-based advertising agency grew rapidly, becoming the world's fourth-largest agency. It was a leader in promoting France's post-war economic boom, especially the expansion of the advertising industry; it was successful because of its close ties with top officials of the French government, its clever use of symbols to promote itself, and its ability to attract clients from widely diverse growing industries.It is one of the "Big Four" agency companies, alongside WPP, Interpublic and Omnicom. Publicis Groupe S.A. is headed by Arthur Sadoun, and its agencies provide digital and traditional advertising, media services and marketing services (SAMS) to national and multinational clients.

Publicist

A publicist is a person whose job is to generate and manage publicity for a company, a brand, or public figure – especially a celebrity – or for a work such as a book, film, or album. Publicists are public-relations specialists who have the role to maintain and represent the images of individuals, rather than representing an entire corporation or business. Publicists are also hired by public figures who want to maintain or protect their image. Publicists brand their clients by getting magazine, TV, newspaper, and website coverage. Most top-level publicists work in private practice, handling multiple clients.

The term publicist was coined by the legal scholar Francis Lieber to describe the public-like role of internationalists during the late nineteenth century. Publicists are sometimes called flacks which traces back to Gene Flack, who was a well-known movie publicist in the 1930s.

Publicity stunt

A publicity stunt is a planned event designed to attract the public's attention to the event's organizers or their cause. Publicity stunts can be professionally organized, or set up by amateurs. Such events are frequently utilized by advertisers, and by celebrities who notably include athletes and politicians.

Rachel Whetstone

Rachel Marjorie Joan Whetstone (born 22 February 1968) is a public relations executive. Whetstone joined Facebook as VP of communications of its WhatsApp, Instagram and Messenger products in September 2017. She was senior vice-president of communications and public policy for Uber until April 2017. She was in a similar position at Google until June 2015.In February 2013, Whetstone was assessed as one of the 100 most powerful women in the United Kingdom by Woman's Hour on BBC Radio 4. Whetstone has been featured on PRWeek's Power List several times, most recently in 2016 at number 14.

Sound bite

A sound bite is a short clip of speech or music extracted from a longer piece of audio, often used to promote or exemplify the full length piece. In the context of journalism, a sound bite is characterized by a short phrase or sentence that captures the essence of what the speaker was trying to say, and is used to summarize information and entice the reader or viewer. The term was coined by the U.S. media in the 1970s. Since then, politicians have increasingly employed sound bites to summarize their positions.

Due to its brevity, the sound bite often overshadows the broader context in which it was spoken, and can be misleading or inaccurate. The insertion of sound bites into news broadcasts or documentaries is open to manipulation, leading to conflict over journalistic ethics.

Spin (propaganda)

In public relations and politics, spin is a form of propaganda, achieved through knowingly

providing a biased interpretation of an event or campaigning to persuade public opinion in favor or against some organization or public figure. While traditional public relations and advertising may also rely on altering the presentation of the facts, "spin" often implies the use of disingenuous, deceptive, and highly manipulative tactics.Because of the frequent association between spin and press conferences (especially government press conferences), the room in which these conferences take place is sometimes described as a "spin room". Public relations advisors, pollsters and media consultants who develop deceptive or misleading messages may be referred to as "spin doctors" or "spinmeisters".

As such, a standard tactic used in "spinning" is to reframe, obfuscate, reposition, or otherwise modify the perception of an issue or event, to reduce any negative impact it might have on public opinion. For example, a company whose top-selling product is found to have a significant safety problem may "reframe" the issue by criticizing the safety of its main competitor's products or indeed by highlighting the risk associated with the entire product category. This might be done using a "catchy" slogan or sound bite that can help to persuade the public of the company's biased point of view. This tactic could enable the company to defocus the public's attention on the negative aspects of its product.As it takes experience and training to "spin" an issue, spinning is typically a service provided by paid media advisors and media consultants. The largest and most powerful companies may have in-house employees and sophisticated units with expertise in spinning issues. While spin is often considered to be a private sector tactic, in the 1990s and 2000s, some politicians and political staff have been accused by their opponents of using deceptive "spin" tactics to manipulate public opinion or deceive the public. Spin approaches used by some political teams include "burying" potentially negative new information by releasing it at the end of the workday on the last day before a long weekend; selectively cherry-picking quotes from previous speeches made by their employer or an opposing politician to give the impression that they advocate a certain position; and purposely leaking misinformation about an opposing politician or candidate that casts them in a negative light.

Tony Barrow

Anthony F. J. Barrow (11 May 1936 – 14 May 2016) was an English press officer who worked with the Beatles between 1962 and 1968. He coined the phrase "the Fab Four", first using it in an early press release.

WPP plc

WPP plc is a British multinational advertising and public relations company with its main management office in London, England, and its executive office in Dublin, Ireland.WPP owns a number of advertising, public relations, media and market research networks, including Ogilvy, J. Walter Thompson, Young & Rubicam, Grey, IMRB, Millward Brown, Burson-Marsteller, Hill & Knowlton, TNS, GroupM, and Cohn & Wolfe.

It is one of the "Big Five" agency companies, alongside Dentsu, Publicis, Interpublic Group of Companies and Omnicom.

WPP has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. It has a secondary listing on NASDAQ.

On 14 April 2018, Martin Sorrell retired 33 years after founding the company. Roberto Quarta, chairman of WPP, became executive chairman.On 3 September 2018, Mark Read was appointed as CEO.

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