Public property

Public property is property that is dedicated to public use and is a subset of state property. The term may be used either to describe the use to which the property is put, or to describe the character of its ownership (owned collectively by the population of a state). This is in contrast to private property, owned by an individual person or artificial entities that represent the financial interests of persons, such as corporations.[1] State ownership, also called public ownership, government ownership or state property, are property interests that are vested in the state, rather than an individual or communities.[2]

Crown property

In the modern representative democracy, "public property" is said to be owned by the people as a commons or held in trust by the government for common benefit. In many Commonwealth realms, such property is said to be owned by the Crown. Examples include Crown land, Crown copyright, and Crown Dependencies.

Canada

In Canada, The Public Debt and Property are under the exclusive Legislative Authority of the Parliament of Canada, [3] rather than the Queen or the local authority, according to the Constitution Acts, 1867 and 1982, article 91.

See also

References

  1. ^ Clarke, Alison; Paul Kohler (2005). Property law: commentary and materials. Cambridge University Press. p. 207. ISBN 9780521614894.
  2. ^ Clarke, Alison; Paul Kohler (2005). Property law: commentary and materials. Cambridge University Press. p. 40. ISBN 9780521614894.
  3. ^ "Constitution Acts, 1867 to 1982 – VI. Distribution Of Legislative Powers". Justice Laws website. Government of Canada. Retrieved 2013-11-14.
18th Golden Raspberry Awards

The 18th Golden Raspberry Awards were held on March 22, 1998, at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel to recognize the worst the movie industry had to offer in 1997. This year, the film with the most nominations was Batman & Robin with 11, followed by Speed 2: Cruise Control with 8 nominations, Anaconda with 6 nominations, The Postman with 5 nominations (winning all of the awards it was nominated for), and Fire Down Below with 4 nominations. The film that won the most awards was The Postman, winning in all five categories the movie was nominated for. The list of nominees follows, with recipients denoted in bold.The Postman screenwriter Brian Helgeland also won the Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay for L.A. Confidential in 1998. Only Helgeland, composer Alan Menken and actress Sandra Bullock won Razzies and Oscars at the same year.

2011 Sammarinese public property referendum

A referendum on repealing changes made to the law on the sale of public property was held in San Marino on 27 March 2011. It was approved by 12,166 voters, passing the 32% quorum of registered voters (10,522) required.

Al-Hamra, Baysan

Al-Hamra (Arabic: الحمرا‎), was a Palestinian Arab village in the District of Baysan. It was located 7.5 kilometres south of Baysan. It was depopulated by the Israeli Army during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. The village was named after the Bedouin tribe who settled in the village lands centuries ago. The population in 1945 was 730, expanding to 847 in 1948.

In 1945 the village's total land area was recorded as 11,511 dunams, 8,623 of which was Arab owned while 2,153 duname were owned by Jews with the remainder being public property. Al-Hamra was situated 175 meters below sea level.

Al-Muharraqa

Al-Muharraqa (Arabic: المحرّقة‎) was a Palestinian Arab village in the Gaza Subdistrict, located 14.5 kilometers (9.0 mi) east of Gaza city. The village laid on rolling terrain on the southern coastal plain of Palestine, on a bend in the wadi. It had an elevation of 125 meters (410 ft) and a total land area of 4,855 dunams, most of which was public property, while its built-up area of 29 dunams was Arab-owned. Al-Muharraqa was depopulated during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.

American Legation, Tangier

The Tangier American Legation is a building in the medina of Tangier, Morocco. The first American public property outside the United States, it commemorates the historic cultural and diplomatic relations between the United States and the Kingdom of Morocco. It is now officially called the Tangier American Legation Institute for Moroccan Studies, and is a cultural center, museum, and a research library, concentrating on Arabic language studies.

The legation was listed on the U.S. National Register of Historic Places on January 8, 1981. U.S. Secretary of the Interior James G. Watt subsequently designated it a National Historic Landmark on December 17, 1982. It is the only listing or designation in a foreign country, excluding those in countries that grew out of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. The building has been listed on the U.S. Secretary of State's Register of Culturally Significant Property, a listing of State Department properties around the world that have particular cultural or historical significance.

Bordei Park

Bordei Park (Romanian: Parcul Bordei) is a park in northern Bucharest.

The terrain where the Bordei Park stands (which included the Bordei Lake and amounted to 0.13 km²) was bought by the Bucharest Municipality from the Marmorosch Blank Bank in 1932 for a price of 16 million lei ($110,000 at the time). The park was officially opened in 1938 by King Carol II of Romania.In June 2007, senator Marius Marinescu forwarded to the Standing Bureau of the Senate a legislative proposal concerning the declaration of public property of Costică Constanda's plot of land, located in Bordei Park, Bucharest. Along with the founder of the law Marius Marinescu, signed as co-founders, senators Ion Iliescu, former president of Romania, Nicolae Văcăroiu, former prime-minister of Romania and at the time president of the Senate. One year later the legislative proposal was also adopted by the Chamber of Deputies, received the green light from the president of Romania, and got published in the Official Gazette of Romania, thus becoming Law #170/2008, regarding the acknowledgement of public utility of Bordei Park.The area of the park was public property until September 2003, when the General Council of Bucharest changed the status of the terrain to private property of the municipality and then gave the terrain to Costică Constanda, an entrepreneur who intends to build houses on it.

Google Street View privacy concerns

Privacy advocates have objected to the Google Street View feature, pointing to photographs that show people leaving strip clubs, protesters at an abortion clinic, sunbathers in bikinis, cottagers at public parks, people picking up prostitutes and people engaging in activities visible from public property which they do not wish to be photographed and have published online. Google maintains that the photos were taken from public property. However, this does not take into account that the Street View cameras take pictures from an elevated position, enabling them to look over hedges and walls designed to prevent some areas from being open to public view. Before launching the service, Google removed photos of domestic violence shelters, and it allows users to flag inappropriate or sensitive imagery for Google to review and remove. When the service was first launched, the process for requesting that an image be removed was not trivial. Google changed its policy to make removal more straightforward, but has since removed the option to request removal of an image, replacing it by an option to request blurring of an image. Images of potential break-ins, sunbathers, and individuals entering adult bookstores have, however, remained active and these images have been widely republished.In Europe, the creation of Google Street View may not be legal in all jurisdictions. Some European countries have laws prohibiting the filming without consent of an individual on public property for the purpose of public display.Google Street View blurs parts of images containing car number plates and human faces, in order to protect privacy and anonymity.

James L. Goodwin State Forest

James L. Goodwin State Forest is a Connecticut state forest covering approximately 2,000 acres (810 ha) in the towns of Chaplin and Hampton. The lands became public property when James L. Goodwin donated the personal forest he had been developing since 1913 to the state in 1964.

Lists of parks in Omaha, Nebraska

This is a list of parks in Omaha, Nebraska. It includes cemeteries and golf courses. Most parks in Omaha are governed by the City of Omaha Parks and Recreation Department.

Mayor of Montreal

The Mayor of Montreal is head of the executive branch of the Montreal City Council. The current mayor is Valérie Plante, who was elected into office on November 5, 2017, and sworn in on November 16. The office of the mayor administers all city services, public property, police and fire protection, most public agencies, and enforces all city and provincial laws within Montreal, Quebec. The mayor is directly elected by citizens, by a plurality of votes, for a four-year term (unless a vacancy occurs). The mayor's office is located in Montreal City Hall.

Mayor of New York City

The Mayor of the City of New York is head of the executive branch of the Government of New York City. The mayor's office administers all city services, public property, police and fire protection, most public agencies, and enforces all city and state laws within New York City.

The budget, overseen by New York City Mayor's Office of Management and Budget, is the largest municipal budget in the United States at $82 billion a year. The city employs 325,000 people, spends about $21 billion to educate more than 1.1 million students (the largest public school system in the United States) and levies $27 billion in taxes. It receives $14 billion from the state and federal governments.

The mayor's office is located in New York City Hall; it has jurisdiction over all five boroughs of New York City: Manhattan, Brooklyn, the Bronx, Staten Island and Queens. The mayor appoints a large number of officials, including commissioners who head city departments, and his deputy mayors. The mayor's regulations are compiled in title 43 of the New York City Rules. According to current law, the mayor is limited to two consecutive four-year terms in office but may run again after a four year break. It was changed from two to three terms on October 23, 2008, when the New York City Council voted 29–22 in favor of passing the term limit extension into law. However, in 2010, a referendum reverting the limit back to two terms passed overwhelmingly.The current mayor is Democrat Bill de Blasio, who was elected on November 5, 2013 and reelected to a second term on November 7, 2017.

Ministry of Sport (Russia)

The Russian Ministry of Sports (Russian: Министерство спорта Российской Федерации, often abbreviated as Минспорт or Minisport) is a Federal Ministry in Russia.

It is responsible for implementing government policy and legal regulation, providing state services and state funding for athletes, and managing public property in the area of sport and physical fitness.

It was created by the Medvedev Government in 2008 as the Ministry of Sports, Tourism and Youth Policy.

It exists in its current form since May 21, 2012.

National Defence Act

The National Defence Act (NDA; French: Loi sur la défense nationale; LDN) is the primary enabling legislation for organizing and funding Canada's military.Passed in 1922, and in force as of January 1, 1923, it created the Department of National Defence by merging the Department of Militia and Defence with the Department of the Naval Service and the Air Board.On 4 November 1966, Bill C-243, The Canadian Forces Reorganization Act, was introduced to amend the National Defence Act. The aim of the bill was to reorganize the Canadian Army, the Royal Canadian Navy and the Royal Canadian Air Force, previously separate and independent services, under one umbrella. Following the debate in the House of Commons and further examination by the Defence Committee, the Bill was given a third and final reading in April 1967, clearing the way for unification.

The Canadian Forces Reorganization Act came into effect on 1 February 1968, creating one organization responsible for the defence of Canada, the Canadian Forces, and amending the National Defence Act.

The Queen's Regulations and Orders are enabled by the National Defence Act to govern the Canadian Forces.

The National Defence Act establishes Non-Public Property (NPP) as a special class of Crown property to be used for the benefit of serving and former members of the Canadian Forces and their families. Most western nations have created similar regimes to support the morale and welfare needs of their militaries. On behalf of the Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS), the Director General Personnel and Family Support Services (DGPFSS) acts as the Managing Director for Non-Public Property and establishes the policies and provides functional oversight for the many NPP programs and activities delivered locally at Bases and Messes. Personnel and Family Support Services (PFSS) is responsible for administering NPP as well as for delivering selected public Morale and Welfare programs, services, and activities on behalf of the Chief of Military Personnel (CMP). The workforce delivering Non-Public Property programs and activities primarily consists of the Staff of the Non-Public Funds, Canadian Forces and members of the Canadian Forces. The Staff of the Non-Public Funds, Canadian Forces is a Separate Agency listed under Schedule 5 of the Financial Administration Act.

Private property

Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities. Private property is distinguishable from public property, which is owned by a state entity; and from collective (or cooperative) property, which is owned by a group of non-governmental entities. Private property can be either personal property (consumption goods) or capital goods. Private property is a legal concept defined and enforced by a country's political system.

Privatization of public toilets

Privatization of public toilets is an ongoing process in the United States and other countries. Police (e.g. in Los Angeles) have sometimes supported their privatization, claiming that public toilets are "crime scenes" that attract illegal activity.A criticism of toilet privatization is that it results in the denial of a basic service to the urban poor. In southern California in the 1980s, authorities consciously reduced the number of public toilets to make certain areas less attractive to "undesirables".In some cases, partial privatization of the toilet system takes place in the form of vendors supplying the service in exchange for advertising rights. Mayor of New York City Michael Bloomberg described such a deal as a "unique opportunity to...creat[e] a vibrant and aesthetically pleasing streetscape…without the burden of public investment."John Stossel points out that private property may be better taken care of than public property: "Think about shared public property, like public toilets. They're often gross...Compare dirty public toilets to privately run toilets. They're common in Europe, and cleaner, because their owners – selfishly seeking a profit – work at keeping them clean."

Rubus chamaemorus

Rubus chamaemorus is a rhizomatous herb native to cool temperate regions, alpine and arctic tundra and boreal forest, producing amber-colored edible fruit similar to the raspberry or blackberry. English common names include cloudberry, nordic berry, bakeapple (in Newfoundland and Labrador), knotberry and knoutberry (in England), aqpik or low-bush salmonberry (in Alaska – not to be confused with true salmonberry, Rubus spectabilis), and averin or evron (in Scotland).

Sebbins Pond

Sebbins Pond is an approximately 20-acre (81,000 m2) body of water in Bedford, New Hampshire. It is located in the eastern part of the town, between Back River Road and the Everett Turnpike. It is named for a man with the last name of Sebbins, who in 1735 set up shop at a site near the pond to make shingles, which he then dragged down to the nearby Merrimack River to ship - two years before the first permanent settlement in Bedford in 1737.

Sebbins Pond is the largest body of water totally within the town boundaries. It is bounded on the southwest side by Camp Kettleford, which is owned and operated by the Swift Water Council of the Girl Scouts of the USA, which uses the pond for canoeing and swimming. The rest of Sebbins Pond is bounded by approximately 20 private homes, many of which are former summer cabins or houses that have been winterized and expanded. There is no public access to the pond.

The pond is fed by several springs and by a small stream draining from nearby Silver Springs Pond ("Muddy Pond" on some maps). Its outlet is Sebbins Brook, which leads southeast, combines with the outfall from Sandy Pond, and continues to the Merrimack River.

Like all water bodies greater than 10 acres (4.0 ha) in New Hampshire, Sebbins is a great pond, public property held in trust by the state.

State ownership

State ownership (also called public ownership and government ownership) is the ownership of an industry, asset, or enterprise by the state or a public body representing a community as opposed to an individual or private party. Public ownership specifically refers to industries selling goods and services to consumers and differs from public goods and government services financed out of a government’s general budget. Public ownership can take place at the national, regional, local, or municipal levels of government; or can refer to non-governmental public ownership vested in autonomous public enterprises. Public ownership is one of the three major forms of property ownership, differentiated from private, collective/cooperative, and common ownership.In market-based economies, state-owned assets are often managed and operated as joint-stock corporations with a government owning all or a controlling stake of the company's shares. This form is often referred to as a state-owned enterprise. A state-owned enterprise might variously operate as a not-for-profit corporation, as it may not be required to generate a profit; as a commercial enterprise in competitive sectors; or as a natural monopoly. Governments may also use the profitable entities they own to support the general budget. The creation of a state-owned enterprise from other forms of public property is called corporatization.

In Soviet-type economies, state property was the dominant form of industry as property. The state held a monopoly on land and natural resources, and enterprises operated under the legal framework of a nominally planned economy, and thus according to different criteria than enterprises in market and mixed economies.

Nationalization process of transferring private or municipal assets to a central government or state entity. Municipalization is the process of transferring private or state assets to a municipal government.

Vandalism Act

The Vandalism Act is a statute of the Parliament of Singapore that criminalizes a number of different acts done in relation to public and private property, namely, stealing, destroying or damaging public property; and, without the property owner's written consent, writing, drawing, painting, marking or inscribing on property; affixing posters, placards, etc., to the property; and suspending or displaying on or from the property any flag, banner, etc.

In addition to a fine or jail term, the Act imposes mandatory corporal punishment of between three and eight strokes of the cane for second or subsequent convictions. Caning is also imposed for first convictions for defacing property using an indelible substance; and stealing, destroying or damaging public property. The Children and Young Persons Act ("CYPA") states that the High Court may impose a caning penalty on juvenile offenders as well. In a 1968 case, the High Court held that despite the wording of this provision, a subordinate court may sentence juveniles to caning under the Vandalism Act as that Act takes precedence over the CYPA.

The 1994 conviction of 18-year-old American citizen Michael P. Fay for vandalizing cars using spray paint, and the sentence of six strokes of the cane imposed on him, provoked much controversy with both condemnation and support from Americans. Following a request by US President Bill Clinton for clemency, President Ong Teng Cheong commuted Fay's caning sentence from six to four strokes. In 2010, a Swiss national, Oliver Fricker, pleaded guilty to charges of trespassing into a Mass Rapid Transit depot and spray-painting a train with an accomplice, and was sentenced to five months' jail and three strokes of the cane. On appeal, the High Court increased his total jail term to seven months.

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