Public holidays in Thailand

Public holidays in Thailand (Thai: วันหยุดนักขัตฤกษ์) are regulated by the government, and most are observed by both the public and private sectors. There are usually sixteen public holidays in a year, but more may be declared by the cabinet. Other observances, both official and non-official, local and international, are observed to varying degrees throughout the country.

All public holidays are observed by government agencies, while the Bank of Thailand regulates bank holidays, which differ slightly from those observed by the government. Private businesses are required by the Labour Protection Act to observe at least 13 holidays per year, including National Labour Day, but may choose the other observances they follow.[1] If a holiday falls on a weekend, one following workday is observed by the government as a compensatory holiday.[2]

Public holidays

As of 2017, there are seventeen annual public holidays adopted by the cabinet:

Date Name Local name Remarks
1 January New Year's Day วันขึ้นปีใหม่ (Wan Khuen Pi Mai) Celebrates the start of the solar and Gregorian year. From 1889–1941, this was held on 1 April.
Full moon, 3rd Thai lunar month (February)a Magha Pujab วันมาฆบูชา (Wan Makhabucha) Buddhist observance commemorating the Buddha's teaching of Ovada Patimokkha.
6 April Chakri Memorial Day วันจักรี (Wan Chakkri) Commemorates the establishment of the Chakri Dynasty and the founding of Bangkok by King Phutthayotfa Chulalok in 1782. Officially known as King Phutthayotfa Chulalok the Great Day and Chakri Dynasty Memorial Day (วันพระบาทสมเด็จพระพุทธยอดฟ้าจุฬาโลกมหาราชและวันที่ระลึกมหาจักรีบรมราชวงศ์).
13–15 April Songkran Festival วันสงกรานต์ (Wan Songkran) Traditional Thai new year, and the major holiday of the year. Many people return home for family reunions during this period. The first day is known as วันมหาสงกรานต์ (Wan Maha Songkran), the second as วันเนา (Wan Nao), and the third as วันเถลิงศก (Wan Thaloeng Sok). The 14th is also observed as Family Day.
May, arbitrary date Royal Ploughing Ceremony and Farmer's Dayc วันพืชมงคล (Wan Phuetchamongkhon) Ceremony giving blessing to the country's farmers. Officially known as วันพระราชพิธีพืชมงคลจรดพระนังคัลแรกนาขวัญ (Wan Phra Ratcha Phithi Phuetcha Monkhon Lae Charot Phra Nangkhan Raek Na Khwan). Also observed as Farmer's Day. Each year's date is astrologically determined and announced by the Bureau of the Royal Household.
Full moon, 6th Thai lunar month (May)a Vesakb วันวิสาขบูชา (Wan Wisakhabucha) Buddhist observance commemorating the birth, enlightenment and passing of the Buddha. Also observed as National Tree Day.
28 July H.M. the King's Birthday วันเฉลิมพระชนมพรรษาสมเด็จพระเจ้าอยู่หัวมหาวชิราลงกรณ บดินทรเทพยวรางกูร (Wan Chaloem Phra Chonmaphansa Somdet Phra Chao Yu Hua Maha Wachiralongkon Bodinthrathepphayawarangkun) Commemorates the birthday of King Maha Vajiralongkorn in 1952
Full moon, 8th Thai lunar month (July)a Asalha Pujab วันอาสาฬหบูชา (Wan Asanhabucha) Buddhist observance commemorating the Buddha's first discourse, the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta
First waning moon, 8th Thai lunar month (July)a Beginning of Vassabc วันเข้าพรรษา (Wan Khao Phansa) Buddhist observance marking the beginning of Vassa, also known as Buddhist Lent
12 August H.M. Queen Sirikit's Birthday วันเฉลิมพระชนมพรรษาสมเด็จพระนางเจ้าสิริกิติ์ พระบรมราชินีนาถในรัชกาลที่ ๙ (Wan Chaloem Phra Chonmaphansa Somdet Phra Nang Chao Sirikit Phra Borom Rachininat Nai Ratchakan Thi Kao) Commemorates the birthday of Queen Sirikit in 1932; also observed as National Mother's Day (วันแม่แห่งชาติ; Wan Mae Haeng Chat).
13 October H.M. King Bhumibol Adulyadej Memorial Day วันคล้ายวันสวรรคตพระบาทสมเด็จพระปรมินทรมหาภูมิพลอดุลยเดช บรมนาถบพิตร (Wan Khlai Wan Sawankot Phra Bat Somdet Phra Paramin Maha Phumiphon Adunyadet Borommanat Bophit) Commemorates the passing of King Bhumibol Adulyadej in 2016.
23 October King Chulalongkorn Day วันปิยมหาราช (Wan Piyamaharat) Commemorates the passing of King Chulalongkorn in 1910.
5 December King Bhumibol Adulyadej's Birthday Anniversary วันคล้ายวันเฉลิมพระชนมพรรษาพระบาทสมเด็จพระปรมินทรมหาภูมิพลอดุลยเดช บรมนาถบพิตร (Wan Khlai Wan Chaloem Phra Chonmaphansa Phra Bat Somdet Phra Paramin Maha Phumiphon Adunyadet Borommanat Bophit) Commemorates the birthday of King Bhumibol Adulyadej in 1927. Also observed as National Day and National Father's Day.
10 December Constitution Day วันรัฐธรรมนูญ (Wan Ratthathammanun) Commemorates the promulgation of the first permanent constitution in 1932.
31 December New Year's Eve วันสิ้นปี (Wan Sin Pi) Final day of the solar year.
  • ^a Holidays regulated by the Thai lunar calendar—the usual Gregorian months in which the dates fall are indicated in parentheses. In lunar leap years, these take place one month later.
  • ^b Alcohol sales are prohibited on Buddhist holidays except in international airport duty-free shops.[3]
  • ^c Not observed by the Bank of Thailand and usually not observed by the private sector.

From 1989 to 2016, there were sixteen annual public holidays adopted by the cabinet.[4] With the passing of King Bhumibol Adulyadej, the list of annual public holidays for 2017 was revised by the cabinet in April 2017.[5] Coronation Day, which was previously observed on 5 May, was removed.

Two new public holidays form 2017 onwards are:

  • 28 July: King Maha Vajiralongkorn's Birthday
  • 13 October: Anniversary for the death of King Bhumibol Adulyadej

Chinese New Year, Eid ul-Fitr and Eid al-Adha are also observed as public holidays by government agencies in Narathiwat, Pattani, Yala and Satun Provinces (see below under § Other observances).[6] Government offices under the Ministry of Defence and Ministry of Education may also observe the Thai Armed Forces Day (18 January) and Teachers' Day (16 January), respectively (see § National observances below).

Bank holidays

Holidays observed by financial institutions (not to be confused with bank holidays in the United Kingdom) are regulated by the Bank of Thailand. These usually differ from government holidays in that banks do not observe the Royal Ploughing Ceremony day (Phuetchamongkhon) and the beginning of Vassa (Khao Phansa), but instead do observe 1 May as National Labour Day (see below under § National observances). Up until 2016, a mid-year bank holiday was also observed on 1 July (if that date did not fell on a weekend).[7] (Prior to 2007, the beginning of Vassa was observed as a holiday rather than Asalha Puja.) Chinese New Year, Eid ul-Fitr and Eid al-Adha are also designated as holidays for financial institutions in Narathiwat, Pattani, Yala and Satun Provinces if they do not already fall on a weekend or holiday.[8]

National observances

These observances are regulated by the government, but are not observed as holidays. Actual observance varies, and some are only observed by specific sectors.[9]

Date Observance Local name Remarks
2nd Saturday of January National Children's Day วันเด็กแห่งชาติ (Wan Dek Haeng Chat) Widely celebrated, especially by governmental agencies, with many activities for children. Observed on this day since 1965; was observed on the first Monday of October from 1955–1964.
4 January Cavalry and Armor Day วันทหารม้า (Wan Thahan Ma) The Thai people have seen the importance of bravery in Ban Phran Nok in Ayutthaya period of King Taksin the Great while still a Praya Wachiraprakan. Celebrates the role of the Cavalry Branch of the Royal Thai Army in Thai military history.
13 January National Aviation Day วันการบินแห่งชาติ (Wan Kanbin Haeng Chat)
14 January National Forest Conservation Day วันอนุรักษ์ทรัพยากรป่าไม้ของชาติ (Wan Anurak Sapphayakon Pamai Khong Chat) Observance promoting the conservation of the nation's forests and the work against deforestation.[10]
16 January Teachers' Day วันครู (Wan Khru) Honours teachers countrywide. Schools may observe this day as a holiday, especially those under the authority of the Office of the Basic Education Commission. Observed since 1957.
17 January National Dairy Day วันโคนมแห่งชาติ (Wan Khonom Haeng Chat) Marking the inauguration of the Thai-Danish Dairy Farming and Training Center on 16 January 1962 by King Bhumibol Adulyadej and King Frederick IX of Denmark. Observed since 1987.[11]
18 January Royal Thai Armed Forces Day วันกองทัพไทย (Wan Kongthap Thai) Commemorates King Naresuan's victorious elephant duel against the Burmese Uparaja, calculated to be in 1593. Observed on this date since 2007 (on 25 Jan, before that).
2 February Inventor's Day วันนักประดิษฐ์ (Wan Nakpradit) Commemorates the patent registration of King Bhumibol's Chai Phatthana paddle wheel aerator in 1993. Observed since 1995.
3 February Veterans' Day วันทหารผ่านศึก (Wan Thahan Phan Suek) Commemorates the founding of the War Veterans Organization of Thailand. Remembrance ceremonies are held at Victory Monument.
10 February Volunteer Defense's Day วันอาสารักษาดินแดน (Wan Asa Raksa Dindaen) Foundation day of Volunteer Defense Corps.
24 February National Artist Day วันศิลปินแห่งชาติ (Wan Sinlapin Haeng Chat) National Artists are honoured on this day, which commemorates King Rama II's birth.
25 February National Radio Day วันวิทยุกระจายเสียงแห่งชาติ (Wan Witthayu Krachai Siang Haeng Chat)
26 February National Cooperative Day วันสหกรณ์แห่งชาติ (Wan Sahakon Haeng Chat)
5 March Journalist's Day วันนักข่าว (Wan Nakkhao)
13 March National Elephant Day วันช้างไทย (Wan Chang Thai) On 26 May 1998, the Thai government declared that 13 March annually be Thai National Elephant Day or Chang Thai Day (Thai: วันช้างไทย). The observance was suggested by the Asian Elephant Foundation of Thailand and submitted to the Coordinating Subcommittee for the Conservation of Thai Elephants. The date was chosen because the Royal Forest Department designated the white elephant as the national animal of Thailand on 13 March 1963.
31 March King Nangklao Memorial Day วันที่ระลึกพระบาทสมเด็จพระนั่งเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว (Wan Thi Raluek Phra Bat Somdet Phra Nang Klao Chao Yu Hua) Commemorates the birthday of King Rama III; observed since 1998.
1 April Civil Service Day วันข้าราชการพลเรือน (Wan Kharatchakan Phonlaruean) Commemorates the enactment of the first Civil Service Act in 1928; observed since 1979.
2 April Thai Heritage Conservation Day วันอนุรักษ์มรดกไทย (Wan Anurak Moradok Thai) Commemorates the birthday of Princess Sirindhorn; observed since 1995.
9 April Royal Thai Air Force Day วันกองทัพอากาศไทย (Wan Kongthap Akat Thai) Foundation day of Royal Thai Air Force in 1937.
25 April King Naresuan Day วันสมเด็จพระนเรศวรมหาราช (Wan Somdet Phra Naresuan Maharat) Naresuan died in 1605.
30 April Consumer Protection Day วันคุ้มครองผู้บริโภค (Wan Khumkhrong Phuboriphok) Observed since 1980.
1 May National Labour Day[8] วันแรงงานแห่งชาติ (Wan Raeng-ngan Haeng Chat) Coincides with International Workers' Day. Observed as a holiday by the Bank of Thailand and the private sector.
9 June Ananda Mahidol Day วันอานันทมหิดล (Wan Ananthamahidon) King Ananda Mahidol died in 1946.
26 June Sunthorn Phu Day วันสุนทรภู่ (Wan Sunthon Phu) Commemorates the birth of Sunthorn Phu in 1786.
1 July National Scout Organization Foundation Day วันสถาปนาลูกเสือแห่งชาติ (Wan Sathapana Luksuea Haeng Chat) King Vajiravudh founded the National Scout Organization of Thailand in 1911.
29 July National Thai Language Day วันภาษาไทยแห่งชาติ (Wan Phasa Thai Haeng Chat)
1 August Thai Women's Day วันสตรีไทย (Wan Satri Haeng Chat) Honors of Queen Sirikit.
16 August Thai Peace Day วันสันติภาพไทย (Wan Santiphap Thai) Memorial Day to the end of World War II.
18 August National Science Day วันวิทยาศาสตร์แห่งชาติ (Wan Witthayasat Haeng Chat) Commemorates King Mongkut's prediction and observation of a total solar eclipse in 1868.
20 September National Youth Day วันเยาวชนแห่งชาติ (Wan Yaowachon Haeng Chat) Commemorates the birth dates of Kings Chulalongkorn and Ananda Mahidol.
24 September Mahidol Day วันมหิดล (Wan Mahidon) Commemorates the passing of Prince Father Mahidol Adulyadej, the "Father of Thai Modern Medicine".
28 September Thai National Flag Day วันพระราชทานธงชาติไทย (Wan Phraratchathan Thongchat Thai) King Vajiravudh granted the flag of Thailand in 1917.
13 October National Police Day วันตำรวจ (Wan Tamruat)
21 October National Nurses' Day วันพยาบาลแห่งชาติ (Wan Phayaban Haeng Chat) Commemorates the birth of Srinagarindra the Princess Mother.
20 November Royal Thai Navy Day วันกองทัพเรือ (Wan Kongthap Ruea) Foundation day of Royal Thai Navy in 1906.
25 November King Vajiravudh Memorial Day วันที่ระลึกสมเด็จพระมหาธีรราชเจ้า (Wan Thi Raluek Somdet Phra Maha Thirarat Chao) Commemorates the passing of King Vajiravudh in 1925.
1 December Damrong Rajanubhab Day วันดำรงราชานุภาพ (Wan Damrongrachanuphap) Commemorates the passing of Prince Damrong Rajanubhab. Observed since 2001.[12]
4 December Thai Environment Day วันสิ่งแวดล้อมไทย (Wan Singwaetlom Thai) Observed since 1991.
16 December National Sports Day วันกีฬาแห่งชาติ (Wan Kila Haeng Chat) Commemorates King Bhumibol's gold medal in sailing at the 1967 Southeast Asian Peninsular Games. Observed since 1986.
28 December King Taksin Memorial Day วันที่ระลึกสมเด็จพระเจ้าตากสินมหาราช (Wan Thi Raluek Somdet Phra Chao Tak Sin Maharat) Commemorates the accession of King Taksin in 1768.

Other observances

Other observances, traditional and modern, are observed by various groups and communities throughout the country.

Date Observance Local name Remarks
1st day of the Chinese calendar (January,February) Chinese New Year วันตรุษจีน (Wan Trut Chin) Observed by Thai Chinese and parts of the private sector. Usually celebrated for three days, starting on the day before the Chinese New Year's Eve. Chinese New Year is observed as a public holiday in Narathiwat, Pattani, Yala and Satun Provinces.
2 February National Agriculture Day วันเกษตรแห่งชาติ (Wan Kaset Haeng Chat)
14 February Valentine's Day วันวาเลนไทน์ Western holiday devoted to romance and love, imported in recent decades. A popular day for weddings.[13][14]
8th waning moon, 6th Thai lunar month (May–June)a Atthami Puja วันอัฐมีบูชา (Wan Atthamibucha) Buddhist observance commemorating the Buddha's cremation.
5th day, 5th Chinese lunar month Duanwu Festival วันไหว้ขนมจ้าง (Wan Wai Khanom Chang) Chinese festival
1 July National Scout Day วันลูกเสือแห่งชาติ (Wan Luksuea Haeng Chat) Commemorates the founding of the National Scout Organization of Thailand by King Vajiravudh in 1911.
15th day, 7th Chinese lunar month (August)a Ghost Festival วันสารทจีน (Wan Sat Chin) Known as Sat Chin to differentiate from Sat Thai (see below)
4 September Royal Thai Navy Submarine Memorial Day[15] วันเรือดำน้ำไทย (Wan Ruea Dam Nam Thai)
15 September Silpa Bhirasri Day วันศิลป์ พีระศรี (Wan Sin Phirasi)
15th day, 8th Chinese lunar month (September)a Moon Festival วันไหว้พระจันทร์ (Wan Wai Phrachan) Chinese festival
New moon, 10th Thai lunar month (September–October)a Sat Thai Day วันสารทไทย (Wan Sat Thai) Traditional mid-year festival, now celebrated mostly in Nakhon Si Thammarat
1st–9th days, 9th Chinese lunar month (September–October)a Vegetarian Festival เทศกาลกินเจ (Thetsakan Kin Che) Usually corresponds with Sat Thai Day, depending on the differences between the Thai and Chinese lunar calendars.
Full moon, 11th Thai lunar month (October)a Pavarana/Wan Ok Phansab วันออกพรรษา Marks the end of the three-month Vassa and the beginning of the Kathina period the following day.
Full moon, 12th Thai lunar month (November)a Loy Krathong วันลอยกระทง (Wan Loi Krathong) Observed as Yi Peng festival (ยี่เป็ง) in Chiangmai.
25 December Christmas วันคริสต์มาส Christian holiday celebrating the birth of Jesus Christ. Religious for Christians and widely observed commercially.
1 Shawwal in the Islamic calendar Eid al-Fitr วันตรุษอีดิ้ลฟิตรี (วันรายอปอซอ) Muslim holiday celebrating the end of the fasting month of Ramadan. Observed as a public holiday in Narathiwat, Pattani, Yala and Satun Provinces.
10 Dhu al-Hijjah in the Islamic calendar Eid al-Adha วันตรุษอีดิ้ลอัฎฮา (วันรายอฮัจยี) Muslim holiday commemorating the willingness of Ibrahim to sacrifice his son Ismael as an act of obedience to Allah. Observed as a public holiday in Narathiwat, Pattani, Yala and Satun Provinces.
  • ^a Observances regulated by the Thai or Chinese lunar calendars—the usual Gregorian months in which the dates fall are indicated in parentheses.
  • ^b Alcohol sales are prohibited on Buddhist holidays except in international airport duty-free shops.[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ "พระราชบัญญัติคุ้มครองแรงงาน พ.ศ. 2541" [Labour Protection Act B.E. 2541]. Act of 1998.
  2. ^ บุษกร หวังวิไล. "กำหนดเวลาทำงานและวันหยุดราชการ: วันหยุดชดเชย (Designation of public workdays and holidays: compensatory holidays)". Secretariat of the Cabinet website (in Thai). Retrieved 20 April 2012.
  3. ^ a b "ประกาศสำนักนายกรัฐมนตรี เรื่อง กำหนดวันห้ามขายเครื่องดื่มแอลกอฮอล์ (ฉบับที่ 3) พ.ศ. 2558" [Proclamation of the Office of the Prime Minister regarding assignment of days with alcohol sales prohibition (number 3) B.E. 2558]. Act of 2015.
  4. ^ "กำหนดเวลาทำงานและวันหยุดราชการ: วันหยุดราชการประจำปี (Designation of public workdays and holidays: annual public holidays)". Secretariat of the Cabinet website (in Thai). Retrieved 20 April 2012.
  5. ^ "Two new holidays announced; May 5 dropped". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 16 April 2017.
  6. ^ "การพิจารณากำหนดวันหยุดราชการประจำปี เพิ่มเติม (Designation of additional annual public holidays)". Secretariat of the Cabinet website (in Thai). Retrieved 28 July 2014.
  7. ^ Charuvastra, Teeranai (5 September 2018). "Mid-Year Thai Bank Holiday Abolished". Khaosod English. Retrieved 6 September 2018.
  8. ^ a b "List of Legal Holidays to be Observed by the Bank of Thailand and Financial Institutions in Thailand During the Year 2016". Bank of Thailand website. Bank of Thailand. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
  9. ^ Office of the National Culture Commission (August 2006). "วันสำคัญทางวัฒนธรรมและวันหยุดราชการปีพ.ศ. ๒๕๕๐ (ปีกุน)" [Cultural observances and public holidays, B.E. 2550 (year of the pig)] (in Thai). Office of the National Culture Commission. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009.
  10. ^ "ค้นหาข้อมูลมติคณะรัฐมนตรี" [Search Cabinet Results] (in Thai). The Secretariat of the Cabinet. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  11. ^ "ประวัติความเป็นมา การจัดงาน "เทศกาลโคนมแห่งชาติ"". dpo.go.th (in Thai). Bangkok: Dairy Farming Promotion Organization of Thailand. n.d. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  12. ^ "Man of many talents". Prince Damrong. Ministry of Interior (Thailand). 5 March 2010. Retrieved 4 October 2013.
  13. ^ Frederickson, Terry (14 February 2014). "Thailand does Valentine's like nowhere else". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  14. ^ "Thailand in the mood for love as Valentine's Day fever sweeps the nation". The Straits Times. AFP. 14 February 2017. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  15. ^ Panrak, Patcharapol (16 September 2015). "Hoping again to become submariners, navy celebrates Submarine Day". Pattaya Mail. Retrieved 6 September 2018.

External links

Asalha Puja

Asalha Puja (known as Asanha Bucha in Thailand, Thai: อาสาฬหบูชา) is a Theravada Buddhist festival which typically takes place in July, on the full moon of the month of Āsādha. It is celebrated in Cambodia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Laos, Myanmar and in countries with Theravada Buddhist populations. Asalha Puja, also known as Dhamma Day, is one of Theravada Buddhism's most important festivals, celebrating as it does the Buddha's first sermon in which he set out to his five former associates the doctrine that had come to him following his enlightenment. This first pivotal sermon, often referred to as “setting into motion the wheel of dhamma,” is the teaching which is encapsulated for Buddhists in the four noble truths: there is suffering (dukkha); suffering is caused by craving (tanha); there is a state (nibbana) beyond suffering and craving; and finally, the way to nirvana is via the eightfold path. All the various schools and traditions of Buddhism revolve around the central doctrine of the four noble truths.

This first sermon is not only the first structured discourse given by the Buddha after his enlightenment, it also contains the essence of all his subsequent teaching. At the end of the talk, one of the five participants recounted his understanding of what had been said and asked to be received as a disciple, a request the Buddha granted, thus establishing the first order of monks.

The day is observed by donating offerings to temples and listening to sermons. The following day is known in Thailand as Thai: วันเข้าพรรษา Wan Khao Phansa; it is the first day of Thai: พรรษา vassa, the Theravada rains retreat.

In Indonesia, this festival is centered at Mendut Temple, near Borobudur.

Bhumibol Adulyadej

Bhumibol Adulyadej (Thai: ภูมิพลอดุลยเดช; RTGS: Phumiphon Adunyadet; pronounced [pʰūː.mí.pʰōn ʔā.dūn.jā.dèːt] (listen); see full title below; 5 December 1927 – 13 October 2016), conferred with the title King Bhumibol the Great in 1987, was the ninth monarch of Thailand from the Chakri dynasty as Rama IX. Reigning since 9 June 1946, he was, at the time of his death, the world's longest-reigning head of state, the longest-reigning monarch in Thai history and the longest-reigning monarch having reigned only as an adult, reigning for 70 years, 126 days. During his reign, he was served by a total of 30 prime ministers beginning with Pridi Banomyong and ending with Prayut Chan-o-cha.Forbes estimated Bhumibol's fortune – including property and investments managed by the Crown Property Bureau, a unique body that is neither private nor government-owned (the assets managed by the Bureau are owned by the crown as an institution, not by the monarch as an individual) – to be US$30 billion in 2010, and he headed the magazine's list of the "world's richest royals" from 2008 to 2013 despite the fact the same magazine also estimated the worth of the British monarchy triple that of the Thai one. In May 2014, Bhumibol's wealth was once again listed as US$30 billion.After 2006, Bhumibol suffered declining health and spent extended periods at Siriraj Hospital, where he died on 13 October 2016. He was generally highly revered by the people in Thailand – many even saw him as close to divine. Notable political activists and Thai citizens who criticized the king or the institution of monarchy were often forced into exile or to suffer frequent imprisonments. Yet many cases were dropped before being proceeded or were eventually given royal pardon. His cremation was held on 26 October 2017 at the royal crematorium at Sanam Luang. His son, Vajiralongkorn, succeeded him as King.

Buddha's Birthday

Buddha's birthday is a holiday traditionally celebrated in most of East Asia to commemorate the birth of the Prince Siddhartha Gautama, later the Gautama Buddha and founder of Buddhism. It is also celebrated in South and Southeast Asia as Vesak which also acknowledges the enlightenment and death of the Buddha. According to the Theravada Tripitaka scriptures (from Pali, meaning "three baskets"), Gautama was born c. 563/480 BCE in Lumbini in modern-day Nepal, and raised in the Shakya capital of Kapilvastu, in the present day Tilaurakot, Nepal. At the age of thirty five, he attained enlightenment (nirvana) underneath a Bodhi tree at Bodhgaya (modern day India). He delivered his first sermon at Sarnath, India. At the age of eighty, he died at Kushinagar, India.The exact date of Buddha's birthday is based on the Asian lunisolar calendars. The date for the celebration of Buddha's birthday varies from year to year in the Western Gregorian calendar, but usually falls in April or May. In leap years it may be celebrated in June.

Chinese New Year

Chinese New Year (or generally referred to as Lunar New Year globally) is the Chinese festival that celebrates the beginning of a new year on the traditional Chinese calendar. The festival is usually referred to as the Spring Festival in mainland China, and is one of several Lunar New Years in Asia. Observances traditionally take place from the evening preceding the first day of the year to the Lantern Festival, held on the 15th day of the year. The first day of Chinese New Year begins on the new moon that appears between 21 January and 20 February. In 2019, the first day of the Chinese New Year was on Tuesday, 5 February, initiating the Year of the Pig.

Chinese New Year is a major holiday in Greater China and has strongly influenced lunar new year celebrations of China's neighbouring cultures, including the Korean New Year (seol), the Tết of Vietnam, and the Losar of Tibet. It is also celebrated worldwide in regions and countries with significant Overseas Chinese populations, including Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, the Philippines, and Mauritius, as well as many in North America and Europe.Chinese New Year is associated with several myths and customs. The festival was traditionally a time to honour deities as well as ancestors. Within China, regional customs and traditions concerning the celebration of the New Year vary widely, and the evening preceding Chinese New Year's Day is frequently regarded as an occasion for Chinese families to gather for the annual reunion dinner. It is also traditional for every family to thoroughly clean their house, in order to sweep away any ill-fortune and to make way for incoming good luck. Another custom is the decoration of windows and doors with red paper-cuts and couplets. Popular themes among these paper-cuts and couplets include that of good fortune or happiness, wealth, and longevity. Other activities include lighting firecrackers and giving money in red paper envelopes. For the northern regions of China, dumplings are featured prominently in meals celebrating the festival.

International Workers' Day

International Workers' Day, also known as Workers' Day, May Day or Labour Day in some countries and often referred to as May Day, is a celebration of labourers and the working classes that is promoted by the international labour movement which occurs every year on May Day (1 May), an ancient European spring festival.The date was chosen by a pan-national organization of socialist and communist political parties to commemorate the Haymarket affair, which occurred in Chicago on 4 May 1886. The 1904 Sixth Conference of the Second International, called on "all Social Democratic Party organisations and trade unions of all countries to demonstrate energetically on the First of May for the legal establishment of the 8-hour day, for the class demands of the proletariat, and for universal peace."The first of May is a national public holiday in many countries worldwide, in most cases as "Labour Day", "International Workers' Day" or some similar name – although some countries celebrate a Labour Day on other dates significant to them, such as the United States, which celebrates Labor Day on the first Monday of September.

Inthakhin (pillar)

Inthakhin (Thai: อินทขีล; lit. "Indra's pillar") is the name of the Lak Mueang (the "city pillar") of Chiang Mai. It is said that the pillar was first erected by King Mangrai at the founding of the city on April 12, 1296 CE at Wat Sadue Mueang (lit. "Temple of the Navel of the City"; also known as Wat Inthakhin) on Inthawarorot road. It was brought to its present location inside a shrine on the temple grounds of Wat Chedi Luang by the Lanna king Kawila in 1800 CE.

List of holidays by country

Below are lists of public holidays by country.

Loi Krathong

Loi Krathong (Thai: ลอยกระทง, pronounced [lɔ̄ːj krā.tʰōŋ]) is a Siamese festival celebrated annually throughout the Kingdom of Thailand and in nearby countries with significant southwestern Tai cultures (Laos, Shan, Mon, Tanintharyi, Kelantan, Kedah and Xishuangbanna). The name could be translated as "to float a basket," and comes from the tradition of making krathong or buoyant, decorated baskets, which are then floated on a river.

Loi Krathong takes place on the evening of the full moon of the 12th month in the traditional Thai lunar calendar, thus the exact date of the festival changes every year. In the Western calendar this usually falls in the month of November. In Chang Mai, the festival lasts three days, and in 2018, the dates will be 21–23 November.

In Thailand, the festival is known as "Loi Krathong" (ลอยกระทง). Outside Thailand, this festival is celebrated under different names, including Myanmar as the "Tazaungdaing festival", Sri Lanka as "Il Full Moon Poya" and Cambodia as "Bon Om Touk".

Magha Puja

Māgha Pūjā (also written as Macha Bucha Day) is the second most important Buddhist festival, celebrated on the full moon day of the third lunar month in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Sri Lanka and on the full moon day of Tabaung in Myanmar. It celebrates a gathering that was held between the Buddha and 1,250 of his first disciples, which, according to tradition, preceded the custom of periodic recitation of discipline by monks. On the day, Buddhists celebrate the creation of an ideal and exemplary community, which is why it is sometimes called Saṅgha Day, the Saṅgha referring to the Buddhist community, and for some Buddhist schools this is specifically the monastic community. In Thailand, the Pāli term Māgha-pūraṇamī is also used for the celebration, meaning 'to honor on the full moon of the third lunar month'. Finally, some authors have also referred to the day as the Buddhist All Saints Day.Celebration of Māgha Pūjā is first known of in the modern period, with the institution of it in Thailand, by King Rama IV (1804–68). It is a public holiday in many Southeast Asian countries and is an occasion when Buddhists go to the temple to perform merit-making activities, such as alms giving, meditation and listening to teachings. It has been proposed as a more spiritual alternative to the celebration of Valentine's Day.

New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also simply called New Year or New Year's, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

In pre-Christian Rome under the Julian calendar, the day was dedicated to Janus, god of gateways and beginnings, for whom January is also named. As a date in the Gregorian calendar of Christendom, New Year's Day liturgically marked the Feast of the Naming and Circumcision of Jesus, which is still observed as such in the Anglican Church and Lutheran Church.

In present day, with most countries now using the Gregorian calendar as their de facto calendar, New Year's Day is probably the most celebrated public holiday, often observed with fireworks at the stroke of midnight as the new year starts in each time zone. Other global New Year's Day traditions include making New Year's resolutions and calling one's friends and family.

Outline of Thailand

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Thailand:

Thailand – country at the centre of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia. Formerly known as Siam until 1939. Thailand is a monarchy and governed by a military junta that took power in May 2014. Although a constitutional system was established in 1932, the monarchy and military have continued to intervene periodically in politics. Thailand experienced rapid economic growth between 1985 and 1996, becoming a newly industrialized country and a major exporter. Manufacturing, agriculture, and tourism are leading sectors of the economy. Among the ten ASEAN countries, Thailand ranks second in quality of life and the country's HDI had been rated as "high". Its large population and growing economic influence have made it a middle power in the region and around the world

Sat Thai

Sat Thai (Thai: สารทไทย, also spelled Sart Thai) is a traditional Thai mid-year festival, held on the new moon at the end of the tenth lunar month. It has many features of animism, attributing souls or spirits to animals, plants and other entities.

Songkran (Thailand)

Songkran (Thai: เทศกาลสงกรานต์, pronounced [tʰêːt.sā.kāːn sǒŋ.krāːn]) is the Thai New Year's national holiday. Songkran is 13 April every year, but the holiday period extends from 14 to 15 April. In 2018 the Thai cabinet extended the festival nationwide to five days, 12–16 April, to enable citizens to travel home for the holiday. In 2019, the holiday will be observed 12–16 April as 13 April falls on a Saturday. The word "Songkran" comes from the Sanskrit word saṃkrānti (Devanāgarī: संक्रांति), literally "astrological passage", meaning transformation or change. The term was borrowed from Makar Sankranti, the name of a Hindu harvest festival celebrated in India in January to mark the arrival of spring. It coincides with the rising of Aries on the astrological chart and with the New Year of many calendars of South and Southeast Asia, in keeping with the Buddhist/Hindu solar calendar.

In Thailand, New Year is now officially celebrated on 1 January, Songkran was the official New Year until 1888, when it was switched to a fixed date of 1 April. Then in 1940, this date was shifted to 1 January. The traditional Thai New Year Songkran was transformed into a national holiday.

Thai calendar

In Thailand, two main calendar systems are used alongside each other: the Thai solar calendar, based on the Gregorian calendar, used for official and most day-to-day purposes, and the Thai lunar calendar (a version of the Buddhist calendar, technically a lunisolar calendar), used for traditional events and Buddhist religious practices.

The use of the solar calendar was introduced in 1889 by King Chulalongkorn (Rama V), replacing the lunar calendar in official contexts. Originally placing the beginning of year on 1 April, this was changed to 1 January in 1941, so the days and months now correspond exactly to the Gregorian calendar. Numbering of the years follow the Buddhist Era, introduced in 1913 to replace the Rattanakosin Era, which in turn replaced the Chula Sakarat in 1889. The reckoning of the Buddhist Era in Thailand is 543 years ahead of the Common Era (Anno Domini), so the year 2019 CE corresponds to B.E. 2562.

The lunar calendar contains twelve or thirteen months in a year, with 15 waxing moon and 14 or 15 waning moon days in a month, amounting to years of 354, 355 or 384 days. The years are usually noted by the animal of the Chinese zodiac, although there are several dates used to count the New Year.

As with the rest of the world, the seven-day week is used alongside both calendars. The solar calendar now governs most aspects of life in Thailand, and while official state documents invariably follow the Buddhist Era, the Common Era is also used by the private sector. The lunar calendar determines the dates of Buddhist holidays, traditional festivals and astrological practices, and the lunar date is still recorded on birth certificates and printed in most daily newspapers.

Thai lunar calendar

The Thai lunar calendar (Thai: ปฏิทินจันทรคติ, RTGS: patithin chanthrakhati, pronounced [pà.tì.tʰīn tɕān.tʰrá.kʰā.tìʔ], literally, Specific days according to lunar norms), or Tai calendar, is a lunisolar Buddhist calendar. It is used for calculating lunar-regulated holy days. Based on the SuriyaYatra, with likely influence from the traditional Hindu Surya Siddhanta, it has its own unique structure that does not require the Surya Siddhanta to calculate. Lunisolar calendars combine lunar and solar calendars for a nominal year of 12 months. An extra day or an extra 30-day month is intercalated at irregular intervals.

Thai solar calendar

The Thai solar calendar (Thai: ปฏิทินสุริยคติ, RTGS: patithin suriyakhati, "solar calendar") was adopted by King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) in 1888 CE as the Siamese version of the Gregorian calendar, replacing the Thai lunar calendar as the legal calendar in Thailand (though the latter is still also used, especially for traditional and religious events). Years are now counted in the Buddhist Era (B.E.): พุทธศักราช, พ.ศ., (RTGS: Phutthasakkarat) which is 543 years ahead of the Gregorian calendar.

Tourism in Thailand

Tourism is a major economic contributor to the Kingdom of Thailand. Estimates of tourism revenue directly contributing to the Thai GDP of 12 trillion baht range from one trillion baht (2013) 2.53 trillion baht (2016), the equivalent of 9 per cent to 17.7 per cent of GDP. When including indirect travel and tourism receipts, the 2014 total is estimated to be the equivalent of 19.3 percent (2.3 trillion baht) of Thailand's GDP. The actual contribution of tourism to GDP is lower than these percentages because GDP is measured in value added not revenue. The valued added of the Thailand's tourism industry is not known (value added is revenue less purchases of inputs).

Tourism worldwide in 2017 accounted for 10.4 percent of global GDP and 313 million jobs, or 9.9 percent of total employment. Most governments view tourism as an easy moneymaker and a shortcut to economic development. Tourism success is measured by the number of visitors; the more, the better.The Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT) uses the slogan "Amazing Thailand" to promote Thailand internationally. In 2015, this was supplemented by a "Discover Thainess" campaign.

Vassa

Vassa (Pali: vassa-, Sanskrit: varṣa-, both "rain") is the three-month annual retreat observed by Theravada practitioners. Taking place during the wet season, Vassa lasts for three lunar months, usually from July (the Burmese month of Waso, ဝါဆို) to October (the Burmese month of Thadingyut သီတင်းကျွတ်).In English, Vassa is often glossed as Rains Retreat or Buddhist Lent, the latter by analogy to the Christian Lent (which Vassa predates by at least five centuries).

For the duration of Vassa, monastics remain in one place, typically a monasteries or temple grounds. In some monasteries, monks dedicate the Vassa to intensive meditation. Some Buddhist lay people choose to observe Vassa by adopting more ascetic practices, such as giving up meat, alcohol, or smoking. While Vassa is sometimes casually called "Buddhist Lent", others object to this terminology. Commonly, the number of years a monk has spent in monastic life is expressed by counting the number of vassas (or rains) since ordination.

Most Mahayana Buddhists do not observe Vassa, though Vietnamese Thiền and Korean Seon monastics observe an equivalent retreat of three months of intensive practice in one location, a practice also observed in Tibetan Buddhism.

Vassa begins on the first day of the waning moon of the eighth lunar month, which is the day after Asalha Puja or Asalha Uposatha ("Dhamma day"). It ends on Pavarana, when all monastics come before the sangha and atone for any offense that might have been committed during Vassa.

Vassa is followed by Kathina, a festival in which the laity expresses gratitude to monks. Lay Buddhists bring donations to temples, especially new robes for the monks.The Vassa tradition predates the time of Gautama Buddha. It was a long-standing custom for mendicant ascetics in India not to travel during the rainy season as they may unintentionally harm crops, insects or even themselves during their travels. Many Buddhist ascetics live in regions which lack a rainy season. Consequently, there are places where Vassa may not be typically observed.

Vesak

Vesak (Pali: Vesākha, Sanskrit: Vaiśākha), also known as Buddha Jayanti, Buddha Purnima and Buddha Day, is a holiday traditionally observed by Buddhists and some Hindus on different days in India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Tibet, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Mongolia and the Philippines and in China, Japan, South Korea, North Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam as "Buddha's Birthday" as well as in other parts of the world. The festival commemorates the birth, enlightenment (Buddhahood), and death (Parinirvāna) of Gautama Buddha in the Theravada or southern tradition.

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