Public holidays in China

There are currently seven official public holidays in mainland China. Each year's holidays are announced about three weeks before the start of the year by the General Office of the State Council. A notable feature of mainland Chinese holidays is that weekends are usually swapped with the weekdays next to the actual holiday to create a longer holiday period.

Date Length (without weekends) English name Chinese name (Simplified) Pinyin 2014[1] 2015 2016 2017 2018[2] 2019
January 1 1 day New Year 元旦 Yuándàn 1 January 1 January[a] 1 January[b] 1 January[c] 1 January[b] 1 January[d]
1st day of 1st Lunisolar month 3 days (1st, 2nd and 3rd days of 1st Lunisolar month) Spring Festival[e] (aka Chinese New Year) 春节 Chūnjié 31 January[f] 19 February[g] 8 February[h] 28 January[g] 16 February[g] 5 February[i]
5th solar term (April 4, April 5 or April 6) 1 day Tomb-Sweeping Day 清明节 Qīngmíng jié 5 April[c] 5 April[c] 4 April[b] 4 April[d] 5 April[a] 5 April[b]
May 1 1 day Labour Day 劳动节 Láodòng jié 1 May[a] 1 May[b] 1 May[c] 1 May[b] 1 May[d] 1 May[j]
5th day of 5th Lunisolar month 1 day Dragon Boat Festival 端午节 Duānwǔ jié 2 June[b] 20 June[c] 9 June[a] 30 May[d] 18 June[b] 7 June[b]
15th day of 8th Lunisolar month 1 day Mid-Autumn Festival 中秋节 Zhōngqiū jié 8 September[b] 27 September[k] 15 September[a] 4 October[l] 24 September[b] 13 September[b]
October 1 3 days (October 1,2 and 3) National Day 国庆节 Guóqìng jié 1 October[m] 1 October[n] 1 October[o] 1 October[l] 1 October[p] 1 October[m]
National Day decorations - Beihai Park
Chinese National Day in 2004 at Beihai Park, Beijing.

History

Festivals in China have been around since the Qin Dynasty around 221-206 BC. During the more prosperous Tang Dynasty from AD 618-907, festivals involved less sacrifice and mystery to more entertainment.[3] Culminating to the modern era Between the 1920s until around the 1970s, the Chinese began observing two sets of holidays, which were the traditional and what became "official", celebrating the accomplishments of the communist regime.[4] There was then a major reform in 2008, abolishing the Labour Day Golden Week and adding three traditional Chinese holidays (Qingming Festival, Duanwu Festival, and Mid-Autumn Festival).[5] From at least 2000 until this reform, the Spring Festival public holiday began on New Year's Day itself. From 2008 to 2013 it was shifted back by one day to begin on Chinese New Year's Eve. In 2014, New Year's Eve became a working day again, which provoked hostile discussion by netizens and academics.[6][7] However, since 2015, Chinese New Year's Eve is usually swapped with nearby weekends so that people need not work on Chinese New Year's Eve.

the original version (released on December 23rd, 1949)

  • New Year: 1 day (January 1)
  • Spring Festival: 3 days (1st, 2nd and 3rd days of 1st Lunisolar month)
  • Labour Day: 1 day (May 1)
  • National Day: 2 days (October 1 and 2)

total: 7 days

the first revised version (revised on September 18th, 1999)

  • New Year: 1 day (January 1)
  • Spring Festival: 3 days (1st, 2nd and 3rd days of 1st Lunisolar month)
  • Labour Day: 3 days (May 1, 2 and 3)
  • National Day: 3 days (October 1, 2 and 3)

total: 10 days

the second revised version (revised on December 14th, 2007)

  • New Year: 1 day (January 1)
  • Spring Festival: 3 days (Chinese New Year's Eve, 1st and 2nd days of 1st Lunisolar month)
  • Tomb-Sweeping Day: 1 day (5th solar term (April 4, April 5 or April 6))
  • Labour Day: 1 day (May 1)
  • Dragon Boat Festival: 1 day (5th day of 5th Lunisolar month)
  • Mid-Autumn Festival: 1 day (15th day of 8th Lunisolar month)
  • National Day: 3 days (October 1, 2 and 3)

total: 11 days

the third revised version (revised on December 11th, 2013)

  • New Year: 1 day (January 1)
  • Spring Festival: 3 days (1st, 2nd and 3rd days of 1st Lunisolar month)
  • Tomb-Sweeping Day: 1 day (5th solar term (April 4, April 5 or April 6))
  • Labour Day: 1 day (May 1)
  • Dragon Boat Festival: 1 day (5th day of 5th Lunisolar month)
  • Mid-Autumn Festival: 1 day (15th day of 8th Lunisolar month)
  • National Day: 3 days (October 1, 2 and 3)

total: 11 days

Overview

Holidays in China are complicated and are one of the least predictable among developed nations. In all these holidays, if the holiday lands on a weekend, the days will be reimbursed after the weekend.

The Chinese New Year and National Day holidays are three days long. The week-long holidays on May (Labor) Day and National Day began in 2000, as a measure to increase and encourage holiday spending. The resulting seven-day or eight-day (if Mid-Autumn Festival is near National Day) holidays are called "Golden Weeks" (黄金周), and have become peak seasons for travel and tourism. In 2008, the Labor Day holiday was shortened to three days to reduce travel rushes to just twice a year, and instead, three traditional Chinese holidays were added.

Generally, if there is a three-day or four-day (if Mid-Autumn Festival is near National Day) holiday, the government will declare it to be a seven-day or eight-day holiday. However, citizens are required to work during a nearby weekend. Businesses and schools would then treat the affected Saturdays and Sundays as the weekdays that the weekend has been swapped with. Schedules are released late in the year prior and might change during the year.

The following is a graphical schematic of how the weekend shifting works.

Weekend shifting scheme (since 2014)

Spring Festival

Shift the Saturdays and Sundays nearby to make a 7-day holiday. People may need to work for 6 or 7 continuous days before or after the holiday.

National Day (not near Mid-Autumn Festival)

Shift the Saturdays and Sundays nearby to make a 7-day holiday. The holiday is from 1 October to 7. People may need to work for 6 or 7 continuous days before or after the holiday.

New Year, Tomb-Sweeping Day, Labour Day, Dragon Boat Festival and Mid-Autumn Festival (not near National Day)

  • Wednesday: No weekend shifting. The holiday is only 1 day long. This is to prevent people from working for 7 continuous days since 2014. Sometimes shift the Sundays nearby to make a 4-day holiday. People may need to work for 6 continuous days after the holiday.
  • Tuesday or Thursday: Shift the Saturdays and Sundays nearby to make a 3-day holiday. People may need to work for 6 continuous days before or after the holiday.
  • Saturday or Sunday: The public holiday is transferred to Monday.

Additional holidays for specific social groups

In addition to these holidays, applicable to the whole population, there are four official public holidays applicable to specific sections of the population:

Date English name Chinese name Pinyin Applicable to
March 8 International Women's Day 国际妇女节 Guójì fùnǚ jié Women (half-day)
May 4 Youth Day 青年节 Qīngnián jié Youth from the age of 14 to 28 (half-day)
June 1 Children's Day 六一儿童节 Liùyī értóng jié Children below the age of 14 (1 day)
August 1 Army Day 建军节 Jiàn jūn jié Military personnel in active service (half-day)

The closeness of Labor Day and Youth Day resulted in an unexpectedly long break for schools in 2008 - the Youth Day half-holiday entitlement had been largely forgotten because it has been subsumed into the Golden Week.

Traditional holiday scheme

Date English name Local name Pinyin Remarks
January 1 New Year 元旦 Yuándàn
1st day of 1st Lunisolar month Spring Festival (Chinese New Year) 春节 Chūnjié Based on Chinese calendar. Holidays last seamlessly, two full weeks, up to the Lantern Festival (see below).
15th day of 1st Lunisolar month Lantern Festival 元宵节 Yuánxiāo jié Based on Chinese calendar
2nd day of 2nd Lunisolar month Zhonghe Festival (Dragon Raising its Head) 中和节 Zhōng hé jié Based on Chinese calendar
March 8 International Women's Day 国际妇女节 Guójì fùnǚ jié
March 12 Arbor Day 植树节 Zhíshù jié Also known as National Tree Planting Day (全民义务植树日 Quánmín yìwù zhíshù rì)
5th Solar Term (usually April 4–6) Qingming Festival (Chinese Memorial Day) 清明节 Qīngmíng jié Based on the Qingming solar term.
May 1 Labour Day 劳动节 Láodòng jié International Workers' Day
May 4 Youth Day 青年节 Qīngnián jié Commemorating the 1919 May Fourth Movement
June 1 Children's Day 六一儿童节 Liùyī értóng jié
5th day of 5th Lunisolar month Dragon Boat Festival (Duanwujie) 端午节 Duānwǔ jié Based on Chinese calendar
July 1 CPC Founding Day 建党节 Jiàndǎng jié Formation of 1st National Congress in July 1921
July 11 China National Maritime Day 中国航海日 Zhōngguó hánghǎi rì The anniversary of Zheng He's first voyage
August 1 People's Liberation Army (PLA) Day 建军节 Jiàn jūn jié Anniversary of the Nanchang Uprising (南昌起义 Nánchāng qǐyì) on August 1, 1927
7th day of 7th Lunisolar month Double Seven Festival 七夕 Qīxī The Chinese Valentine's Day, based on Chinese calendar
15th day of 7th Lunisolar month Spirit Festival (Ghost Festival) 中元节 Zhōng yuán jié Based on Chinese calendar
15th day of 8th Lunisolar month Mid-Autumn Festival (Moon Festival) 中秋节 Zhōngqiū jié Based on Chinese calendar
September 3 Victory over Japan Day 中国人民抗日战争胜利纪念日 Zhōngguó Rénmín Kàngrì Zhànzhēng Shènglì jìniàn rì Honoring the Allied victory over Japan and the end of the Second World War in the Pacific (new holiday established 2014)
September 30 National Memorial Day 烈士纪念日 Lièshì jìniàn rì Honoring all the fallen of the country right before National Day, new holiday established in 2014
October 1 National Day 国庆节 Guóqìng jié Founding of PRC on October 1, 1949
9th day of 9th Lunisolar month Chongyang Festival 重阳节 Chóngyáng jié Based on Chinese calendar.
December 13 Nanking Massacre Memorial Day 南京大屠杀死难者国家公祭日 Nánjīng dà túshā sǐnàn zhě guójiā gōngjì rì New holiday established in 2014 to honor the thousands of Chinese lives lost during the events of the 1938 Nanking Massacre

Ethnic Minorities Holidays

There are public holidays celebrate by certain ethnic minorities in certain regions, which are decided by local governments. The following are holidays at province-level divisions.

Date English name Local name Chinese name Pinyin Ethnic Groups Remarks
1st day of Tibetan year Losar ལོ་གསར 洛萨/藏历新年 Luò sà / zànglì xīnnián Tibetan 7 days in Tibet
30.6 of Tibetan calendar Sho Dun ༄༅། ཞོ་སྟོན། 雪顿节 Xuě dùn jié Tibetan 1 day in Tibet
1.10 of Islamic calendar Eid ul-Fitr 开斋节/肉孜节 Kāizhāi jié / ròu zī jié Hui, Uyghur and other Muslims 2 days in Ningxia; 1 day in Xinjiang
10.12 of Islamic calendar Eid al-Adha 古尔邦节 Gǔ'ěrbāng jié Hui, Uyghur and other Muslims 2 days in Ningxia; 3 days in Xinjiang
3rd day of the 3rd Lunisolar month Sam Nyied Sam Sam Nyied Sam 三月三 Sān Yuè Sān Zhuang 3 days in Guangxi

The following are traditional holidays at prefecture-level divisions, and there are more at lower level divisions, i.e. county-level.

Date Celebrating Location English name Chinese name Pinyin Ethnic Groups Remarks
6th day of the 6th Lunisolar month Qiannan and Qianxinan Liuyueliu 六月六 Liù Yuè Liù Bouyei 1 day in Qiannan and Qianxinan
8th day of the 8th Lunisolar month Qiannan and Qianxinan Bayueba 八月八 Bā Yuè Bā Miao 1 day in Qiannan and Qianxinan
10th day of the 9th Lunisolar month Dehong 阿露窝罗节 Ā Lù Wō Luó Jié Achang 2 day in Dehong
1st day of Tibetan year Dêqên, Garzê, Gannan and Ngawa Losar 藏历年 Luò sà / zànglì xīnnián Tibetan 3 days in Dêqên, Garzê, Gannan and Ngawa
24th day of the 6th Lunisolar month Honghe 矻扎扎节 Kū Zhā Zhā Jié Hani 2 days in Honghe
24th day of the 6th Lunisolar month Chuxiong, Liangshan and Honghe Fire Festival 火把节 Huǒ Bǎ Jié Yi 5 days in Chuxiong, Liangshan and 3 days in Honghe
20 September Nujiang 阔时节 Kuò Shí Jié Lisu 3 days in Nujiang
15th day of the 1st Lunisolar month Dehong Manau Festival 目瑙纵歌节 Mùnǎo Zónggē Jié Jingpo 2 days in Dehong
5th day of the 5th Lunisolar month Wenshan 闹兜阳 Nào Dōuyáng Miao 3 days in Wenshan, often celebrates together with Dragon Boat Festival
13 April Dehong and Xishuangbanna Water-Sprinkling Festival or Songkran 泼水节 Pō Shuǐ Jié Dai 2 days in Dehong and Xishuangbanna
1st day of the 10th Lunisolar month Ngawa Qiang New Year 羌历年 Qiānglì Nián Qiang 5 days in Ngawa
15th to 22nd day of the 3rd Lunisolar month Dali 三月街 Sān Yuè Jiē Bai 7 days in Dali
3rd day of the 3rd Lunisolar month Wenshan Sam Nyied Sam 三月三 Sān Yuè Sān Zhuang 3 days in Wenshan
1st day of the Yi Calendar, often falls in the 10th Lunisolar month Chuxiong and Liangshan Yi New Year 彝族年 Yízú Nián Yi 5 days in Chuxiong and Liangshan
1.10 of Islamic calendar Linxia Eid ul-Fitr 开斋节 Kāizhāi jié Hui 3 days in Linxia
10.12 of Islamic calendar Linxia Eid al-Adha or Kurban Festival 古尔邦节 Gǔ'ěrbāng jié Hui 3 days in Linxia

Besides, the following Autonomous Prefectures celebrates their founding date (州庆纪念日 Zhōuqìng JìNiàn Rì or 州庆日 Zhōuqìng Rì in Chinese). Generally government takes 1 day off to all people working in such prefectures.

Celebrating Location Date
Chuxiong 15 April
Dali 22 November
Dehong 23 July
Dêqên 13 September
Enshi 19 August
Gannan 1 October
Garzê 24 November
Liangshan 1 October
Linxia 19 November
Ngawa 2 January
Nujiang 23 August
Qiandongnan 23 July
Qiannan 8 August
Qianxinan 1 May
Wenshan 1 April
Xiangxi 20 September
Xishuangbanna 23 January
Yanbian 3 September

Novel holidays

Some Chinese young adults have begun to celebrate 11 November as Singles Day (Chinese: 光棍节; pinyin: guāng gùn jié) because of the many ones (1s) and many singles in the date.[8]

Serfs Emancipation Day (March 28) was established in Tibet in 2009.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e The holiday is from Thursday to Saturday. The Sunday after the holiday is a working day. This is officially counted as a three-day holiday.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l The authorities combine it with the weekend to make a 3-day holiday.
  3. ^ a b c d e The date of the festival falls on a weekend, so the public holiday has been transferred to Monday.
  4. ^ a b c d The holiday is from Sunday to Tuesday. The Saturday before the holiday is a working day. This is officially counted as a three-day holiday.
  5. ^ The authorities always refer to "Chinese New Year" as 'Spring Festival' since they recognize the Gregorian calendar.
  6. ^ The holiday is from 1st day to 7th day of 1st Lunisolar month. The Sunday before the holiday and the Saturday after the holiday are working days. This is officially counted as a seven-day holiday.
  7. ^ a b c The holiday is from New Year's Eve to 6th day of 1st Lunisolar month. The Sunday before the holiday and the Saturday after the holiday are working days. This is officially counted as a seven-day holiday.
  8. ^ The holiday is from New Year's Eve to 6th day of 1st Lunisolar month. The Saturday before the holiday and the Sunday after the holiday are working days. This is officially counted as a seven-day holiday.
  9. ^ The holiday is from New Year's Eve to 6th day of 1st Lunisolar month. The Saturday and Sunday before the holiday are working days. This is officially counted as a seven-day holiday.
  10. ^ The holiday is from Wednesday to Saturday. The Sundays before and after the holiday are working days. This is officially counted as a four-day holiday.
  11. ^ The traditional date of the festival falls on a Sunday near National Day, so the public holiday has been transferred into the holiday of National Day.
  12. ^ a b The holiday containing National Day and Mid-Autumn Festival is from 1 October to 8. The Saturday before the holiday is a working day. This is officially counted as an eight-day holiday.
  13. ^ a b The holiday is from 1 October to 7. The Sunday before the holiday and the Saturday after the holiday are working days. This is officially counted as a seven-day holiday.
  14. ^ The holiday is from 1 October to 7. The Saturday after the holiday is a working day. This is officially counted as a seven-day holiday.
  15. ^ The holiday is from 1 October to 7. The Saturday and Sunday after the holiday are working days. This is officially counted as a seven-day holiday.
  16. ^ The holiday is from 1 October to 7. The Saturday and Sunday before the holiday are working days. This is officially counted as a seven-day holiday.

References

  1. ^ 国务院办公厅关于2014年 部分节假日安排的通知 (in Chinese). General Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China. 2013. Retrieved 2014-02-11. Issued 11 December 2013.
  2. ^ "General Office of the State Council on 2018 Some holiday arrangements notice". Retrieved 2018-04-27.
  3. ^ "Traditional Chibese Festivals".
  4. ^ "Chinese Festivals".
  5. ^ Xinhuanet.com "Xinhuanet.com." How will people spend China's 1st Qingming Festival holiday?. Retrieved on 2008-04-04.
  6. ^ Hite, Brittany (2013). "China's 2014 Holiday Schedule: Still Complicated". China Realtime. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2014-02-11.
  7. ^ Reuters Shanghai (2013-12-12). "China's revised 2014 holiday schedule sparks public ire". Reuters. Retrieved 2014-01-02.
  8. ^ "Thinking Chinese - A holiday invasion – Why are Chinese enthusiastically adopting new festive events?". Retrieved August 29, 2012.

External links

China National Maritime Day

China National Maritime Day, officially referred to as Maritime Day of China, also known as China Maritime Day, Maritime Day in China, Chinese: 中国航海日; pinyin: hanghairi, is celebrated July 11, 2005, commemorating marked Zheng He's first voyage. The date marks the 600th anniversary of the ocean voyages of Zheng He, the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) navigator, who went on seven voyages to show China's might to the rest of the world, under the command of Yongle Emperor. These voyages sought to prove to the Chinese people that the usurper Yongle was worthy of the throne and the gods accepted him with the Mandate of Heaven. The celebration's creation honors China's commitment to the International Maritime Organization, of which it is a member.

Dongzhi Festival

The Dōngzhì Festival or Winter Solstice Festival (Chinese: 冬至; pinyin: Dōngzhì; literally: 'the extreme of winter') is one of the most important Chinese and East Asian festivals celebrated by the Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans during the Dongzhi solar term (winter solstice) on or around December 22 (according to East Asia time).The origins of this festival can be traced back to the yin and yang philosophy of balance and harmony in the cosmos. After this celebration, there will be days with longer daylight hours and therefore an increase in positive energy flowing in. The philosophical significance of this is symbolized by the I Ching hexagram fù (復, "Returning").

Double Ninth Festival

The Double Ninth Festival (Chong Yang Festival or Chung Yeung Festival in China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan, Chōyō (Japanese: 重陽, Kiku no Sekku), Jungyangjeol (Hangul: 중양절, Hanja: 重陽節), Vietnamese: Tết Trùng Cửu), observed on the ninth day of the ninth month in the Chinese calendar, is a traditional Chinese holiday, mentioned in writing since before the Eastern Han period (before AD 25).According to the I Ching, nine is a yang number; the ninth day of the ninth lunar month (or double nine) has too much yang (a traditional Chinese spiritual concept) and is thus a potentially dangerous date. Hence, the day is also called "Double Yang Festival" (重陽節). To protect against danger, it is customary to climb a high mountain, drink chrysanthemum liquor, and wear the zhuyu (茱萸) plant, Cornus officinalis. (Both chrysanthemum and zhuyu are considered to have cleansing qualities and are used on other occasions to air out houses and cure illnesses.)

On this holiday some Chinese also visit the graves of their ancestors to pay their respects. In Hong Kong, whole extended families head to ancestral graves to clean them and repaint inscriptions, and to lay out food offerings such as roast suckling pig and fruit, which are then eaten (after the spirits have consumed the spiritual element of the food). Chongyang Cake is also popular. Incense sticks are burned. Cemeteries get crowded, and each year grass fires are inadvertently started by the burning incense sticks.

Double Third Festival

The Double Third Festival (Chinese: 三月三; pinyin: sānyuèsān; Korean: 삼짇날; romaja: samjinnal) or Shangsi Festival (traditional Chinese: 上巳節; simplified Chinese: 上巳节; pinyin: shàngsìjié; Japanese: 上巳; rōmaji: jyōshi / jyōmi; Korean: 삼사; romaja: samsa) is an East Asian festival. The 2018 date is April 18.

Dragon Boat Festival

The Dragon Boat Festival (traditional Chinese: 端午節; simplified Chinese: 端午节) is a traditional holiday originating in China, occurring near the summer solstice. The festival now occurs on the 5th day of the 5th month of the traditional Chinese calendar, which is the source of the festival's alternative name, the Double Fifth Festival. The Chinese calendar is lunisolar, so the date of the festival varies from year to year on the Gregorian calendar. In 2017, it occurred on 30 May; in 2018, on 18 June; and, in 2019, on 7 June.

Golden Week (China)

The Golden Week (黄金周), in the People's Republic of China, is the name given to a semi-annual 7-day or 8-day national holiday, implemented in 2000:

The "Chinese Lunar New Year Golden Week" (Chinese New Year) begins in January or February.

The "National Day Golden Week" begins around 1 October. If Mid-Autumn Festival is near National Day, the Golden Week may be 8 days long.

The "Labour Day Golden Week" begins 1 May and was reintroduced in 2019 after discontinuation in 2007. Three or four (if Mid-Autumn Festival is near National Day) days of paid holiday are given, and the surrounding weekends are re-arranged so that workers in Chinese companies always have seven or eight continuous days of holiday. These national holidays were first started by the government for the PRC's National Day in 1999 and are primarily intended to help expand the domestic tourism market and improve the national standard of living, as well as allowing people to make long-distance family visits. The Golden Weeks are consequently periods of greatly heightened travel activity.

Holidays in China

Holidays in China may refer to:

Traditional Chinese holidays

Public holidays in China

Public holidays in Taiwan

Public holidays in Hong Kong

Public holidays in Macau

Hungry ghost

Hungry ghost is a concept in Chinese Buddhism, Chinese traditional religion, Vietnamese Buddhism and Vietnamese traditional religion representing beings who are driven by intense emotional needs in an animalistic way.

The term 餓鬼 èguǐ, literally "hungry ghost", is the Chinese translation of the term preta in Buddhism.

"Hungry ghosts" play a role in Chinese Buddhism, Vietnamese Buddhism and Taoism as well as in Chinese folk religion and Vietnamese folk religion.

The term is not to be confused with the generic term for "ghost" or damnation, 鬼 guǐ (i.e. the residual spirit of a deceased ancestor). The understanding is that all people become such a regular ghost when they die, and would then slowly weaken and eventually die a second time.

Hungry ghosts, by contrast, are a much more exceptional case, and would only occur in very unfortunate circumstances, such as if a whole family were killed or when a family no longer venerated their ancestors.With the rise in popularity of Buddhism, the idea became popular that souls would live in space until reincarnation. In the Taoist tradition it is believed that hungry ghosts can arise from people whose deaths have been violent or unhappy. Both Buddhism and Taoism share the idea that hungry ghosts can emerge from neglect or desertion of ancestors. According to the Hua-yen Sutra evil deeds will cause a soul to be reborn in one of six different realms. The highest degree of evil deed will cause a soul to be reborn as a denizen of hell, a lower degree of evil will cause a soul to be reborn as an animal, and the lowest degree will cause a soul to be reborn as a hungry ghost. According to the tradition, evil deeds that lead to becoming a hungry ghost are killing, stealing and sexual misconduct. Desire, greed, anger and ignorance are all factors in causing a soul to be reborn as a hungry ghost because they are motives for people to perform evil deeds.

Laba Festival

The Laba (simplified Chinese: 腊八; traditional Chinese: 臘八; literally: 'Eighth of La') is a traditional Chinese holiday celebrated on the eighth day of the La Month (or Layue 臘月), the twelfth month of the Chinese calendar. It is customary on this day to eat Laba Congee. The Laba Festival had not been on a fixed day until the Southern and Northern dynasties, when it was influenced by Buddhism and got a fixed time on the eighth day of twelfth month, which was also the enlightenment day of the Buddha. Therefore, many customs of the Laba Festival are related to Buddhism. It corresponds directly to the Japanese Rohatsu and the South Asian Bodhi Day.

List of festivals in China

The following is an incomplete list of festivals in China, of all types.

Miaohui

Miaohui (庙会), literally temple gatherings or translated as temple fairs, also called yíngshén sàihuì (迎神赛会 "collective rituals to greet the gods"), are Chinese religious gatherings held by folk temples for the worship of the Chinese gods and immortals. Large-scale miaohui are usually held around the time of the Chinese New Year, or in specific temples at the birthday of the god enshrined in the temple itself. Activities usually include rituals celebrated in the temple, opera on a stage facing the temple, processions of the gods' images on carts throughout villages and cities, performance of musical and ritual troupes (of Taoists, sects and Confucian ritualists), blessing of offerings brought to the temple by families, and various economic activities.Geography and local customs lead to great differences in the nature of festivals dedicated to the gods. In northern China miaohui are usually week-long, with ceremonies held in large temples, and attended by tens of thousands of people; while in southern China they are a much more local practice, organised by village temples or clusters of temples of different villages.

National Day of the People's Republic of China

The National Day of the People's Republic of China is a public holiday in the People's Republic of China to celebrate the national day, and is celebrated annually on October 1.

National Day of the Republic of China

The National Day of the Republic of China, also referred to as Double Ten Day or Double Tenth Day, is the national day of the Republic of China (ROC). It commemorates the start of the Wuchang Uprising of 10 October 1911 (10-10 or double ten), which led to the end of the Qing Dynasty in China and establishment of the Chinese Republic on 1 January 1912.

During the course of the Chinese Civil War, the government of the Republic of China lost control of mainland China, fleeing to the Island of Taiwan in December 1949. The National Day is now mainly celebrated in ROC-controlled Taiwan, but is also celebrated by some overseas Chinese.

Nine Emperor Gods Festival

The Nine Emperor Gods Festival (Malay: Perayaan Dewa Sembilan Maharaja, Southern Thai: เทศกาลกินเจ) is a nine-day Taoist celebration beginning on the eve of 9th lunar month of the Chinese calendar, nine-emperor-gods-festival-celebrated-with-primarily in Southeast Asian countries such as, Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia by the Peranakans (exclude other Overseas Chinese community).

Public holidays in Hong Kong

Public holidays and statutory holidays in Hong Kong are holidays designated by the Government of Hong Kong. They allow workers rest from work, usually in conjunction with special occasions.

Qingming Festival

The Qingming or Ching Ming festival, also known as Tomb-Sweeping Day in English (sometimes also called Chinese Memorial Day or Ancestors' Day), is a traditional Chinese festival observed by the Han Chinese of China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Thailand. It falls on the first day of the fifth solar term of the traditional Chinese lunisolar calendar. This makes it the 15th day after the Spring Equinox, either 4 or 5 April in a given year. During Qingming, Chinese families visit the tombs of their ancestors to clean the gravesites, pray to their ancestors, and make ritual offerings. Offerings would typically include traditional food dishes, and the burning of joss sticks and joss paper. The holiday recognizes the traditional reverence of one's ancestors in Chinese culture.

The Qingming Festival has been observed by the Chinese for over 2500 years. It became a public holiday in mainland China in 2008. In Taiwan, the public holiday was in the past observed on 5 April to honor the death of Chiang Kai-shek on that day in 1975, but with Chiang's popularity waning, this convention is not being observed. A similar holiday is observed in the Ryukyu Islands, called Shīmī in the local language.

In mainland China, the holiday is associated with the consumption of qingtuan, green dumplings made of glutinous rice and Chinese mugwort or barley grass. A similar confection called caozaiguo or shuchuguo, made with Jersey cudweed, is consumed in Taiwan.

Qixi Festival

The Qixi Festival, also known as the Qiqiao Festival, is a Chinese festival celebrating the annual meeting of the cowherd and weaver girl in mythology. It falls on the 7th day of the 7th lunar month on the Chinese calendar.The festival originated from the romantic legend of two lovers, Zhinü and Niulang, who were the weaver girl and the cowherd, respectively. The tale of The Cowherd and the Weaver Girl has been celebrated in the Qixi Festival since the Han dynasty. The earliest-known reference to this famous myth dates back to over 2600 years ago, which was told in a poem from the Classic of Poetry. The Qixi festival inspired the Tanabata festival in Japan and Chilseok festival in Korea.

The festival has variously been called the Double Seventh Festival, the Chinese Valentine's Day, the Night of Sevens, or the Magpie Festival.

Singles' Day

Singles day or Guanggun Jie (Chinese: 光棍节; pinyin: Guānggùn Jié; Wade–Giles: Kuang-kun chieh; literally: 'Single Sticks' Holiday') is a shopping holiday popular among young Chinese people that celebrate their pride in being single. The date, November 11th (11/11), was chosen because the number "1" resembles an individual who is alone. The holiday has also become a popular date to celebrate relationships, with over 4,000 couples being married in Beijing on this date in 2011, compared to an average of 700 a day.

The holiday has become the largest offline and online shopping day in the world, with Alibaba shoppers exceeding 168.2 billion yuan (US$25.4 billion) in spending during the 2017 celebration. Rival JD.com hosts an eleven-day shopping festival as well, which garnered US$19.1 billion, bringing the Chinese total to US$44.5 billion.

Traditional Chinese holidays

The traditional Chinese holidays are an essential part of harvests or prayer offerings. The most important Chinese holiday is the Chinese New Year (Spring Festival), which is also celebrated in Taiwan and overseas ethnic Chinese communities. All traditional holidays are scheduled according to the Chinese calendar (except the Qing Ming and Winter Solstice days, falling on the respective Jie qi in the Agricultural calendar).

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