Pubis (bone)

In vertebrates, the pubic bone is the ventral and anterior of the three principal bones composing either half of the pelvis.

Pubic of pelvis
Pelvic girdle illustration
Pelvic girdle
Male pelvis
LatinOs pubis
Anatomical terms of bone


It is covered by a layer of fat, which is covered by the mons pubis.

It is divisible into a body, a superior ramus and an inferior ramus.

In the female, the pubic bone is anterior to the urethral sponge.

The left and right hip bones join at the pubic symphysis.

The pubis is the lower limit of the suprapubic region.

In animals


The clade Dinosauria is divided into the Saurischia and Ornithischia based on hip structure, including importantly that of the pubis.[1] An "opisthopubic" pelvis is a condition where the pubic bone extends back towards the tail of the animal, a trait that is also present in birds.[2] In a "propubic" pelvis, however, the pubic bone extends forward towards the head of the animal, as can be seen in the Saurischian pelvic structure pictured below. The acetabulum, which can be thought of as a "hip-socket", is an opening on each side of the pelvic girdle formed where the ischium, ilium, and pubis all meet, and into which the head of the femur inserts. The orientation and position of the acetabulum is one of the main morphological traits that caused dinosaurs to walk in an upright posture with their legs directly underneath their bodies.[3] The prepubic process is a bony extension of the pubis that extends forward from the hip socket and toward the front of the animal. This adaptation is thought to have played a role in supporting the abdominal muscles.

Ornithischia pelvis structure

Ornithischian pelvic structure (left side)

Saurischia pelvis structure

Saurischian pelvic structure (left side).




Non-placental mammals possess osteological projections of the pubis known as epipubic bones. These evolved first among derived cynodonts, and evolved as a means of support for muscules flexing the thigh, facilitating the development of an erect gait.[4] However, these prevent the expansion of the torso, preventing pregnancy and forcing the animal to give birth to larval young (the modern marsupial "joeys" and monotreme "puggles").[5]

Placentals are unique among all mammals, including other eutherians, in having lost epipubic bones and having been able to develop proper pregnancy. In some groups, remnants of these pre-pubic bones can be found as os penises.[6]

Additional images

Illu repdt male

Male reproductive system.


Right hip bone. External surface.


Right hip bone. Internal surface.


Plan of ossification of the hip bone.


Symphysis pubis exposed by a coronal section.


Left levator ani from within.


The obturator externus.


Left hip-joint, opened by removing the floor of the acetabulum from within the pelvis.


The arteries of the male pelvis.

Skeletal pelvis-pubis



This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 236 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918)

  1. ^ Seeley, H.G. (1888). "On the classification of the fossil animals commonly named Dinosauria." Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 43: 165-171.
  2. ^ Barsbold, R., (1979) Opisthopubic pelvis in the carnivorous dinosaurs. Nature. 279, 792-793
  3. ^ Martin, A.J. (2006). Introduction to the Study of Dinosaurs. Second Edition. Oxford, Blackwell Publishing. pg. 299-300. ISBN 1-4051-3413-5.
  4. ^ White, T.D. (August 9, 1989). "An analysis of epipubic bone function in mammals using scaling theory". Journal of Theoretical Biology 139 (3): 343–57. doi:10.1016/S0022-5193(89)80213-9. PMID 2615378.
  5. ^ Michael L. Power, Jay Schulkin. The Evolution Of The Human Placenta. pp. 68–.
  6. ^ Frederick S. Szalay (11 May 2006). Evolutionary History of the Marsupials and an Analysis of Osteological Characters. Cambridge University Press. pp. 293–. ISBN 978-0-521-02592-8.

External links


The abdomen (less formally called the belly, tummy or midriff) is the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates. The abdomen is the front part of the abdominal segment of the trunk. The region occupied by the abdomen is called the abdominal cavity. In arthropods it is the posterior tagma of the body; it follows the thorax or cephalothorax.In humans, the abdomen stretches from the thorax at the thoracic diaphragm to the pelvis at the pelvic brim. The pelvic brim stretches from the lumbosacral joint (the intervertebral disc between L5 and S1) to the pubic symphysis and is the edge of the pelvic inlet. The space above this inlet and under the thoracic diaphragm is termed the abdominal cavity. The boundary of the abdominal cavity is the abdominal wall in the front and the peritoneal surface at the rear.


Andesaurus ( AN-də-SOR-əs; "Andes lizard") is a genus of basal titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur which existed during the middle of the Cretaceous Period in South America. Like most sauropods, it would have had a small head on the end of a long neck and an equally long tail. Andesaurus was a very large animal, as were many others of its relatives, which included the largest animals ever to walk the Earth.

Body of pubic bone

The body of pubic bone

forms the wide, strong, medial and flat portion of the pubic bone which unite in the pubic symphysis.The rough superior edge of the corpus, the pubic crest, ends laterally in the pubic tubercle. This tubercle, found roughly 3 cm from the pubic symphysis, is a distinctive feature on the lower part of the abdominal wall; important when localizing the superficial inguinal ring and the femoral canal of the inguinal canal.Its internal surface enters into the formation of the wall of the lesser pelvis and gives origin to a portion of the Obturator internus.


Dinosaurs were a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria. They first appeared during the Triassic period, between 243 and 233.23 million years ago, although the exact origin and timing of the evolution of dinosaurs is the subject of active research. They became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates after the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event 201 million years ago; their dominance continued through the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. The fossil record demonstrates that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs, having evolved from earlier theropods during the late Jurassic Period. As such, birds were the only dinosaur lineage to survive the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event 66 million years ago. Dinosaurs can therefore be divided into avian dinosaurs, or birds; and non-avian dinosaurs, which are all dinosaurs other than birds. This article deals primarily with non-avian dinosaurs.

Dinosaurs are a varied group of animals from taxonomic, morphological and ecological standpoints. Birds, at over 10,000 living species, are the most diverse group of vertebrates besides perciform fish. Using fossil evidence, paleontologists have identified over 500 distinct genera and more than 1,000 different species of non-avian dinosaurs. Dinosaurs are represented on every continent by both extant species (birds) and fossil remains. Through the first half of the 20th century, before birds were recognized to be dinosaurs, most of the scientific community believed dinosaurs to have been sluggish and cold-blooded. Most research conducted since the 1970s, however, has indicated that all dinosaurs were active animals with elevated metabolisms and numerous adaptations for social interaction. Some were herbivorous, others carnivorous. Evidence suggests that all dinosaurs were egg-laying; and nest-building was a trait shared by many dinosaurs, both avian and non-avian.

While dinosaurs were ancestrally bipedal, many extinct groups included quadrupedal species, and some were able to shift between these stances. Elaborate display structures such as horns or crests are common to all dinosaur groups, and some extinct groups developed skeletal modifications such as bony armor and spines. While the dinosaurs' modern-day surviving avian lineage (birds) are generally small due to the constraints of flight, many prehistoric dinosaurs (non-avian and avian) were large-bodied—the largest sauropod dinosaurs are estimated to have reached lengths of 39.7 meters (130 feet) and heights of 18 meters (59 feet) and were the largest land animals of all time. Still, the idea that non-avian dinosaurs were uniformly gigantic is a misconception based in part on preservation bias, as large, sturdy bones are more likely to last until they are fossilized. Many dinosaurs were quite small: Xixianykus, for example, was only about 50 cm (20 in) long.

Since the first dinosaur fossils were recognized in the early 19th century, mounted fossil dinosaur skeletons have been major attractions at museums around the world, and dinosaurs have become an enduring part of world culture. The large sizes of some dinosaur groups, as well as their seemingly monstrous and fantastic nature, have ensured dinosaurs' regular appearance in best-selling books and films, such as Jurassic Park. Persistent public enthusiasm for the animals has resulted in significant funding for dinosaur science, and new discoveries are regularly covered by the media.

Edmontosaurus annectens

Edmontosaurus annectens (meaning "connected lizard from Edmonton) is a species of flat-headed or saurolophine hadrosaurid ornithopod dinosaur (a "duck-billed dinosaur") from the very end of the Cretaceous Period, in what is now North America. Remains of E. annectens have been preserved in the Frenchman, Hell Creek, and Lance Formations. All of these formations are dated to the late Maastrichtian stage of the Late Cretaceous Period, representing the last three million years before the extinction of the dinosaurs (between 68 and 66 million years ago). Also, E. annectens is also from the Laramie Formation, and magnetostratigraphy suggests an age of 69-68 Ma for the Laramie Formation. Edmontosaurus annectens is known from numerous specimens, including at least twenty partial to complete skulls, discovered in the U.S. states of Montana, South Dakota, North Dakota, Wyoming and Colorado and the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It was a large animal, up to approximately 12 metres (39 ft), potentially up to 15 m (49 ft) in length, with an extremely long and low skull. E. annectens exhibits one of the most striking examples of the "duckbill" snout common to hadrosaurs. It has a long taxonomic history, and specimens have at times been classified in the genera Diclonius, Trachodon, Hadrosaurus, Claosaurus, Thespesius, Anatosaurus and Anatotitan, before being grouped together in Edmontosaurus.


The hypogastrium (also called the hypogastric region or suprapubic region) is a region of the abdomen located below the umbilical region. The pubis bone constitutes its lower limit. The roots of the word hypogastrium mean "below the stomach"; the roots of suprapubic mean "above the pubic bone".

Inferior pubic ramus

The inferior pubic ramus is a part of the pelvis and is thin and flat. It passes laterally and downward from the medial end of the superior ramus; it becomes narrower as it descends and joins with the inferior ramus of the ischium below the obturator foramen.


Jeholosaurus is a genus of ornithischian dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous Period. It is thought to have been a herbivorous small ornithopod.


Largocephalosaurus is an extinct genus of basal saurosphargid, a marine reptile known from the Middle Triassic (Anisian age) Guanling Formation of Yunnan and Guizhou Provinces, southwestern China. It contains a type species, Largocephalosaurus polycarpon, and a second species L. qianensis.L. polycarpon was initially interpreted as an eosauropterygian sauropterygian closely related to European pachypleurosaurs and nothosaurids. However following additional preparation of the postcranial skeleton and the discovery of a second better known species L. qianensis, Li et al. (2014) reinterpreted Largocephalosaurus as a basal member of the family Saurosphargidae and a close relative of Saurosphargis and Sinosaurosphargis. According to Li et al. (2014), saurosphargids did not belong to Sauropterygia, although they were closely related to it, forming its sister taxon.

Martin McNeil

Martin McNeil (born 28 September 1980 in Rutherglen) is a Scottish former professional footballer. He played in the football league for Cambridge United and Torquay United. He currently plays for Lowestoft Town.

McNeil began his career as a trainee with Cambridge United, turning professional in August 1998. He made his league debut for Roy McFarland's side on 24 October 1998, playing in a goalless draw at home to Shrewsbury Town. He played in the same team as Alex Russell as Cambridge won promotion, but fell out of favour during the 2000-01 season and was allowed to join McFarland's new side, Torquay United on trial, playing in the 2-0 away win over Newton Abbot on 25 July 2001. He joined Torquay on loan on 9 August 2001, which enabled him to be registered in time to play in the opening game of the season, a 1-0 defeat away to newly relegated Bristol Rovers, later signing a two-year contract. He played the early part of the season with an injury to his pubis bone, similar to that which had kept teammate Chris Brandon out the previous season, eventually succumbing to the need to rest it.

On 4 January 2002, McNeil was sacked by Torquay having been seen drinking alcohol in public houses in Torquay on New Year's Eve. Teammate Christian Hansen, whose loan was terminated at the same time, admitted that he and McNeil had been drinking and had returned to Hansen's hotel at 2.30 am, just over 12 hours before the start of a league game.In early February 2002, McNeil signed for King's Lynn. He agreed to join Cambridge City on non-contract terms in August 2002, although only days later the offer was withdrawn by City manager Dave Batch.In July 2003, he left Fakenham Town to join Wroxham.He returned to King's Lynn in the 2005 close season, eventually leaving in January 2006 when he joined Wisbech Town. He was voted 'player of the year' at Wisbech in 2006 and 2007.He joined Soham Town Rangers in the 2007 close season, but left in January 2009 to join Lowestoft Town. He then moved back to King's Lynn Town in summer 2010.


Nundasuchus is an extinct genus of crurotarsan, possibly a suchian archosaur related to Paracrocodylomorpha. Remains of this genus are known from the Middle Triassic Manda beds of southwestern Tanzania. It contains a single species, Nundasuchus songeaensis, known from a single partially complete skeleton, including vertebrae, limb elements, osteoderms, and skull fragments.Nundasuchus lived in what is now Tanzania, Africa around 240 million years ago. Members of this genus were likely carnivores, around 2.7 to 3 meters (9 feet) long, with ziphodont (steak knife-like) teeth and rows of bony plates (osteoderms) along their back. Phylogenetic analyses consistently place this genus within the group Crurotarsi based on features of the ankle. Most studies also consider it a pseudosuchian, meaning that it was more closely related to modern crocodilians than it was to dinosaurs. However, Nundasuchus had an upright stance, with legs situated directly underneath the body, as with various other early pseudosuchians (such as "rauisuchians" and aetosaurs) but unlike modern crocodilians.

The classification of Nundasuchus relative to other pseudosuchians is somewhat controversial. Some phylogenetic analyses place it near or at the base of the group, sometimes along with phytosaurs, based on certain plesiomorphic (primitive) features such as teeth on the palate, a short pubis, and characteristics of the calcaneum (heel bone). Another hypothesis, supported by its original 2014 description, considers it to be somewhat more "advanced" than those groups, instead being closer to Ticinosuchus and paracrocodylomorphs (the group containing "rauisuchians" and the ancestors of modern crocodilians). This classification scheme is justified by the presence of "staggered" osteoderms, heart-shaped "spine tables", and a groove on the femoral head. Regardless of these hypotheses, it is clear that Nundasuchus represents a previously unknown group of reptiles with a mixture of features both plesiomorphic and derived with respect to suchian archosaurs.

Obturator crest

The anterior border of the superior pubic ramus presents a sharp margin, the obturator crest, which forms part of the circumference of the obturator foramen superiorly and affords attachment to the obturator membrane.

The obturator crest extends from the pubic tubercle to the acetabular notch.

Pectineal line (pubis)

The pectineal line of the pubis (also pecten pubis) is a ridge on the superior ramus of the pubic bone. It forms part of the pelvic brim.

Lying across from the pectineal line are fibers of the pectineal ligament, and the proximal origin of the pectineus muscle.

In combination with the arcuate line, it makes the iliopectineal line.


Pistosaurus ( “saurus” in Greek meaning “reptile” and “lizard”) is an extinct genus of aquatic sauropterygian reptile closely related to plesiosaurs. Fossils have been found in France and Germany, and date to the Middle Triassic. It contains a single species, Pistosaurus longaevus. Pistosaurus is known as the oldest “subaquatic flying” reptile on earth.

The skull of Pistosaurus is generally resembles that of other Triassic sauropterygians. However, there are several synapomorphies that make Pistosaurus distinguished: the long, slender, snout; the possession of splint-like nasals that are excluded from the external naris; and the posterior extension of the premaxilla to the frontals. Based on synapomorphies such as the small nasals size and the presence of interpterygoid vacuity, Pistosaurus is more closely related to Plesiosauria than to Nothosaurus.Pistosaurus is often mistaken with Nothosaurus and Plesiosauria. Nothosaurus belongs to the clade Nothosauroidea from the middle Triassic (approximately 199-251 million years ago); while Pistosaurus belongs to stem group Plesiosauria; and both Pistosaurus and Plesiosauria belongs to clade Pistosauroidea from Triassic. Both Nothosauroidea and Pistosauroidea belong to Sauropterygia.

Pubic crest

Medial to the pubic tubercle is the pubic crest, which extends from this process to the medial end of the pubic bone.

It gives attachment to the conjoint tendon, the rectus abdominis, the abdominal external oblique muscle, and the pyramidalis muscle.

The point of junction of the crest with the medial border of the bone is called the angle to it, as well as to the symphysis, the superior crus of the subcutaneous inguinal ring is attached.

Pubic hair

Pubic hair is terminal body hair that is found in the genital area of adolescent and adult humans. The hair is located on and around the sex organs and sometimes at the top of the inside of the thighs. In the pubic region around the pubis bone, it is known as a pubic patch. Pubic hair is found on the scrotum in the male and on the vulva in the female.

Although fine vellus hair is present in the area in childhood, pubic hair is considered to be the heavier, longer and coarser hair that develops during puberty as an effect of rising levels of androgens in males and estrogens in females. Pubic hair differs from other hair on the body and is a secondary sex characteristic. Many cultures regard pubic hair as erotic, and in most cultures pubic hair is associated with the genitals, which both men and women are expected to keep covered at all times. In some cultures, it is the norm for pubic hair to be removed, especially of females; the practice is regarded as part of personal hygiene. In other cultures, the exposure of pubic hair (for example, when wearing a swimsuit) may be regarded as unaesthetic or embarrassing and is therefore trimmed or otherwise styled to avoid it being visible. Pubic hair fetishism, or pubephilia, is where a person becomes sexually aroused by the sight or feel of human pubic hair.

Pubic tubercle

The pubic tubercle is a prominent forward-projecting tubercle on the upper border of the medial portion of the superior ramus of the pubis. The inguinal ligament attaches to it. The pubic spine is a rough ridge that extends from the pubic tubercle to the upper border of the pubic symphysis.


Pubis may refer to:

Pubis (bone)

Mons pubis, a padding of fat that protects the pubis bone

Superior pubic ramus

The superior pubic ramus (pl. rami) is a part of the pubic bone which forms a portion of the obturator foramen. The obturator foramen, along with the ilium and other fused bones, forms part of either side of the pelvis.

It extends from the body to the median plane where it articulates with its fellow of the opposite side. It is conveniently described in two portions, viz., a medial flattened part and a narrow lateral prismoid portion.

Bones of the pelvis


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