Ptolemy II Philadelphus

Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaîos Philádelphos "Ptolemy, lover of his sister"; 308/9–246 BCE[2]) was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 to 246 BCE. He was the son of Ptolemy I Soter, the Macedonian Greek general of Alexander the Great who founded the Ptolemaic Kingdom after the death of Alexander, and queen Berenice I, originally from Macedon in northern Greece.

During Ptolemy II's reign, the material and literary splendour of the Alexandrian court was at its height. He promoted the Museum and Library of Alexandria. He erected a commemorative stele, the Great Mendes Stela. He also led the Ptolemaic Kingdom against the rival Seleucid Empire in the first of a series of Syrian Wars that witnessed periodic territorial changes between the two powers in West Asia.

Ptolemy II Philadelphus
Bust of Ptolemy II, National Archaeological Museum, Naples
Pharaoh of the Ptolemaic Kingdom
Reign285–246 BCE (Ptolemaic dynasty)
PredecessorPtolemy I Soter
SuccessorPtolemy III Euergetes
ConsortArsinoe I
Arsinoe II
ChildrenWith Arsinoe I:
Ptolemy III Euergetes
Berenice Phernopherus
With Bilistiche:
Ptolemy Andromachou
FatherPtolemy I Soter
MotherBerenice I
Born308/9 BCE
Died28 January 246 BCE (aged 62–63)


Coins of Ptolemy II's parents Ptolemy I and Berenice I (left), and Ptolemy II and his sister-wife Arsinoe II (right)

Ptolemy I and Berenike I
Oktadrachmon Ptolemaios II Arsinoe II

Ptolemy II was the son of Ptolemy I Soter and Berenice I. He had two full sisters, Arsinoe II and Philotera.[3][4] He was educated by Philitas of Cos.[5]

Ptolemy II had numerous half-siblings.[6] Two of his father's sons by his previous marriage to Eurydice, Ptolemy Keraunos and Meleager, became kings of Macedonia.[7] The children of his mother Berenice's first marriage to Philip included Magas of Cyrene. Pyrrhus of Epirus became his brother-in-law through marriage to Ptolemy's maternal half-sister Antigone.[8]

Ptolemy's first wife, Arsinoe I, daughter of Lysimachus, was the mother of his legitimate children:[9]

After he repudiated Arsinoe, he married his full sister Arsinoe II, widow of Lysimachus, which brought him her Aegean possessions.[9]

He also had several concubines. With a woman named Bilistiche he is said to have had an (illegitimate) son named Ptolemy Andromachou.[10] He had many mistresses, including Agathoclea (?), Aglais (?) daughter of Megacles, the cup-bearer Cleino, Didyme, the Chian harp player Glauce, the flautist Mnesis, the actress Myrtion, the flautist Pothine and Stratonice.[11] His court, magnificent and dissolute, intellectual and artificial, has been compared with the Palace of Versailles of Louis XIV of France.

Ptolemy deified his parents and his sister-wife after their deaths.


Ptolemy Philadelphus bust, excavated at the Villa of the Papyri
Egyptian - Head of Ptolemy II - Walters 22109
This granite statue depicts Ptolemy II in the traditional canon of ancient Egyptian art. Walters Art Museum, Baltimore.

Ptolemy II began his reign as co-regent with his father, Ptolemy Soter, from c. 285 to c. 283 BCE, and maintained a splendid court in Alexandria. Egypt was involved in several wars during his reign. His maternal half-brother Magas had declared himself king of Cyrene in 276 and began a war against Ptolemy's government in 274 BCE. Magas managed to keep Cyrenaica independent of the Ptolemies until his death in 250 BCE.

Magas' attack on the Ptolemies began when their armies were in the east; Seleucid emperor Antiochus I Soter had attacked Coele-Syria with Judea in the First Syrian War. Two or three years of war followed. Egypt's victories solidified the kingdom's position as the undisputed naval power of the eastern Mediterranean; his fleet of 112 ships bore the most powerful naval siege units of the time, guaranteeing the king access to the coastal cities of his empire. The Ptolemaic sphere of power extended over the Cyclades to Samothrace, and the harbours and coast towns of Cilicia Trachea, Pamphylia, Lycia and Caria. In 275/4, Ptolemaic forces invaded Nubia and annexed the Triakontaschoinos.

In 270, Ptolemy hired 4000 Gallic mercenaries (who in 279 BCE under Bolgios killed his half-brother Ptolemy Keraunos). According to Pausanias, soon after arrival the Gauls plotted "to seize Egypt," and so Ptolemy marooned them on a deserted island in the Nile where “they perished at one another’s hands or by famine.”[12]

The victory won by Antigonus II Gonatas, king of Macedonia, over the Egyptian fleet at Kos (between 258 BCE and 256 BCE) did not long interrupt Ptolemy's command of the Aegean Sea. In the Second Syrian War with the Seleucid Empire of Antiochus II Theos (after 260 BCE), Ptolemy sustained losses on the seaboard of Anatolia and agreed to a peace by which Antiochus married Ptolemy's daughter Berenice Phernopherus (c. 250 BCE).

Ptolemy was of a delicate constitution. Elias Joseph Bickerman gives the date of his death as 29 January.[13]


The material and literary splendour of the Alexandrian court was at its height under Ptolemy II. Pomp and splendor flourished. He had exotic animals of far off lands sent to Alexandria, and staged a procession in Alexandria in honor of Dionysus led by 24 chariots drawn by elephants and a procession of lions, leopards, panthers, camels, antelopes, wild asses, ostriches, a bear, a giraffe and a rhinoceros. According to scholars, most of the animals were in pairs - as many as eight pairs of ostriches - and although the ordinary chariots were likely led by a single elephant, others which carried a 7-foot-tall (2.1 m) golden statue may have been led by four.[14] Although an enthusiast for Hellenic culture, he also adopted Egyptian religious concepts, which helped to bolster his image as a sovereign.

Callimachus, keeper of the library, Theocritus,[15] and a host of lesser poets, glorified the Ptolemaic family. Ptolemy himself was eager to increase the library and to patronize scientific research. He is thought to be the patron that commissioned Manetho to compose his Aegyptiaca.

The tradition preserved in the pseudepigraphical Letter of Aristeas which connects the Septuagint translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek with his patronage is probably overdrawn. However, Walter Kaiser says, "There can be little doubt that the Law was translated in Philadelphus's time since Greek quotations from Genesis and Exodus appear in Greek literature before 200 BCE The language of the Septuagint is more like Egyptian Greek than it is like Jerusalemite Greek, according to some."[16]

Relations with India

Ptolemy is recorded by Pliny the Elder as having sent an ambassador named Dionysius to the Mauryan court at Pataliputra in India,[17] probably to Emperor Ashoka:

"But [India] has been treated of by several other Greek writers who resided at the courts of Indian kings, such, for instance, as Megasthenes, and by Dionysius, who was sent thither by Philadelphus, expressly for the purpose: all of whom have enlarged upon the power and vast resources of these nations." Pliny the Elder, "The Natural History", Chap. 21 [18]

He is also mentioned in the Edicts of Ashoka as a recipient of the Buddhist proselytism of Ashoka:

Now it is conquest by Dhamma that Beloved-Servant-of-the-Gods considers to be the best conquest. And it [conquest by Dhamma] has been won here, on the borders, even six hundred yojanas away, where the Greek king Antiochos rules, beyond there where the four kings named Ptolemy, Antigonos, Magas and Alexander rule, likewise in the south among the Cholas, the Pandyas, and as far as Tamraparni. Rock Edict Nb13 (S. Dhammika)

See also


  1. ^ Clayton (2006) p. 208
  2. ^ "Ptolemy II Philadelphus".
  3. ^ Clayman, Dee L. (2014). Berenice II and the Golden Age of Ptolemaic Egypt. Oxford University Press. p. 65. ISBN 9780195370881.
  4. ^ Berenice I at
  5. ^ Konstantinos Spanoudakis (2002). Philitas of Cos. Mnemosyne, Supplements, 229. Leiden: Brill. p. 29. ISBN 90-04-12428-4.
  6. ^ Ogden, Daniel (1999). Polygamy Prostitutes and Death. The Hellenistic Dynasties. London: Gerald Duckworth & Co. Ltd. p. 150. ISBN 07156 29301.
  7. ^ Macurdy, Grace Harriet (1985). Hellenistic Queens (Reprint of 1932 ed.). Ares Publishers. ISBN 0-89005-542-4.
  8. ^ Berenice I at
  9. ^ a b "Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt". Ancient Egypt Online. Retrieved May 22, 2013.
  10. ^ Ptolemy Andromachou by Chris Bennett
  11. ^ Ptolemy II by Chris Bennett
  12. ^ Hinds, Kathryn (September 2009). Ancient Celts: Europe's Tribal Ancestors. Marshall Cavendish. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-7614-4514-2.
  13. ^ (Chronology of the Ancient World, 2nd ed. 1980)
  14. ^ Scullard, H.H The Elephant in the Greek and Roman World Thames and Hudson. 1974 pg 125 "At the head of an imposing array of animals (including...)"
  15. ^ Theocritus: Encomium of Ptolemy Philadelphus
  16. ^ Walter Kaiser: A History of Israel, p. 467
  17. ^ Mookerji 1988, p. 38.
  18. ^ Pliny the Elder, "The Natural History", Chap. 21 Archived 2013-07-28 at the Wayback Machine


  • Clayton, Peter A. (2006). Chronicles of the Pharaohs: the reign-by-reign record of the rulers and dynasties of ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-28628-0.
  • Marquaille, Céline (2008). "The Foreign Policy of Ptolemy II". In McKechnie, Paul R.; Guillaume, Philippe. Ptolemy II Philadelphus and his World. Leiden and Boston: BRILL. pp. 39–64. ISBN 9789004170896.
  • O'Neil, James L. (2008). "A Re-Examination of the Chremonidean War". In McKechnie, Paul R.; Guillaume, Philippe. Ptolemy II Philadelphus and his World. Leiden and Boston: BRILL. pp. 65–90. ISBN 9789004170896.
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Ptolemies" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 616–618.

External links

Ptolemy II Philadelphus
Born: 309 BCE Died: 246 BCE
Preceded by
Ptolemy I Soter
Pharaoh of Egypt
283–246 BC
Succeeded by
Ptolemy III Euergetes
Alexandrian Pleiad

The Alexandrian Pleiad is the name given to a group of seven Alexandrian poets and tragedians in the 3rd century BC (Alexandria was at that time the literary center of the Mediterranean) working in the court of Ptolemy II Philadelphus. The name derives from the seven stars of the Pleiades star cluster.

There are several conflicting lists of the greatest poets of the Alexandrian age (traditionally ascribed to Aristophanes of Byzantium and Aristarchus of Samothrace), which include the "Alexandrian Pleiad", some with tragic poets, other which include lyric or epic poets. The following members are usually always included in the "Alexandrian Pleiad":

Homerus the Younger, son of Andromachus, from Byzantium, associated with "Tragic pleiad"

Philiscus of Corcyra


Alexander Aetolus, tragic poet

Sositheus of Alexandria, dramatist

Aeantides, a poet traditionally associated with the "Tragic pleiad"The other members are variously:

Theocritus, who wrote the bucolic poems

Aratus, who wrote the Phaenomena and other poems


Apollonius, who wrote the Argonautica

Sosiphanes of Syracuse, tragic poet

Ariobarzanes of Pontus

Ariobarzanes (in Greek Ἀριoβαρζάνης; reigned 266 BC – c. 250 BC) was the second king of Pontus, succeeding his father Mithridates I Ctistes in 266 BC and died in an uncertain date between 258 and 240. He obtained possession of the city of Amastris in Paphlagonia, which was surrendered to him. Ariobarzanes and his father sought the assistance of the Gauls, who had come into Asia Minor twelve years before the death of Mithridates, to expel the Egyptians sent by Ptolemy II Philadelphus. Ariobarzanes was succeeded by Mithridates II.

Arsinoe I

Arsinoe I (Greek: Αρσινόη Α’, 305 BC – after c. 248 BC) was Queen of Egypt by marriage to Ptolemy II Philadelphus.

Arsinoe II

Arsinoë II (Koinē Greek: Ἀρσινόη, 316 BC – unknown date between July 270 and 260 BC) was a Ptolemaic queen and co-regent of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of ancient Egypt.

Arsinoe was queen of Thrace, Anatolia and Macedonia by marriage to King Lysimachus (Koinē Greek: Λυσίμαχος) and co-ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom with her brother-husband, Pharaoh Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος "Ptolemy the Sibling-Loving"). Arsinoe was given the unprecedented Egyptian title "King of Upper and Lower Egypt", marking her as a full pharaoh.

Berenice (Seleucid queen)

Berenice (Ancient Greek: Βερενίκη, Berenikē) (c.275 BC–246 BC), also called Berenice Phernophorus ("Dowry Bearer") or Berenice Syra, was the daughter of Ptolemy II Philadelphus of his first wife Arsinoe I of Egypt.

Around 252 BC, following the peace agreement of 253 BC between Antiochus and Ptolemy to end the Second Syrian War, she married the Seleucid monarch Antiochus II Theos, who divorced his wife Laodice I and transferred the succession to Berenice's children.

In 246 BC, when Ptolemy died, Antiochus II took up again with his first wife, Laodice. Antiochus died shortly thereafter, many suspect from poisoning. Queen Berenice claimed the regency for her infant son Antiochus however, she and her son were both killed by Laodice. Berenice's brother, Ptolemy III Euergetes, succeeded their father and set about to avenge his sister's murder by invading Syria and having Laodice killed. This is also mentioned in the Book of Daniel 11:6.


Bilistiche (Greek: Βιλιστίχη) or Belistiche was a Hellenistic courtesan of uncertain origin. According to Pausanias, she was a Macedonian; according to Athenaeus, an Argive (which was an ancient Greek royal house and the ruling dynasty of Macedon); according to Plutarch, a foreign slave bought from the marketplace. She won the tethrippon and synoris horse races in the 264 BC Olympic Games. She became a mistress of Ptolemy II Philadelphus and was deified by him as Aphrodite Bilistiche. According to Clement of Alexandria, she was buried under the shrine of Sarapis in Alexandria.


Badbchaid, son of Eochu Buadach, son of Dui Ladrach, was, according to late sources, briefly a High King of Ireland. The Lebor Gabála Érenn says Bodbchad murdered his brother, the High King Úgaine Mór, who was succeeded directly by his son Lóegaire Lorc. However, Geoffrey Keating and the Annals of the Four Masters agree that, after killing Úgaine, Bodbchad took the throne for a day and a half, after which Lóegaire killed him. The Lebor Gabála synchronises Úgaine's reign to that of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (281–246 BC). The chronology of Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates Bodbchad's reign to 411 BC, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to 594 BC.

Book of Sothis

The Book of Sothis is a document known mainly by transmission by George Syncellus (died after AD 810), purporting to have been written by the historian Manethon (who lived during the early 3rd century BCE). Modern scholars are nearly unanimous that the book was in fact written by someone other than Manethon, considering it a forgery written before the fifth century. Its contents are consequently regarded as being of little value to Egyptology, although a classic of pseudepigraphy.While the unknown author is considered to have displayed a thorough knowledge of Manethon, the best indication of forgery is the introductory dedication to Ptolemy II Philadelphus, referring to him as "σεβαστῷ" (sebastōi) — i.e. "august" or Augustus, a Roman title that was not used until centuries after Manethon's death.

Syncellus states that Manethon included information from monuments in "the Siriadic land" (variously conjectured to be Assyria, Arabia or Egypt), that had been engraved before the Deluge, but afterward had been translated and stored in hieroglyphic books in Egyptian temples.


The Ciane (Sicilian: Ciani) is a short river in southern Sicily, Italy. It flows into the river in correspondence of Syracuse's port, after a run of 8 kilometres (5 mi) and having received the waters of the Anapo.

The name, deriving from the Greek cyanos ("azure"), is connected to the myth of Anapos and the nymph Cyane. On its banks are present spontaneous grows of papyrus (Cyperus papyrus), probably sent to Hiero II of Syracuse by the Egyptian ruler Ptolemy II Philadelphus. The area is now protected as part of the Natural Preserve of Fiume Ciane and Saline di Siracusa, created in 1984.

Cratinus Junior

Cratinus the Younger (4th century BC) was a comic poet of the Middle Comedy, and was a contemporary of Plato and of Corydus. He flourished in the middle of 4th century BC, and as late as 324 BC. Some scholars believe that he even lived into the reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphus.

Eleazar (High Priest)

Eleazar was a Jewish High Priest (c. 260–245 BC) during the time of the Second Temple. He was the son of Onias I and brother of Simon I.Eleazar was the high priest involved in communication with Ptolemy II Philadelphus discussed in the Letter of Aristeas or Pseudo-Aristeas. According to the letter, Eleazar sent seventy two scholars, six from each of the tribes of Israel to the island of Pharos provide the Library of Alexandria with a Greek translation of the Hebrew Law, also called the Septuagint.He was succeeded by his uncle Manasseh.

Great Mendes Stela

The Great Mendes Stela is a commemorative stele erected during the Ptolemaic dynasty by Ptolemy II Philadelphus for Mendes, Lower Egypt. Ptolemies III through V also had stelae: the bilingual, three-script Decree of Canopus and the Rosetta Stone.

Heroopolite Gulf

In ancient times, the Heroopolite Gulf was the Gulf of Suez in the vicinity of Heroopolis; there is evidence indicating that the Red Sea and its Gulf of Suez extended as far northward as the Bitter Lakes of Egypt.Ptolemy II Philadelphus opened a west-east "Suez" canal in Heroopolis (c. 270-269 BC) and constructed a navigable lock, with sluices, between the Heroopolite Gulf and the Red Sea so as to allow the passage of vessels but prevent salt water from the Red Sea from mingling with the fresh water in the canal.Ancient cities which were at one time situated along the coastline of the Heroopolite Gulf include Arsinoe, Heroopolis and Olbia.

Lóegaire Lorc

Lóegaire Lorc, son of Úgaine Mor, was, according to medieval Irish legend and historical tradition, a High King of Ireland. The Lebor Gabála Érenn says he succeeded directly after his father was murdered by Bodbchad, although Geoffrey Keating and the Annals of the Four Masters agree that Bodbchad seized power for a day and a half before Lóegaire killed him. He ruled for two years. His brother Cobthach Cóel Breg coveted the throne, and, taking the advice of a druid, pretended to be sick so Lóegaire would visit him. When he arrived, Cobthach feigned death, and when Lóegaire was bent over his body in mourning, stabbed him in with a dagger. Cobthach then paid someone to poison Lóegaire's son Ailill Áine, and forced Ailill's son Labraid to eat his father's and grandfather's hearts and a mouse, before forcing him into exile, supposedly because it was said that Labraid was the most hospitable man in Ireland. The Lebor Gabála synchronises his reign to that of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (281–246 BC). The chronology of Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn dates Bodbchad's reign to 411–409 BC, that of the Annals of the Four Masters to 594–592 BC.

Papyrus Revenue Laws

A famous papyrus published at the end of the 19th-century by Bernard Pyne Grenfell, the papyrus Revenue Laws is a comprehensive set of regulations on farm taxes in the reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphus (283–246), more precisely for the year –259/–258. This document contains tax regulations for the understanding of how Ptolemy II Philadelphus organized a sophisticated command economy.

Philadelphus (disambiguation)

Philadelphus is the scientific name of mock-oranges, a genus of shrubs.

Philadelphus is the Latinized form of the ancient Greek Philadelphos (Φιλάδελφος) meaning "sibling-loving", it may also refer to:


Antiochus XI Ephiphanes Philadelphus (d. 92 BC), king of the Seleucid Empire 95-92 BC

Attalus II Philadelphus (220–138 BC), king of Pergamon 160- 138 BC

Iotape Philadelphus (before 17- c. 52 AD), princess and later queen of Commagene

Laodice VII Thea Philadelphus (after 122- after 86 BC), princess of the Seleucid Empire and later queen of Commagene

Mithridates IV Philopator Philadelphus (before 179- c.150 BC), king of Pontus c.155 –c.150 BC

Philip I Philadelphus, king of the Seleucid Empire 95 BC-84/83 BC

Ptolemy Philadelphus (Cleopatra) (36-29 BC), prince of Ptolemaic Egypt 36 BC-30 BC, son of Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony

Ptolemy II Philadelphus (309–246 BC), king of Ptolemaic Egypt 283 BC-246 BC

Arsinoe II, given the epithet "Philadelphoi" (plural form) after marrying her brother Ptolemy II Philadelphus

Philadelphus of Byzantium, Bishop of Byzantium, 211-217 AD

Deiotarus Philadelphus (died c.6 AD), last king of Paphlagonia before 31 BC-c.6AD

Philadelphos/Philadelphus, Christian martyrs commemorated in the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar on February 8, May 10 and September 2

Philadelphus Philadelphia, stage name of Jacob PhiladelphiaOther uses:

Philadelphus Jeyes, the chain of pharmacies operated by the inventors of Jeyes Fluid

Philadelphus, North Carolina, a Registered Historic Place in Robeson County, North Carolina


Ptolemais, an Ancient Greek place name and feminine personal name, may refer to :

Places in AfricaPtolemais (Cyrenaica), a city in present-day Libya probably named after Ptolemy III Euergetes

Ptolemais Euergetis alias Crocodilopolis, an Egyptian city renamed Ptolemais Euergetis by Ptolemy III Euergetes

Ptolemais Hermiou, a Greek colony established in Egypt by Ptolemy I Soter

Ptolemais Theron, a city on the African coast of the Red Sea, established by Ptolemy II PhiladelphusPlaces elsewherePtolemais (Macedonia), a Greek city in Northern Greece, named after Ptolemy I Soter

Ptolemais in Phoenicia, named Antiochia Ptolemais after Ptolemy I Soter, now Acre, IsraelPersonsPtolemais of Cyrene, a third-century BC mathematician and musical theorist, author of Pythagorean Principles of Music

Ptolemais, daughter of Ptolemy I Soter and mother of Demetrius the Fair

Ptolemy II Philadelphus in the Library of Alexandria

Ptolemy Philadelphus in the Library of Alexandria is an 1813 oil on canvas painting by Vincenzo Camuccini. It is now in the National Museum of Capodimonte in Naples.The work was commissioned by Napoleon I along with Charlemagne Ordering Italian Scholars to Found the University of Paris, both for the central hall of Rome's Palazzo del Quirinale. It shows Ptolemy II Philadelphus in red robes among several philosophers in the Library of Alexandria.The artist had recently returned to Italy from Paris and decided to accept the commission. Ptolemy was then moved to the Capodimonte Palace by Gioacchino Murat and then in 1867 moved to the Palazzo Reale di Napoli, before being given to the Camera dei deputati in Palazzo Montecitorio in Rome. It later returned to Naples and since 1997 has hung in its original position in Room 31 of the Royal Apartments, also known as the Salone della Culla.

Ptolemy I Soter

Ptolemy I Soter (; Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr "Ptolemy the Savior"; c. 367 BC – January 282 BC) was a companion and historian of Alexander the Great of the Kingdom of Macedon in northern Greece who became ruler of Egypt, part of Alexander's former empire. Ptolemy was pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt from 305/304 to 282 BC. He was the founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty which ruled Egypt until the death of Cleopatra in 30 BC, turning the country into a Hellenistic kingdom and Alexandria into a center of Greek culture.Ptolemy I was the son of Arsinoe of Macedon by either her husband Lagus or Philip II of Macedon, the father of Alexander. Ptolemy was one of Alexander's most trusted companions and military officers. He had been an intimate friend of Alexander since childhood. After the death of Alexander in 323 BC, Ptolemy retrieved his body as it was en route to be buried in Macedon, placing it in Memphis instead, where it was later moved to Alexandria in a new tomb. Afterwards he joined a coalition against Perdiccas, the royal regent over Philip III of Macedon. The latter invaded Egypt but was assassinated by his own officers in 320 BC, allowing Ptolemy I to consolidate his control over the country.

Ptolemy I may have married Thaïs, his mistress during the life of Alexander; he is known to have married the Persian noblewoman Artakama on Alexander's orders. He later married Eurydice, daughter of the Macedonian regent Antipater; their sons Ptolemy Keraunos and Meleager ruled in turn as kings of the kingdom their maternal grandfather had governed. Ptolemy's final marriage was to Eurydice's cousin and lady-in-waiting, Berenice I. Their son Ptolemy II, Ptolemy I's successor, ruled jointly with his sister-wife Arsinoe II, who had previously been married to their father's political enemy Lysimachus and their half-brother Ptolemy Keraunos.

Kings of Cyrene
Kings of Bithynia
Kings of Pontus
Kings of Commagene
Kings of Cappadocia
Kings of the
Cimmerian Bosporus

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