Ptinidae

Ptinidae is a family of beetles in the superfamily Bostrichoidea. There are at least 220 genera and 2,200 described species in Ptinidae worldwide.[1] The family includes spider beetles and deathwatch beetles.[2]

There are three main groups in the superfamily Bostrichoidea: Bostrichidae, Anobiidae, and Ptinidae. These have undergone frequent changes in hierarchical classification since their inception. They have been treated as a single family, three independent families, the two families Bostrichidae and Anobiidae, or the two families Bostrichidae and Ptinidae. More recent literature treats these as the two families Bostrichidae and Ptinidae, with Anobiidae a subfamily of Ptinidae (Anobiinae).[3][4][5][6][2]

Spider beetles are so named because they look like spiders. Some species have long legs, antennae that can seem like an additional pair of legs, and a body shape that may appear superficially like that of a spider.

Deathwatch beetles are named because of a clicking noise that two (and possibly more) species tend to make in the walls of houses and other buildings. This clicking noise is designed to communicate with potential mates, but has historically caused fear of impending death during times of plague and sickness.

Ptinidae
Caenocara P1140132a
Caenocara
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Coleoptera
Superfamily: Bostrichoidea
Family: Ptinidae
Latreille, 1802
Subfamilies
Diversity
at least 220 genera
2017 04 24 Xestobium plumbeum
Xestobium plumbeum
Hedobia imperialis III
Hedobia imperialis, Fan-bearing wood borer

Pests

The larvae of a number of Ptinidae species tend to bore into wood, earning them the name "woodworm" or "wood borer". Several species are pests, causing damage to wooden furniture, house structures, tobacco, and dried food products. The deathwatch beetles Xestobium rufovillosum, Hemicoelus carinatus, and Hemicoelus gibbicollis are economically significant pests, damaging flooring, joists, and other timber in housing.

The "furniture beetle", Anobium punctatum, is a species that is often found emerging from in-home wood furnishings. The "drugstore beetle", Stegobium paniceum, is known to infest a variety of stored materials, including bread, flour, cereal, prescription drugs, strychnine powder, packaged foods, and even Egyptian tombs.

The "Cigarette beetle," Lasioderma serricornea, is a widespread and destructive pest of harvested and manufactured tobacco. Damage and economic losses from Lasioderma serricornea infestations were estimated by the USDA to be 0.7% of the total warehoused tobacco commodity in 1971.[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Ptinidae". GBIF. Retrieved 2018-08-27.
  2. ^ a b "Ptinidae Family Information". BugGuide.net. Retrieved 2018-08-27.
  3. ^ Bell, Karen Leanne; Philips, T. Keith (2011). "Molecular systematics and evolution of the Ptinidae (Coleoptera: Bostrichoidea) and related families" (PDF). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 165: 88–108. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2011.00792.x.
  4. ^ Löbl, Ivan; Smetana, Aleš (2007). Lobl, I.; Smetana, A. (eds.). Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Volume 4: Elateroidea - Derodontoidea - Bostrichoidea - Lymexyloidea - Cleroidea - Cucujoidea. ISBN 978-87-88757-67-5.
  5. ^ Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E.; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; et al. (2011). "Family-group names in Coleoptera (Insecta)". ZooKeys. 88 (88): 1–972. doi:10.3897/zookeys.88.807. ISSN 1313-2989. PMC 3088472. PMID 21594053.
  6. ^ a b Arango, Rachel A.; Young, Daniel K. (2012). "Death-watch and spider beetles of Wisconsin (Coleoptera: Ptinidae)" (PDF). General Technical Report FPL-GTR-209.

Further reading

External links

  • Media related to Ptinidae at Wikimedia Commons
Anobiinae

Anobiinae is a subfamily of death-watch beetles in the family Ptinidae, with at least 45 genera. It was formerly considered a member of the family Anobiidae, but its family name has since been changed to Ptinidae.The larvae of a number of species tend to bore into wood, earning them the name "woodworm" or "wood borer". A few species, such as the common furniture beetle, Anobium punctatum, are pests, causing damage to wooden furniture and house structures.

Bostrichiformia

Bostrichiformia is an infraorder of polyphagan beetles.

It contains two superfamilies, Derodontoidea and Bostrichoidea, which includes the Dermestidae, Ptinidae, Bostrichidae and others.

Bostrichoidea

Bostrichoidea is a superfamily of beetles. It is the type superfamily of the infraorder Bostrichiformia.

It includes the following subgroups:

Family Bostrichidae Latreille, 1802 - Horned Powder-post Beetles

Subfamily Bostrichinae Latreille, 1802

Subfamily Dinoderinae Thomson, 1863

Subfamily Dysidinae Lesne, 1921

Subfamily Euderiinae Lesne, 1934

Subfamily Lyctinae Billberg, 1820 - Powder-post Beetles

Subfamily Polycaoninae Lesne, 1896

Subfamily Psoinae Blanchard, 1851

Family Dermestidae Latreille, 1804 - Carpet Beetles

Subfamily Attageninae Laporte, 1840

Subfamily Dermestinae Latreille, 1804

Subfamily Megatominae Leach, 1815

Subfamily Orphilinae LeConte, 1861

Subfamily Thorictinae Agassiz, 1846

Subfamily Trinodinae Casey, 1900

Family Endecatomidae LeConte, 1861

Family Ptinidae Latreille, 1802 (formerly Anobiidae)

Subfamily Alvarenganiellinae Viana and Martínez, 1971

Subfamily Anobiinae Fleming, 1821 - Death-watch Beetles

Subfamily Dorcatominae Thomson, 1859

Subfamily Dryophilinae Gistel, 1848

Subfamily Ernobiinae Pic, 1912

Subfamily Eucradinae LeConte, 1861

Subfamily Mesocoelopodinae Mulsant and Rey, 1864

Subfamily Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 - Spider Beetles

Subfamily Ptininae Latreille, 1802

Subfamily Xyletininae Gistel, 1848

Caenocara

Caenocara is a genus of beetles in the family Ptinidae. Members of this genus are sometimes called puffball beetles.

Common furniture beetle

The common furniture beetle or common house borer (Anobium punctatum) is a woodboring beetle. In the larval stage it bores in wood and feeds upon it. Adult Anobium punctatum measure 2.7–4.5 millimetres (0.11–0.18 in) in length. They have brown ellipsoidal bodies with a prothorax resembling a monk's cowl .

Deathwatch beetle

The deathwatch beetle, Xestobium rufovillosum, is a woodboring beetle. The adult beetle is 7 millimetres (0.28 in) long, while the xylophagous larvae are up to 11 mm (0.43 in) long.

To attract mates, these woodborers create a tapping or ticking sound that can be heard in the rafters of old buildings on quiet summer nights. They are therefore associated with quiet, sleepless nights and are named for the vigil (watch) kept beside the dying or dead, and by extension the superstitious have seen the deathwatch beetle as an omen of impending death.

The term "death watch" has been applied to a variety of other ticking insects, including Anobium striatum, some of the so-called booklice of the family Psocidae, and the appropriately named Atropos divinatoria and Clothilla pulsatoria (Greek goddesses Atropos and Clotho were associated with death).

The larva is very soft, yet can bore its way through wood, which it is able to digest using a number of enzymes in its alimentary canal, provided that the wood has experienced prior fungal decay.

Dorcatoma

Dorcatoma is a genus of beetles in the family Ptinidae. They are distributed in several regions of the world, excluding tropical areas. There are more than 70 species.Beetles of this genus live in dead wood, especially that which is softened and decomposed by fungi.Species include:

Subgenus Dorcatoma

Dorcatoma dresdensis

Dorcatoma lomnickii

Dorcatoma palmi

Dorcatoma punctulata

Dorcatoma robusta

Subgenus Pilosodorcatoma

Dorcatoma ambjoerni

Dorcatoma androgyna

Dorcatoma chrysomelina

Dorcatoma janssoni

Dorcatoma minor

Dorcatoma setosella

Dorcatoma substriata

Subgenus Sternitodorcatoma

Dorcatoma flavicornis

Other

Dorcatoma externa

Dorcatoma falli

Dorcatoma integra

Dorcatoma lanuginosa

Dorcatoma moderata

Dorcatoma pallicornis

Dorcatoma setulosa

Dorcatoma vaulogeri

Dorcatominae

Dorcatominae is a subfamily of death-watch and spider beetles in the family Ptinidae. There are about 16 genera and at least 190 described species in Dorcatominae.The subfamily Dorcatominae, along with Anobiinae and several others, were formerly considered members of the family Anobiidae, the but family name has since been changed to Ptinidae.

Drugstore beetle

The drugstore beetle (Stegobium paniceum), also known as the bread beetle or biscuit beetle, is a tiny, brown beetle that can be found infesting a wide variety of dried plant products, where it is among the most common non-weevils to be found. It is the only member of the monotypic genus Stegobium.

The drugstore beetle has a worldwide distribution though it is more common in warmer climates. It is similar in appearance to the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), but is slightly larger (adults can be up to 3.5 mm in length). Additionally, drugstore beetles have antennae ending in 3-segmented clubs, while cigarette beetles have serrated antennae (notched like teeth of a saw). The drugstore beetle also has grooves running longitudinally along the elytra, whereas the cigarette beetle is smooth.

Ernobius

Ernobius is a genus of beetles in the family Ptinidae. There are about 90 species. Most occur in North America, Europe, and North Africa.

Holcobius

Holcobius is a genus of beetles in the family Ptinidae.

Mirosternus

Mirosternus is a genus of beetles in the family Ptinidae. There are at least 70 described species in Mirosternus.

Petalium

Petalium is a genus of beetles in the family Ptinidae.

Ptilinus

Ptilinus is a genus of death-watch beetles in the family Ptinidae. It is native to the Palearctic (including Europe), the Near East, the Nearctic, the Neotropical and North Africa. There are at least nine described species in Ptilinus.

Ptinus

Ptinus is a genus of beetles distributed throughout much of the world, including Africa, the Australian region, the Palearctic, the Near East, the Nearctic, and the Neotropic ecozone. It is a member of the subfamily Ptininae, the spider beetles.

About 24 species have been found associated with stored food products in various parts of the world. Both adults and larvae of which feed on grain, dried fruit, spices and other dried foodstuffs. The sub-species Ptinus tectus is considered a pest species in Museums and can damage stored objects and collections.Taxa include:

Subgenus Bruchoptinus

Ptinus antennatus

Ptinus biformis

Ptinus brevivittis

Ptinus femoralis

Ptinus italicus

Ptinus ivanensis

Ptinus palliatus

Ptinus pellitus

Ptinus rufipes

Ptinus schatzmayeri

Ptinus torretassoi

Subgenus Cyphoderes

Ptinus bidens

Ptinus hirticornis

Ptinus japonicus

Ptinus raptor

Ptinus schlerethi

Subgenus Gynopterus

Ptinus aubei

Ptinus barrosi

Ptinus bertranpetiti

Ptinus crassicornis

Ptinus dubius

Ptinus hispaniolaensis

Ptinus paulonotatus

Ptinus pyrenaeus

Ptinus salvatori

Ptinus sexpunctatus

Ptinus subroseus

Ptinus tumidus

Ptinus variegatus

Subgenus Pseudoptinus

Ptinus arragonicus

Ptinus auberti

Ptinus capellae

Ptinus coarcticollis

Ptinus cumaniensis

Ptinus kutzschenbachi

Ptinus lichenum

Ptinus maculosus

Ptinus madoni

Ptinus nikitanus

Ptinus oertzeni

Ptinus rufolimbatus

Ptinus rugosicollis

Ptinus spissicornis

Ptinus subaeneus

Ptinus tauricus

Subgenus Ptinus

Ptinus affinis

Ptinus argolisanus

Ptinus atricapillus

Ptinus bicinctus

Ptinus calcaratus

Ptinus calcarifer

Ptinus corsicus

Ptinus ellipticus

Ptinus explanatus

Ptinus fur – whitemarked spider beetle

Ptinus gylippus

Ptinus kiesenwetteri

Ptinus kruperi

Ptinus latro

Ptinus leprieuri

Ptinus mediterraneus

Ptinus nigripennis

Ptinus obesus

Ptinus perplexus

Ptinus perrini

Ptinus phlomidis

Ptinus pilosus

Ptinus podolicus

Ptinus pusillus

Ptinus reitteri

Ptinus rufus

Ptinus spitzyi

Ptinus subpilosus

Ptinus tarsalis

Ptinus timidus

Ptinus villiger

Subgenus Tectoptinus

Ptinus exulans

Ptinus tectus – Australian spider beetle

Spider beetle

Spider beetles make up the subfamily Ptininae, in the family Ptinidae. There are approximately 70 genera and 600 species in the subfamily, with about 12 genera and 70 species in North America north of Mexico.Spider beetles have round bodies with long, slender legs. Many species are flightless, either in females only or both sexes. They are generally 1–5 mm long, and reproduce at the rate of two to three generations per year. They are so named because of a resemblance to spiders. Some species have long legs, antennae that can seem like an additional pair of legs, and a body shape that may appear superficially like that of a spider.The larvae and the adults of most spider beetles are scavengers on dry plant or animal matter, but some species are known to be ant associates.The subfamily Ptininae, along with Anobiinae and several others, were formerly considered members of the family Anobiidae, the but family name has since been changed to Ptinidae.

Xyletininae

Xyletininae is a subfamily of death-watch and spider beetles in the family Ptinidae. There are about 13 genera and at least 170 described species in Xyletininae.The subfamily Xyletininae, along with Anobiinae and several others, were formerly considered members of the family Anobiidae, the but family name has since been changed to Ptinidae.

Xyletinini

Xyletinini is a tribe of death-watch and spider beetles in the family Ptinidae. There are at least 10 genera and 70 described species in Xyletinini.

Xyletobius

Xyletobius is a genus of beetles in the family Ptinidae.

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