Pterygomandibular raphe

The pterygomandibular raphe (pterygomandibular ligament) is a ligamentous band of the buccopharyngeal fascia, attached superiorly to the pterygoid hamulus of the medial pterygoid plate, and inferiorly to the posterior end of the mylohyoid line of the mandible.

Open mouth pterygomandibular ligaments
Open mouth, view from front. The pterygomandibular ligaments are marked with arrows. Note that the lower wisdom teeth have been removed, slightly changing the shape of the pterygomandibular ligaments, who usually curve near their end around the lower wisdom teeth, attaching to the lower jaw anteriorly to them.
Pterygomandibular raphe
Muscles of the pharynx and cheek. (Pterygo-Mandibular ligament labeled at center, vertically.)
Latinraphe pterygomandibularis
Anatomical terminology

See also


This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 384 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918)

External links

  • "Anatomy diagram: 05287.011-1". Roche Lexicon - illustrated navigator. Elsevier. Archived from the original on 2014-01-01.
Anal columns

Anal columns (Columns of Morgagni or less commonly Morgagni's columns) are a number of vertical folds, produced by an infolding of the mucous membrane and some of the muscular tissue in the upper half of the lumen of the anal canal. They are named after Giovanni Battista Morgagni who also has several other eponyms named after himself.

Anal sinuses

The anal sinuses (rectal sinuses) are furrows in the anal canal, that separate the anal columns from one another. The anal sinuses end below in small valve-like folds, termed anal valves.

Anal valves

The anal valves are small valve-like folds at the lower ends of the anal sinuses in the rectum. The anal valves join together the lower ends of the anal columns. The anal sinuses are located between them. The valves and sinuses form the pectinate line.

Angular incisure

The angular incisure (or angular notch) is a small notch on the stomach. It is located on the lesser curvature of the stomach near the pyloric end. Its location varies depending on how distended the stomach is.The angular incisure is used as a separation point between the right and left portions of the stomach. An imaginary line drawn perpendicular to the lesser curvature of the stomach through the angular incisure makes up the boundary between the body of the stomach and pylorus.

Buccal space

The buccal space (also termed the buccinator space) is a fascial space of the head and neck (sometimes also termed fascial tissue spaces or tissue spaces). It is a potential space in the cheek, and is paired on each side. The buccal space is superficial to the buccinator muscle and deep to the platysma muscle and the skin. The buccal space is part of the subcutaneous space, which is continuous from head to toe.

Buccopharyngeal fascia

The buccopharyngeal fascia is a fascia in the head.

Parallel to the carotid sheath and along its medial aspect the pretracheal fascia gives off a thin lamina, the buccopharyngeal fascia, which closely invests the constrictor muscles of the pharynx and is continued forward from the constrictor pharyngis superior onto the buccinator.

It is attached to the prevertebral layer by loose connective tissue only, and thus an easily distended space, the retropharyngeal space, is found between them.

Crop (anatomy)

A crop (sometimes also called a croup or a craw, or ingluvies) is a thin-walled expanded portion of the alimentary tract used for the storage of food prior to digestion. This anatomical structure is found in a wide variety of animals. It has been found in birds, and in invertebrate animals including gastropods (snails and slugs), earthworms, leeches, and insects.

Danger space

The danger space or alar space, is a region of the neck. The common name originates from the risk that an infection in this space can spread directly to the thorax, and, due to being a space continuous on the left and right, can furthermore allow infection to spread easily to either side.

Duodenojejunal flexure

The duodenojejunal flexure or duodenojejunal junction is the border between the duodenum and the jejunum.

Gastric pits

Gastric pits are indentations in the stomach which denote entrances to 3-5 tubular shaped gastric glands. They are deeper in the pylorus than they are in the other parts of the stomach. The human stomach has several million of these pits which dot the surface of the lining epithelium. Surface mucous cells line the pits themselves but give way to a series of other types of cells which then line the glands themselves.

Intersphincteric groove

Intersphincteric groove or Hilton's white line is a boundary in the anal canal.Below it, lymphatic drainage is to the superficial inguinal nodes.Hilton's white line is slightly below the pectinate line, a landmark for the intermuscular border between internal and external anal sphincter muscles.

This line represents the transition point from non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium of the anal canal to keratinized stratified squamous epithelium of the anus and perianal skin.In live persons the color of the line is white, hence the name.

It is named for John Hilton.

Mylohyoid line

The mylohyoid line is a line on the inside of the mandible. It extends superior and posterior (upward and backward) on either side from the lower part of the symphysis of the mandible. The mylohyoid line is at the body while the mylohyoid groove is at the ramus.

The mylohyoid muscle originates from the anterior (front) part of the mylohyoid line, while the posterior (back) part of this line, near the alveolar margin, gives attachment to a small part of the constrictor pharyngis superior, and to the pterygomandibular raphe.

Parapharyngeal space

The parapharyngeal space (also termed the lateral pharyngeal space), is a potential space in the head and the neck. It has clinical importance in otolaryngology due to parapharyngeal space tumours and parapharyngeal abscess developing in this area. It is also a key anatomic landmark for localizing disease processes in the surrounding spaces of the neck; the direction of its displacement indirectly reflects the site of origin for masses or infection in adjacent areas, and consequently their appropriate differential diagnosis.

Peripharyngeal space

The peripharyngeal space is a space in the neck.It can be split into the retropharyngeal space and the parapharyngeal space.

Pharyngeal raphe

The pharyngeal raphe is a raphe that serves as the origin and insertion for several of the pharyngeal constrictors (thyropharyngeal part of the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle, middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle, superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle). Two sides of the pharyngeal wall are joined together posteriorly in the midline by the raphe. Its superior part is attached to the pharyngeal tubercle; it extends inferiorly to the level of vertebra C6 where it blends with the posterior wall of the esophagus.

Pterygoid hamulus

The pterygoid hamulus is a hook-like process at the lower extremity of the medial pterygoid plate of the sphenoid bone. Around this the tendon of the tensor veli palatini glides. It is the superior origin of the pterygomandibular raphe.


Raphe (; from Greek ῥαφή, "seam") has several different meanings in science.

In botany and planktology it is commonly used when describing a seam or ridge on diatoms or seeds.

In animal anatomy it is used to describe a ridged union of continuous biological tissue. There are several different significant anatomical raphes:

The raphe nucleus is a moderate-size cluster of nuclei found in the brain stem which releases serotonin to the rest of the brain. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants are believed to act at these nuclei.

The buccal raphe which is on the cheek and evidence of the fusion of the maxillary and mandibular processes.

The lingual raphe on the tongue. Obvious physical evidence of the lingual raphe includes the frenulum (also called the frenum), or band of mucous membrane that is visible under the tongue attaching it to the floor of the mouth. If this raphe is too tight at birth, movement of the tongue is restricted and the child is said to be "tongue tied".

The palatine raphe on the roof of the mouth (or palate). Incomplete fusion of the palatine raphe results in a congenital defect known as cleft palate.

The pharyngeal raphe joins the left and right pharyngeal constrictors.

The perineal raphe extends from the anus, through the mid-line of the scrotum (scrotal raphe) and upwards through the ventral mid-line aspect of the penis (penile raphe).

The anococcygeal raphe, an alternative name for the anococcygeal body.

The iliococcygeal raphe

The pterygomandibular raphe

The lateral palpebral raphe

The mylohyoid raphe


The tela subserosa (or just subserosa) is a thin layer of tissue in the walls of various organs. It is a layer of connective tissue (usually of the areolar type) between the muscular layer (muscularis externa) and the serosa (serous membrane).

The subserosa has clinical importance particularly in cancer staging (for example, in staging stomach cancer or uterine cancer).

The subserosa (sub- + serosa) is to a serous membrane what the submucosa (sub- + mucosa) is to a mucous membrane.

Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle

The superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle is a muscle in the pharynx. It is the highest located muscle of the three pharyngeal constrictors. The muscle is a quadrilateral muscle, thinner and paler than the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle and middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle.

The muscle is divided into four parts: A pterygopharyngeal, buccopharyngeal, mylopharyngeal and a glossopharyngeal part.

Anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract, excluding the mouth


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