Psocodea

Psocodea is a taxonomic group of insects comprising the bark lice, book lice and true lice.[1] It was formerly considered a superorder, but is now generally considered by entomologists as an order. Despite the greatly differing appearance of lice, they are believed to have evolved from within the former order "Psocoptera", which contained the bark lice and book lice.[2] Psocodea contains around 11,000 species, divided among seven suborders.[1][3]

Psocodea
PsocopteraWynaad
An unidentified bark louse
Body lice
Human body louse
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
(unranked): Paraneoptera
Superorder: Psocodea

References

  1. ^ a b P. J. Gullan & P. S. Cranston (2010). "Taxobox 17 – Psocodea: "Psocoptera" (bark lice and book lice)". The Insects: an Outline of Entomology (4th ed.). John Wiley & Sons. p. 479. ISBN 9781444317671.
  2. ^ C. H. C. Lyal (1985). "Phylogeny and classification of the Psocodea, with particular reference to the lice (Psocodea: Phthiraptera)". Systematic Entomology. 10 (2): 145–165. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.1985.tb00525.x.
  3. ^ David Grimaldi & Michael S. Engel (2005). "The paraneopteran orders". Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge Evolution Series. Cambridge University Press. pp. 216–330. ISBN 9780521821490.
Amphientometae

Amphientometae is an infraorder of psocids in the order Psocoptera (or Psocodea). There are about 7 families and at least 230 described species in Amphientometae.

Electrentomidae

Electrentomidae is an extinct family of barklice, booklice, and parasitic lice in the order Psocodea. There are about six genera and seven described species in Electrentomidae.

Enderleinellidae

Enderleinellidae is a family of barklice, booklice, and parasitic lice in the order Psocodea. There are about 5 genera and more than 50 described species in Enderleinellidae.

Epipsocetae

Epipsocetae is an infraorder of psocids in the order Psocoptera (or Psocodea). There are about 5 families and more than 480 described species in Epipsocetae.

Gyropidae

Gyropidae is a family of lice in the order Psocodea. There are about 9 genera and more than 90 described species in Gyropidae.

Homilopsocidea

Homilopscocidea is an infraorder of Psocoptera. It is probably a paraphyletic group, still in use for lack of a better solution. There are about 7 families and more than 1,200 described species in Homilopsocidea.

Hoplopleuridae

Hoplopleuridae is a family of lice in the order Psocodea. There are about 6 genera and more than 150 described species in Hoplopleuridae.

Linognathidae

Linognathidae is a family of lice in the order Psocodea. There are at least 3 genera and 70 described species in Linognathidae.

Nanopsocetae

Nanopsocetae is an infraorder of psocids in the order Psocoptera (or Psocodea). There are more than 20 families and 5,200 described species in Nanopsocetae.

Peripsocidae

Peripsocidae is a family of Psocoptera belonging to the suborder Psocomorpha. Members of the family are characterised by their absence of an areola postica in their wings. Many of the recently described genera are closely allied to Peripsocus. The family includes more than 300 species.

Protroctopsocidae

Protroctopsocidae is a family of psocids in the order Psocodea. There are at least four genera and about five described species in Protroctopsocidae.

Psocomorpha

Psocomorpha is a suborder of barklice, booklice, and parasitic lice in the order Psocoptera (or Psocodea). There are more than 20 families and 5,300 described species in Psocomorpha.

Psocoptera

Psocoptera are an order of insects that are commonly known as booklice, barklice or barkflies. They first appeared in the Permian period, 295–248 million years ago. They are often regarded as the most primitive of the hemipteroids. Their name originates from the Greek word ψῶχος, psokhos meaning gnawed or rubbed and πτερά, ptera meaning wings. There are more than 5,500 species in 41 families in three suborders. Many of these species have only been described in recent years.They range in size from 1–10 millimeters (0.04–0.4 in) in length.

The species known as booklice received their common name because they are commonly found amongst old books—they feed upon the paste used in binding. The barklice are found on trees, harmlessly feeding on algae and lichen. No member of this order is currently considered endangered; in fact, in 2007, Atlantopsocus adustus, a species native to Madeira and the Canary Islands, was found to have colonized the mild Cornish coast of southwest England.In the 2000s, morphological and molecular evidence has shown that the parasitic lice (Phthiraptera) evolved from within the psocopteran suborder Troctomorpha. In modern systematics, Psocoptera and Phthiraptera are therefore treated together in the order Psocodea.

Psoquillidae

Psoquillidae is a family of bird nest barklice in the order Psocoptera (or Psocodea). There are about 8 genera and more than 30 described species in Psoquillidae.

Psyllipsocidae

Psyllipsocidae is a family of cave barklice in the order Psocodea. There are about 7 genera and more than 70 described species in Psyllipsocidae.

Trimenoponidae

Trimenoponidae is a family of lice in the order Psocodea. There are about 6 genera and 18 described species in Trimenoponidae.

Troctomorpha

Troctomorpha is a suborder of barklice, booklice, and parasitic lice in the order Psocoptera (or Psocodea). There are more than 30 families and 5,800 described species in Troctomorpha.

Trogiidae

Trogiidae is a family of granary booklice in the order Psocoptera (or Psocodea). There are about 11 genera and more than 50 described species in Trogiidae.

Trogiomorpha

Trogiomorpha is a suborder of barklice, booklice, and parasitic lice in the order Psocoptera (or Psocodea). There are about 7 families and more than 430 described species in Trogiomorpha.

Insect orders
Extant Psocodea families

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.