Psilidae

The Psilidae are family of flies. Commonly called the rust flies, at least 38 species are in four genera. The carrot fly (Chamaepsila rosae) is a member of this group. They are found mainly in the Holarctic.

Psilidae
Chamaepsila.sp.1
Chamaepsila sp. from Germany
Scientific classification
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Psilidae
Subfamily
  • Chylizinae
  • Loxocerinae
  • Psilinae

Description

For terms see Morphology of Diptera
These are small or medium-sized (1.5 mm.-10 mm.) flies with slender bodies. They are yellow to reddish, brown or black in colour. The head is spherical with (relatively) small eyes and the face is often slanted backward. The antennae are small, with the third antennal segment conspicuously elongated. The arista has a short or long pubescence. The postvertical bristles are divergent or absent. Ocelli and ocellar bristles are present. Vibrissae are always absent. Up to two pairs of frontal bristles and scattered interfrontal setulae are present. The costa is interrupted at some distance from R1 and only the basal part of the subcosta is developed. The vein bordering the anal cell is straight on the outer side. Crossvein BM-Cu is present and the cell cup is closed. The wing is usually clear to slightly tinged, but in some cases along the costa, the wing tip or the cross-veins there are dark bands. The wing has a transverse weakening in the basal half. Tibiae are without a dorsal preapical bristle. See [1] Description and plates from Francis Walker's Insecta Britannica Diptera.

Biology

Psilidae are especially common in cool places on low-density vegetation. This explains why the family is well represented in temperate zones. The larvae are almost exclusively phytophagous on nonwoody plants. They live either in stems, tubers, or roots. A few species live under tree bark. Some form galls. Several species are pests in agriculture and horticulture. Chamaepsila rosae Fabricius, and Psila nigricornis Meigen are instances.

List of genera[1]

Loxocera sp. in a marshy meadow

References

  1. ^ "Psilidae". Retrieved 2013-11-20.

Further reading

Distribution

Identification

  • Hennig. 1941. Psilidae.In: Lindner, E. (Ed.). Die Fliegen der palaearktischen Region 5,41,1-38. Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision (in German).
  • Séguy, E. (1934) Diptères: Brachycères. II. Muscidae acalypterae, Scatophagidae. Paris: Éditions Faune de France 28. virtuelle numérique
  • Shtakel'berg, A.A. Family Psilidae in Bei-Bienko, G. Ya, 1988 Keys to the insects of the European Part of the USSR Volume 5 (Diptera) Part 2 English edition.Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision .

External links

Acalyptratae

The Acalyptratae or Acalyptrata are a subsection of the Schizophora, which are a section of the order Diptera, the "true flies". In various contexts the Acalyptratae also are referred to informally as the acalyptrate muscoids, or acalyptrates, as opposed to the Calyptratae. All forms of the name refer to the lack of calypters in the members of this subsection of flies. An alternative name, Acalypterae is current, though in minority usage. It was first used by Justin Pierre Marie Macquart in 1835 for a section of his tribe Muscides; he used it to refer to all acalyptrates plus scathophagids and phorids, but excluding Conopidae.

The confusing forms of the names stem from their first usage; Acalyptratae and Acalyptrata actually are adjectival forms in New Latin. They were coined in the mid 19th century in contexts such as "Muscae Calyptratae and Acalyptratae" and "Diptera Acalyptrata", and the forms stuck.The Acalyptratae are a large assemblage, exhibiting very diverse habits, with one notable and perhaps surprising exception: no known acalyptrates are obligate blood-feeders (hematophagous), though blood feeding at various stages of the life history is common throughout other Dipteran sections.

Carrot fly

The carrot fly (Chamaepsila rosae) is a pest of gardens and farms, and mainly affects the crop of carrots, but can also attack parsnips, parsley and celery. It is a member of the family Psilidae (order Diptera).

Chamaepsila

Chamaepsila is a genus of flies in the family Psilidae.

Chyliza

Chyliza is a genus of rust flies (insects in the family Psilidae).

Chyliza elegans

Chyliza elegans is a species of rust flies (insects in the family Psilidae). It is found in Taiwan.

Chyliza erudita

Chyliza erudita is a species of rust flies in the family Psilidae.

Chyliza leptogaster

Chyliza leptogaster is a species of rust flies (insects in the family Psilidae).

Diopsoidea

The Diopsoidea are a small but diverse cosmopolitan superfamily of acalyptrate muscoids, especially prevalent in the tropics. Some flux exists in the family constituency of this group (e.g., the Megamerinidae are sometimes placed here, but may also be placed in the Nerioidea), and the final classification is likely to require the use of molecular systematics.

Loxocera

Loxocera is a genus of flies and member of the family Psilidae.

Loxocera albiseta

Loxocera albiseta is a species of fly in the family Psilidae. It is found in the Palearctic .

Loxocera aristata

Loxocera aristata is a species of fly and member of the family Psilidae.

Loxocera collaris

Loxocera collaris is a species of rust flies in the family Psilidae.

Loxocera cylindrica

Loxocera cylindrica is a species of rust flies in the family Psilidae.

Psila

Psila is a European genus of flies member of the family Psilidae or Rust Flies.

Psila bivittata

Psila bivittata is a species of rust flies (insects in the family Psilidae).

Psila fallax

Psila fallax is a species of rust flies (insects in the family Psilidae).

Psila fimetaria

Psila fimetaria is a species of fly, member of the family Psilidae.

Strongylophthalmyiidae

The Strongylophthalmyiidae are a small family of about 45 species of slender, long-legged flies, the majority of which occur in the Oriental and Australasian regions. They are divided into two genera, the monotypic Southeast Asian genus Nartshukia Shatalkin, 1993 and Strongylophthalmyia Heller, 1902. The relationships of the group are obscure; formerly the genus Strongylophthalmyia was classified with the Psilidae, and some recent classifications place it within the Tanypezidae. Little is known of their biology, but many species seem to be associated with rotting bark.

Syringogaster

Syringogaster is a genus of small (4 to 6 mm) ant-mimicking flies with a petiolate abdomen, a long prothorax, a swollen and spiny hind femur, and reduced head size and large eyes. There are 20 described extant species and two species known from Miocene amber from the Dominican Republic. It is the only genus in the family Syringogastridae.

Extant Diptera families

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