A pseudo-atoll, like an atoll, is an island that encircles a lagoon, either partially or completely. A pseudo-atoll differs from an atoll as established by several authorities, such as how it is formed (not by subsidence, nor by coral). It is considered a preferable term to "near-atoll". There is a need for rigorous definition of "pseudo-atoll" before it can be accepted as a general term.


Alexander Agassiz gave the term pseudo-atoll to "any ring-shaped reefs not formed as a result of subsidence".[1][2] while Norman D. Newell and J. Keith Rigby[3] called such reefs non-coral.[4] and "We conclude that almost-atoll should be retained as a descriptive term as defined by Davis and Tayama, and that the use of "near-atoll" as a synonym be abandoned. The value of terms such as "semi-atoll" and "pseudo-atoll" needs close examination and more rigorous definition before being generally accepted." H. Mergner yet states that micro-atolls classify as pseudo-atolls. Professor David R. Stoddart of Berkeley states an "almost-atoll" is an atoll with a central island of left over residue.


Dr. Edward J. Petuch, author of Cenozoic seas: the view from eastern North America, refers to pseudo-atolls as pseudoatolls with the Everglades Pseudoatoll as an example.[5]

See also


  1. ^ Preobrazhensky, B.V. (1993). Contemporary Reefs. CRC Press. p. 31. ISBN 9789061919452. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
  2. ^ Agassiz, A., A reconnaissance of the Bahamas and elevated reefs of Cuba. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 26:1-203. 1894.
  3. ^ J. Keith Rigby, Associate Professor of Geological Sciences, Notre Dame University
  4. ^ Newell, N.D, Rigby, J.K., 1957, Geological studies on the Great Bahama Bank, in Regional Aspects of Carbonate Deposition: SEPM Spec. Pub. 5, p. 1572.
  5. ^ Petuch, Edward J., Cenozoic Seas: The View From Eastern North America, CRC Press; 1 edition (December 29, 2003), ISBN 0-8493-1632-4.

Further reading

African Banks

The African Banks are the uninhabited northernmost islands of the Amirante Islands, of the Outer Islands of the Republic of Seychelles, in the western Indian Ocean.


An atoll ( ), sometimes called a coral atoll, is a ring-shaped coral reef including a coral rim that encircles a lagoon partially or completely. There may be coral islands or cays on the rim. The coral of the atoll often sits atop the rim of an extinct seamount or volcano which has eroded or subsided partially beneath the water. The lagoon forms over the volcanic crater or caldera while the higher rim remains above water or at shallow depths that permit the coral to grow and form the reefs. For the atoll to persist, continued erosion or subsidence must be at a rate slow enough to permit reef growth upward and outward to replace the lost height.


The Everglades is a natural region of tropical wetlands in the southern portion of the U.S. state of Florida, comprising the southern half of a large drainage basin within the neotropic ecozone. The ecosystem it forms is not presently found anywhere else on earth. The system begins near Orlando with the Kissimmee River, which discharges into the vast but shallow Lake Okeechobee. Water leaving the lake in the wet season forms a slow-moving river 60 miles (97 km) wide and over 100 miles (160 km) long, flowing southward across a limestone shelf to Florida Bay at the southern end of the state. The Everglades experience a wide range of weather patterns, from frequent flooding in the wet season to drought in the dry season. The Seminole Tribe gave the large body of water the name Okeechobee meaning "River of Grass" to describe the sawgrass marshes, part of a complex system of interdependent ecosystems that include cypress swamps, the estuarine mangrove forests of the Ten Thousand Islands, tropical hardwood hammocks, pine rockland, and the marine environment of Florida Bay. Throughout the 20th century, the Everglades suffered significant loss of habitat and environmental degradation.

Human habitation in the southern portion of the Florida peninsula dates to 15,000 years ago. Before European colonization, the region was dominated by the native Calusa and Tequesta tribes. With Spanish colonization, both tribes declined gradually during the following two centuries. The Seminole, formed from mostly Creek people who had been warring to the North, assimilated other peoples and created a new culture after being forced from northern Florida into the Everglades during the Seminole Wars of the early 19th century. After adapting to the region, they were able to resist removal by the United States Army.

Migrants to the region who wanted to develop plantations first proposed draining the Everglades in 1848, but no work of this type was attempted until 1882. Canals were constructed throughout the first half of the 20th century, and spurred the South Florida economy, prompting land development. In 1947, Congress formed the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control Project, which built 1,400 miles (2,300 km) of canals, levees, and water control devices. The Miami metropolitan area grew substantially at this time and Everglades water was diverted to cities. Portions of the Everglades were transformed into farmland, where the primary crop was sugarcane. Approximately 50 percent of the original Everglades has been developed as agricultural or urban areas.Following this period of rapid development and environmental degradation, the ecosystem began to receive notable attention from conservation groups in the 1970s. Internationally, UNESCO and the Ramsar Convention designated the Everglades a Wetland Area of Global Importance. The construction of a large airport 6 miles (9.7 km) north of Everglades National Park was blocked when an environmental study found that it would severely damage the South Florida ecosystem. With heightened awareness and appreciation of the region, restoration began in the 1980s with the removal of a canal that had straightened the Kissimmee River. However, development and sustainability concerns have remained pertinent in the region. The deterioration of the Everglades, including poor water quality in Lake Okeechobee, was linked to the diminishing quality of life in South Florida's urban areas. In 2000 the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan was approved by Congress to combat these problems. To date, it is the most expensive and comprehensive environmental restoration attempt in history, but its implementation has faced political complications.

Everglades Pseudoatoll

The Everglades Pseudoatoll (also called a pseudo-atoll) was a major geomorphic feature of southern Florida during the Pliocene epoch.

Marquesas Keys

The Marquesas Keys form an uninhabited island group about 20 miles (32 km) west of Key West, 4 miles (6 km) in diameter, and largely covered by mangrove forest. They are an unincorporated area of Monroe County, Florida and belong to the Lower Keys Census County Division. They are protected as part of the Key West National Wildlife Refuge. The Marquesas were used for target practice by the military as recently as 1980.

The total area, including the lagoon, measures 29.37 km2 (11.34 sq mi). The land area, according to the United States Census Bureau, is 6.58 km2 (2.54 sq mi) (exactly 6,579,703 m2), the water area 0.17 km2 (0.066 sq mi) (165,744 m2), giving a combined area of 6.75 km2 (2.61 sq mi) (6,745,447 m2), not counting water areas with connection to the open sea, but including small landlocked lakes on the Keys. The group is located at coordinates 24°34′19″N 82°07′10″W.

The islands are part of the Florida Keys, separated from the rest of the Florida Keys, which are farther east, by the Boca Grande Channel, which is 6 miles (9.7 km) wide until Boca Grande Key, the westernmost of the Mule Keys. Only the Dry Tortugas are farther west, 36 miles (58 km) west of the Marquesas Keys.

The central lagoon is called Mooney Harbor. The northernmost key is the largest and has a strip of sandy beach free of mangrove. In the past it was known as "Entrance Key". It surrounds the lagoon in the north and east. Adjoining in the south are smaller keys such as Gull Keys, Mooney Harbor Key, and finally about four unnamed keys in the southwest corner of the group. Older charts show that two of these keys once were named "Button Island" and "Round Island".Six miles (10 km) west of the Marquesas Keys is Rebecca Shoal.

The islands are best known for their excellent sport fishing.


The prefix pseudo- (from Greek ψευδής, pseudes, "lying, false") is used to mark something that superficially appears to be (or behaves like) one thing, but is something else. Subject to context, pseudo may connote coincidence, imitation, intentional deception, or a combination thereof.

In scholarship and studies, pseudo-scholarship refers to material that is presented as, but is not, the product of rigorous and objective study or research. Examples:




Pseudoscientific language comparison

Folk linguistics




In biology and botany, the prefix 'pseudo' is used to indicate a species with a coincidental visual similarity to another genus. For example, Iris pseudacorus is known as 'pseudacorus' for having leaves similar to those of Acorus calamus. In biology, coincidental similarity is not the same as mimicry.

In literary studies, the prefix 'pseudo-' is used to indicate false attribution of authorship. For example, Pseudo-Aristotle is the name given to persons who falsely wrote under the name of Aristotle to give their own ideas greater credibility. The false ascription of authorship is called pseudepigraphy, and the works themselves are called pseudepigrapha. The 'pseudo-' prefix is not used for pseudonyms, false names used to hide one's true identity.

In linguistics, the prefix 'pseudo-' is also applied to certain categories of loanwords in which words are used in a way that does not coincide with the way the word is used in the original language. For example, the English word handy has been adopted in colloquial German as the term for a mobile/cell phone. This is known as a pseudo-anglicism.

In historiography, the prefix 'pseudo' is also applied to imposters or false claimants to a throne, for example Pseudo-Nero.

In pharmacology, the 'pseudo' prefix is also used to identify an alternate form of a pharmacological compound. For example, pseudoephedrine.

In the study of art, the 'pseudo' prefix is applied to an imitation of the artistic style of a different cultural background (in contradistinction to neo-, the imitation of a style of an earlier epoch). For example, Pseudo-Kufic, Pseudo-Cyrillic, Pseudo-Chalcidian, pseudo-naïve.

In geology and geography, the 'pseudo' prefix is also used for topographical formations that superficially appear to have been formed by one process, but were formed by another. For example, pseudo-atoll.

In mathematics, the 'pseudo' prefix is also applied to items that are similar to (or mathematically behave like) something else, but not exactly that. For example, pseudo-arcs, pseudorandomness, pseudoprime.

In Networking, the 'pseudo' prefix is used to behaves like something that is tangible e.g. a pseudo wire.

Pseudepigrapha in the Christian Bible, are falsely attributed works of unknown authors, falsified, interpolated, and forged into mostly Greek scripture.


A reef is a bar of rock, sand, coral or similar material, lying beneath the surface of water.

Many reefs result from natural, abiotic processes—deposition of sand, wave erosion planing down rock outcrops, etc.—but the best known reefs are the coral reefs of tropical waters developed through biotic processes dominated by corals and coralline algae.

Artificial reefs (e.g. shipwrecks) sometimes have a role in enhancing the physical complexity of featureless sand bottoms, in order to attract a diverse assemblage of organisms, especially algae and fish.

Earth's largest reef system is the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, at a length of over 2,300 kilometres (1,400 miles).

Île Platte

Platte Island or Île Platte is part of the Southern Coral Group of islands in the Seychelles that are part of the Outer Islands.


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