A prowincja (Polish pronunciation: [prɔˈvint͡sja]; plural: prowincje) was the largest territorial subdivision in medieval and Renaissance-era Poland, and later in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The term designated each of the two largest constituents of the state: depending on the period, including Wielkopolska (Greater Poland), Małopolska (Lesser Poland) and (upon the formation of the Commonwealth) the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Ducal Prussia was often counted as part of the Greater Poland; Inflanty (Livonia) as part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and the Ruthenian territories were split between Lesser Poland and the Grand Duchy.
Though larger than a voivodeship (województwo), the prowincja was less important in terms of offices and power. In most respects, it was merely a titular unit of administration. The real power lay with the voivodeship—and, to a lesser extent, with ziemias (lands).
Occasionally the term voivodeship will be misleadingly translated into English as a province, leading to potential confusion.
The Polish term "prowincja" has not been used to denote any part of independent Poland since the Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1795)—unlike "ziemia", which has continued to be used for certain geographical areas. Since 1795, the Polish word "prowincja" has been used only for certain foreign-imposed units of administration within territories of the old Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
Akurat is a Polish band formed in November 1994 in Bielsko-Biała. 'Akurat' is ambiguous Polish word, standing for either 'exactly, just enough' or 'yeah, sure right'. The band's style fuses punk rock, reggae, ska and pop.Brześć Kujawski Voivodeship
Brześć Kujawski Voivodeship (Latin: Palatinatus Brestensis, Polish: Województwo brzesko-kujawskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland (later Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth), from the 14th century to the Second Partition of Poland in 1793. It was part of the historic Kujawy region and the Greater Polish prowincja. Originally, its name was Brzesc Voivodeship (Wojewodztwo brzeskie), but after the 1569 Union of Lublin, it was renamed into Brzesc Kujawski Voivodeship, to distinguish it from Lithuanian Brest Litovsk Voivodeship (Polish: Wojewodztwo brzesko-litewskie).Bukowsko
Bukowsko [buˈkɔfskɔ] (Yiddish: בוקאווסק Bikofsk) is a village in Sanok County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Poland.
It's in the Bukowsko Upland mountains, parish in loco, located near the towns of Medzilaborce and Palota (in northeastern Slovakia). During the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth it was in Lesser Poland prowincja.Fantasmagorie
Fantasmagorie is an album by Akurat, released on May 31, 2006.Gniezno Voivodeship
Gniezno Voivodeship (Polish: Województwo Gnieźnieńskie, Latin: Palatinatus Gnesnensis) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland for a short time from 1768, when it was cut from the Kalisz Voivodeship, to the Second Partition of Poland in 1793. It was part of Greater Polish prowincja.
Greater Poland general governor (Starosta Generalny) seat:
PoznańVoivodeship governor (wojewoda) seat:
GnieznoGeneral council (Sejmik Generalny) for the Greater Poland seat:
Gniezno County (Powiat Gnieźnieński), Gniezno
Kcynia County (Powiat Kcyński), Kcynia
Naklo County (Powiat Nakielski), NakłoNeighbouring Voivodeships:
Brześć Kujawski Voivodeship
Poznań VoivodeshipGreater Poland
Greater Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska ([vʲɛlkɔˈpɔlska] (listen); German: Großpolen, Latin: Polonia Maior), is a historical region of west-central Poland. Its chief city is Poznań.
The boundaries of Greater Poland have varied somewhat throughout history. Since the Middle Ages, the proper (właściwa) or exact/strict (ścisła) Wielkopolska (often referred to as ziemia, meaning "land") included the Poznań and Kalisz voivodeships. In the wider sense (as dzielnica, i.e. region), it encompassed also Sieradz, Łęczyca, Brześć Kujawski and Inowrocław voivodeships (more eastward). One another meaning (as province) included also Mazovia and Royal Prussia. After the Partitions of Poland, Greater Poland was often identified with the Grand Duchy of Posen. The region in the proper sense roughly coincides with the present-day Greater Poland Voivodeship (Polish: województwo wielkopolskie).Greater Poland Voivodeship
Greater Poland Voivodeship (in Polish: Województwo Wielkopolskie [vɔjɛˈvut͡stfɔ vjɛlkɔˈpɔlskʲɛ]), also known as Wielkopolska Voivodeship, Wielkopolska Province, or Greater Poland Province, is a voivodeship, or province, in west-central Poland. It was created on 1 January 1999 out of the former Poznań, Kalisz, Konin, Piła and Leszno Voivodeships, pursuant to the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998. The province is named after the region called Greater Poland or Wielkopolska [vjɛlkɔˈpɔlska] (listen). The modern province includes most of this historic region, except for some western parts.
Greater Poland Voivodeship is second in area and third in population among Poland's sixteen voivodeships, with an area of 29,826 square kilometres (11,516 sq mi) and a population of close to 3.5 million. Its capital city is Poznań; other important cities include Kalisz, Konin, Piła, Ostrów Wielkopolski, Gniezno (an early capital of Poland) and Leszno. It is bordered by seven other voivodeships: West Pomeranian to the northwest, Pomeranian to the north, Kuyavian-Pomeranian to the north-east, Łódź to the south-east, Opole to the south, Lower Silesian to the southwest and Lubusz to the west.
The city of Poznań has international twinning arrangements with the English county of Nottinghamshire.Inowrocław Voivodeship
Inowrocław Voivodeship (Polish: województwo inowrocławskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland from the 14th century to the First Partition of Poland in 1772. Together with the neighbouring Brześć Kujawski Voivodeship it was part of the Kuyavia region and the Greater Polish prowincja.
With size of some 2,900 km2 (together with Dobrzyn Land, its area was 5,877 km2.), it was one of the smallest voivodeships of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. In early years after its creation (14th century), it was called Gniewkowo Voivodeship (Województwo gniewkowskie), from the town of Gniewkowo, the seat of local Piast princes. Last mention of Gniewkowo Voivodeship was in 1420. Even though the capital of the voivodeship was in Inowrocław, its biggest urban center was Bydgoszcz. Local sejmiks, together with Brzesc Kujawski Voivodeship, took place in Radziejow. The Inowroclaw Voivodeship with Dobrzyn Land had six senators (Voivode and Castellan of Inowroclaw, Castellan of Bydgoszcz, and Castellans of Dobrzyn, Rypin and Slonsk Dolny).
Apart from the original two Kuyavian counties of the Voivodeship, it also included the Dobrzyn Land, located on eastern bank of the Vistula which became part of the Kingdom of Poland in 1466. The Dobrzyn Land was divided into three counties (Dobrzyń, Rypin, Lipno), and had its own sejmiks at Lipno.
InowrocławVoivodes: Hieronim Radomicki (1630–1651)
Regional council (sejmik) seats:
County of Inowrocław
County of Bydgoszcz
Land of Dobrzyń (ziemia dobrzyńska), divided into the counties of Dobrzyń, Rypin, and Lipno.Neighbouring Voivodeships:
Brześć Kujawski Voivodeship
Gniezno Voivodeship (since 1768)List of terms for administrative divisions
This is a list of English and non-English terms for administrative divisions.Netze District
The Netze District or District of the Netze (German: Netzedistrikt or Netze-Distrikt; Polish: Obwód Nadnotecki) was a territory in the Kingdom of Prussia from 1772 until 1807. It included the urban centers of Bydgoszcz (Bromberg), Inowrocław (Inowraclaw), Piła (Schneidemühl) and Wałcz (Deutsch Krone) and was given its name for the Noteć River (German: Netze) that traversed it.
Beside Royal Prussia, a land of the Polish Crown since 1466, King Frederick II of Prussia also seized the adjacent lands of the Prowincja of Greater Poland to the south from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in the First Partition of Poland of 1772. At first Royal Prussia, i.e. the former Pomeranian, Malbork and Chełmno voivodeships, but with the exception of the former Prince-Bishopric of Warmia, was organized as the province of West Prussia. On the other hand the adjacent annexed areas of the Greater Polish Poznań and Gniezno Voivodeships, as well as of the Kuyavian lands of western Inowrocław Voivodeship along the Noteć (Netze) formed the separate Netze District under governor Franz Balthasar Schönberg von Brenkenhoff.
Von Brenkenhoff however soon was accused of the waste of public funds in the course of the construction of the Bydgoszcz Canal, and from 1775 on the Netze District was administrated with West Prussia. With the 1793 Second Partition of Poland, the remainder of the Greater Polish province was annexed by Prussia and formed the new province of South Prussia. After the Prussian defeat in the War of the Fourth Coalition and the Greater Poland Uprising, large parts of the southern Netze District according to the 1807 Treaties of Tilsit fell to the Bydgoszcz Department of the Duchy of Warsaw. The remaining northwestern territory around Wałcz and Kamień was incorporated into the West Prussian province.
At the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the demarcation line was confirmed as the northern border of the newly established Grand Duchy of Posen. The southern territories of the former Netze District were administered within the Bromberg Region (Polish: Rejencja), while the northwestern part belonged to the West Prussian of Marienwerder Region (Kwidzyn).Poznań Voivodeship (14th century to 1793)
Poznań Voivodeship 14th century to 1793 (Latin: Palatinatus Posnaniensis, Polish: Województwo Poznańskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland from the 14th century to the Second Partition of Poland in 1793. It was part of the Greater Polish prowincja.Province (disambiguation)
A province is a form of subnational entity.
Province may also refer to :
Jurisdictionsa Roman province, or provincia, an administrative unit in the Roman empire
Ecclesiastical province, a large jurisdiction of religious government
Regular province, comparable jurisdiction within a religious order or congregation
Prowincja, a division of the Polish-Lithuanian CommonwealthNatural sciencesGeologic province, a spatial entity with common geologic or geomorphic attributes
Physiographic province, a geographic region with a characteristic geomorphologyOther"Province" (song), a song by TV on the Radio from their 2006 album Return to Cookie Mountain
The Province (film), a 1991 Dutch film
The Vancouver Province, commonly referred to as The Province, a newspaper published in VancouverProvince of Lower Silesia
The Province of Lower Silesia (German: Provinz Niederschlesien; Silesian German: Provinz Niederschläsing; Polish: Prowincja Dolny Śląsk; Silesian: Prowincyjŏ Dolny Ślůnsk) was a province of the Free State of Prussia from 1919 to 1945. Between 1938 and 1941 it was reunited with Upper Silesia as the Province of Silesia. The capital of Lower Silesia was Breslau (now Wrocław in Poland). The province was further divided into two administrative regions (Regierungsbezirke), Breslau and Liegnitz.The province was not congruent with the historical region of Lower Silesia, which now lies mainly in Poland. It additionally comprised the Upper Lusatian districts of Görlitz, Rothenburg and Hoyerswerda in the west, that until 1815 had belonged to the Kingdom of Saxony, as well as the former County of Kladsko in the southeast.
The province was disestablished at the end of World War II and with the implementation of the Oder–Neisse line in 1945, the area east of the Neisse river fell to the Republic of Poland. The smaller western part was incorporated into the German states of Saxony and Brandenburg.Province of Posen
The Province of Posen (German: Provinz Posen, Polish: Prowincja Poznańska) was a province of Prussia from 1848 to 1919. Posen was established as a province of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1848 after the Greater Poland Uprising, converted from the Grand Duchy of Posen annexed by Prussia in the Polish partitions of 1815, and became part of the German Empire in 1871. Posen was part of the Free State of Prussia within Weimar Germany from 1918, but was dissolved the following year when most of its territory was ceded to the Second Polish Republic by the Treaty of Versailles, and the remaining German territory was later re-organized into Posen-West Prussia in 1922.
Posen (present-day Poznań, Poland) was the provincial capital.Province of Silesia
The Province of Silesia (German: Provinz Schlesien; Polish: Prowincja Śląska; Silesian: Prowincyjŏ Ślōnskŏ) was a province of Prussia from 1815 to 1919. The Silesia region was part of the Prussian realm since 1740 and established as an official province in 1815, then became part of the German Empire in 1871. In 1919, as part of the Free State of Prussia within Weimar Germany, Silesia was divided into the provinces of Upper Silesia and Lower Silesia. Silesia was reunified briefly from 1938 to 1941 as a province of Nazi Germany before being divided back into Upper Silesia and Lower Silesia.
Breslau (present-day Wrocław, Poland) was the provincial capital.Province of Upper Silesia
The Province of Upper Silesia (German: Provinz Oberschlesien; Silesian German: Provinz Oberschläsing; Silesian: Prowincyjŏ Gōrny Ślōnsk; Polish: Prowincja Górny Śląsk) was a province of the Free State of Prussia from 1919 to 1945. It comprised much of the region of Upper Silesia and was eventually divided into two government regions (Regierungsbezirke) called Kattowitz (1939-1945), and Oppeln (1819-1945). The provincial capital was Oppeln (1919–1938) and Kattowitz (1941–1945), while other major towns included Beuthen, Gleiwitz, Hindenburg O.S., Neiße, Ratibor and Auschwitz, added in 1941 (the place of future extermination of Jews in World War II). Between 1938 and 1941 it was reunited with Lower Silesia as the Province of Silesia.Prowincja (album)
Prowincja (Polish for "province") is Akurat's second album released on 1 October 2003.Sebastian Kudas
Sebastian Ludwik Kudas (born 31 August 1978, Kraków, Poland) is a Polish graphic artist (drawer), illustrator, and Piwnica pod Baranami’s stage designer, graduated from VIII Prywatne Akademickie Liceum Ogólnokształcące in 1997.
Kudas has worked with „Piwnica pod Baranami” since 1995, thanks to Jerzy Skarżyński and Piotr Skrzynecki, as a stage designer. He created several dozen stage designs for Piwnica’s performances (also abroad: Stockholm, Malmö, Oslo, Wien, Chicago, Toronto and New York), Piwnica artists’ recitals and a documentary about Wisława Szymborska directed by Antoni Krauze.
As an illustrator, he worked with Jacek Kaczmarski, Ewa Lipska, Jan Nowicki, Jan Kanty Pawluśkiewicz and Janusz Radek. He illustrated publications, among others „Epitafia” by Wisława Szymborska, Ewa Lipska, Bronisław Maj, Michał Rusinek and Apologia Balceroviciana and Balceroviciana varia, published by café Nowa Prowincja. In 1999, together with Jan Kanty Pawluśkiewicz and Grzegorz Turnau, he founded „Chwilowa Grupa Artystyczna TRIO” (Temporary Artistic Group TRIO). The group had exhibitions in Gliwice, Bytom, Jelenia Góra and Kraków. In 2001, together with Barbara Stępniak-Wilk and Maciej Dancewicz, he founded „Grupa Apokryficzna” (Apocryphal Group). He worked as an assistant director with Antoni Krauze (a documentary about „Piwnica pod Baranami) and Marta Meszaros (a theatrical performance „Tramwaj zwany pożądaniem” - „Streetcar Named Desire”).
Kudas cooperated with newspapers and magazines „Dziennik Polski”, „Przekrój”, „Zwierciadło” and "Bluszcz". His drawings were exhibited in Kraków, Sopot, Częstochowa, Sandomierz, Tarnobrzeg but also in Wien, Ebenfurth and Nurnberg.
In 1997 Kudas was chosen to Artistic Board of „Piwnica Pod Baranami”. In 2007 his work earned him Wiesław Dymny’s Award, awarded by Wiesław Dymny’s Foundation in Montreal, for versatile an artistic activity.Subdivisions of the Kingdom of Poland
Subdivisions of the Kingdom of Poland evolved over several centuries as the fortunes of the several entities known as the Kingdom of Poland ebbed and flowed.
The early Kingdom of Poland was split in the 11th century by the Testament of Bolesław III Krzywousty into several provinces (prowincja). The 14th century Wiślica Statutes and Statutes of Casimir the Great also used the term province. Eventually, during the unification of Poland after the fragmentation, the provinces - some of them for a period known as duchies (e.g. the Duchy of Masovia) - became known as lands (ziemia).
According to the 15th century Annales seu cronicae incliti Regni Poloniae ("Annals or chronicles of the famous Kingdom of Poland" of Jan Długosz, the Kingdom of Poland was divided into following lands:
ziemia krakowska (latin Terra Cracoviensis)
ziemia poznańska (lat. Terra Posnaniensis)
ziemia sandomierska (lat. Terra Sandomiriensis)
ziemia kaliska (lat. Terra Calisiensis)
ziemia lwowska (lat. Terra Leopoliensis)
ziemia sieradzka (lat. Terra Siradiensis)
ziemia lubelska (lat. Terra Lubliniensis)
ziemia łęczycka (lat. Terra Lanciciensis)
ziemia przemyska (lat. Terra Premisliensis)
ziemia bełska (lat. Terra Belzensis)
ziemia kujawska (lat. Terra Cuyaviensis)
ziemia chełmska (lat. Terra Chelmensis)
ziemia pomorska (lat. Terra Pomoranie)
ziemia chełmińska (lat. Terra Culmensis)
ziemia michałowska (lat. Terra Michaloviensis)
ziemia halicka (lat. Terra Halicensis)
ziemia dobrzyńska (lat. Terra Dobriensis)
ziemia podolska (lat. Podolia)
ziemia wieluńska (lat. Terra Wyelunensis)Most of these administrative regions (ziemia) in turn were transformed into voivodeships (województwo) around the 14th and 15th centuries (see voivodeships of Poland).
The administrative division became more clear in the Crown of the Polish Kingdom (see also Administrative division of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth).