Provisional Government of Hawaii

The Provisional Government of Hawaii, abbreviated "P.G.", was proclaimed after the coup d'état on January 17, 1893, by the 13-member Committee of Safety under the leadership of its chairman Henry E. Cooper and former judge Sanford B. Dole as the designated President of Hawaii. It replaced the Kingdom of Hawaii after the overthrow of Queen Liliʻuokalani as a provisional government until the Republic of Hawaii was established on July 4, 1894.

Provisional Government of Hawaii

Aupuni Kūikawā o Hawaiʻi  (Hawaiian)
1893–1894
Flag of Hawaii
Provisional Government of Hawaii
Provisional Government of Hawaii
CapitalHonolulu
Common languagesHawaiian, English
GovernmentProvisional government
Provisional Government 
• 1893-1894
Committee of Safety
Historical eraNew Imperialism
January 17 1893
14 December 1893 - 11 January 1894
July 4 1894
CurrencyHawaiian dollar,
U.S. dollar
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Kingdom of Hawaii
Republic of Hawaii
Hawaii Provisional Government Cabinet (PP-28-7-012)
Provisional Government cabinet, (left to right) James A. King, Sanford B. Dole, W. O. Smith and P. C. Jones in 'Iolani Palace

Provisional government

Following the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii, the coup leaders established the Provisional Government and set out to effect Hawaii's speedy annexation by the United States. The provisional government sent a commission including Lorrin A. Thurston to the U.S. and negotiated a treaty with President Benjamin Harrison that was quickly sent to the U.S. Senate for approval. At the same time Princess Victoria Kaʻiulani was in Washington D.C. to campaign for the monarchist side and against the coup, which she decried as illegal.

Shortly after assuming office in March 1893, President Grover Cleveland, himself an anti-imperialist, withdrew the treaty and ordered a congressional investigation into the events surrounding the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy. After receiving the committee's official report (that July), Cleveland stated that the U.S. had unlawfully used military force and called for the reinstatement of Queen Liliʻuokalani. The matter was referred by Cleveland to Congress after Sanford Dole refused Cleveland's demands, and the U.S. Senate held an unofficial investigation, culminating in the Morgan Report,[1] which completely rejected that there had been any U.S. involvement in the overthrow. After the findings of this committee were submitted, Cleveland reiterated his position, and denounced the Provisional Government as being neither de facto or de jure.

Hawaiian Army

Following the overthrow of the monarchy a military was formed on January 27, 1893, and put under the command of Colonel John Harris Soper. This military consisted of four companies: three national guard companies and one regular army company. The national guard companies were: the A Company made up of ethnic German volunteers, commanded by Charles W. Zeigler;[2] B Company made up of members of the Honolulu Rifles, commanded by Hugh Gunn; and C Company made up of ethnic Portuguese volunteers, commanded by Joseph M. Camara. The regulars were D company made up, like B Company, from the Honolulu Rifles, commanded by John Good.

The military was active under the Provisional Government of Hawaii where they were activated in the Leprosy War in 1893 and the Republic of Hawaii and were again activated during the 1895 Counter-Revolution in Hawaii in 1895. After Hawaii was annexed becoming the Territory of Hawaii in 1898, the companies entered the Army National Guard system and became part of the Hawaii Army National Guard.

Home front

Under the new administration the Government was made more restrictive, including denying citizenship to Chinese immigrants. The Hawaii Department of Education drove the Hawaiian language to near extinction in favor of English. They also restricted voting from 14,000 under the Bayonet Constitution to 4,000 people, most of them politicians in power of the population of approximately 100,000. James Henderson Blount would comment on this disproportion of voters and population in his report Blount Report.

The testimony of leading annexationists is that if the question of annexation was submitted to a popular vote, excluding all persons who could not read and write except foreigners (under the Australian-ballot system, which is the law of the land), that annexation would be defeated.[3]

Blount Investigation

The first order of business for the Provisional Government after the overthrow of Liliuokalani was to form an interim government while Lorrin A. Thurston was in Washington, DC, to negotiate annexation with Congress. One group proposed the assumption of power of Princess Kaʻiulani while a body formed by the Committee of Safety could act as a regency government. With the physical absence of the princess from the islands, the proposal was immediately struck down.

The Provisional Government was dealt a huge blow when United States President Benjamin Harrison, who was supportive of the annexation of Hawaii, was voted out of the White House. Grover Cleveland, an anti-imperialist, assumed the presidency and right away worked to stop the treaty of annexation. Just a month before Cleveland became president, Lorrin A. Thurston had struck a deal with Congress as it prepared to ratify a treaty of annexation. Cleveland, having heard the appeals of Princess Kaʻiulani on behalf of her imprisoned aunt, withdrew the treaty and launched an investigation of the matter.

Cleveland appointed James Henderson Blount of Macon, Georgia, as Commissioner Paramount and Minister to Hawaii. His chief mission was to investigate the overthrow of Liliuokalani's government. Blount concluded in his report that the overthrow had utilized the aid of the John L. Stevens, United States Minister to Hawaii who ordered the landing of troops from the USS Boston. On the basis of Blount's report, Cleveland sent Albert Sydney Willis of Kentucky to Honolulu as Minister to Hawaii with secret instructions. Willis, initially rebuffed by the queen, obtained Liliuokalani's promise to grant an amnesty after a considerable delay. After securing that promise, Willis made a formal demand for the dissolution of the Provisional Government and complete restoration of the monarchy, although unbeknownst to him by that time it was too late since Cleveland had already referred the matter to Congress. Taking the demand at face value, on December 23, 1893, Sanford B. Dole sent a reply to Willis flatly refusing to surrender the authority of the Provisional Government to the deposed queen.[4]

Morgan Investigation

In response to Cleveland's referral of the matter, the Senate passed a resolution empowering its Foreign Relations Committee to hold public hearings under oath, and cross-examine witnesses, to investigate U.S. involvement in the revolution and also to investigate whether it had been proper for President Cleveland to appoint Blount and give him extraordinary powers to represent the U.S. and intervene in Hawaii without Senate confirmation. John Tyler Morgan, an expansionist pro-annexation Senator from Alabama, chaired the commission.

The findings of the Morgan Report contradicted the assertions of which he was not a part of earlier made by Blount and former President Cleveland, and on February 26, 1894, at 10:43 PM was submitted. It concluded that the U.S. troops had remained completely neutral during the overthrow, exonerated Minister Stevens in landing troops, and concluded Blount's appointment and investigation without congressional approval were constitutional. However, the nine member Senate Foreign Relations Committee that submitted the report could not agree on a final conclusion, and the oft-executive summary was signed only by Morgan himself.[5][6]

Following the Morgan Report, and the Turpie Resolution on May 31, 1894, in which Congress prohibited any further intervention by the president and other government officials against the Provisional Government of Hawaii, Cleveland officially declared the Provisional Government as "neither de jure nor de facto".

On February 7, 1894, the US House of Representatives issued the following resolution:

In the U.S. House of Representatives, Feb. 7, 1894:

Resolved First. That it is the sense of this House that the action of the United States minister in employing United States naval forces and illegally aiding in overthrowing the constitutional Government of the Hawaiian Islands in January, 1893, and in setting up in its place a Provisional Government not republican in form and in opposition to the will of a majority of the people, was contrary to the traditions of our Republic and the spirit of our Constitution, and should be and is condemned.

Second. That we heartily approve the principle announced by the President of the United States that interference with the domestic affairs of an independent nation is contrary to the spirit of American institutions. And it is further the sense of this House that the annexation of the Hawaiian Islands to our country, or the assumption of a protectorate over them by our Government, is uncalled for and inexpedient; that the people of that country should have had absolute freedom and independence in pursuing their own line of policy, and that foreign intervention in the political affairs of the islands will not be regarded with indifference by the Government of the United States.[7]

Republic of Hawaii

Following the Morgan Report, and the Turpie Resolution which stated a policy of non-interference in Hawaiian affairs by the U.S., Lorrin A. Thurston and the Provisional Government of Hawaii convened a constitutional convention and established the Republic of Hawaii. This government maintained power until the U.S. annexed Hawaii in 1898 with the Newlands Resolution.

References

  1. ^ "The Morgan Report". Retrieved 2013-09-01.
  2. ^ Case, Howard D. (July 26, 1913). "National Guard of Hawaii Today and in the Yesteryears". Honolulu-star Bulletin. p. 9. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
  3. ^ from page 599 of the Blount Report)
  4. ^ Daws, Gavan (1968). Shoal of Time: A History of the Hawaiian Islands. University of Hawaii Press. p. 278. ISBN 978-0-8248-0324-7.
  5. ^ Russ, William Adam (1992). The Hawaiian Revolution (1893–94). Associated University Presses. p. 335. ISBN 0-945636-43-1.
  6. ^ Tate, Merze (1965). The United States and the Hawaiian Kingdom: A Political History. Yale University Press. p. 253.
  7. ^ "U.S. House Resolution, 1894". Hawaiian Kingdom. Retrieved 2013-09-01.

External links

Media related to Republic of Hawaii at Wikimedia Commons

Cecil Brown (Hawaii politician)

Cecil Brown (October 9, 1850 – March 6, 1917) was a Hawaiian attorney, politician, businessman, and banker in the Kingdom, Republic, and Territory of Hawaii.

Brown served as a member of the Kingdom of Hawaii House of Representatives, Deputy Attorney General, and Attorney General. He served on the Advisory Council for the Provisional Government of Hawaii, the Council of State for the Republic of Hawaii, and in the Senate of both the Republic and Territory of Hawaii. Brown had diverse investments, was a director or officer of several sugar companies, and Vice-President of the Hawaiian Bell and Mutual Telephone Company when service to the Hawaiian Islands was being developed. Brown was also the founding President of the first national bank chartered in Hawaii.

Committee of Safety

Committee of Safety may refer to:

Committee of Safety (American Revolution), established throughout the Thirteen Colonies at the start of the American Revolution

Committee of Safety (Hawaii), the forerunner of the provisional government of Hawaii during the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy

Committee of Public Safety, which controlled the French First Republic and initiated the Reign of Terror

English Committee of Safety, the parliamentary body in England that oversaw the English Civil War

Government of Hawaii (disambiguation)

The Government of Hawaii is the governmental structure as established by the Constitution of Hawaii.

Government of Hawaii may also refer to:

Provisional Government of Hawaii, proclaimed after the coup d'état on January 17, 1893Government of Hawaii may also refer to the governments of:

Ancient Hawaii

Kingdom of Hawaii

Republic of Hawaii

Territory of Hawaii

Henry E. Cooper

Henry Ernest Cooper (August 28, 1857 – May 15, 1929) was an American lawyer who moved to the Kingdom of Hawaii and became prominent in Hawaiian politics in the 1890s. He formally deposed Queen Lili'uokalani of Hawaii in 1893, held various offices in the ensuing Provisional Government of Hawaii and Republic of Hawaii governments, and was the first United States Territory of Hawaii Attorney General, 1899–1900. He later became a circuit judge in Honolulu.

John Harris Soper

John Harris Soper (1846–1944) was Marshal of the Kingdom of Hawaii during the period of 1884-86 and 1888-90.

He was born November 17, 1846, in Plymouth, Devon, England to Thomas Harris Soper and Mary Kipling Soper.

A military man, he became Commander-in-chief of military forces of the Provisional Government of Hawaii in 1893; Adjutant General and Chief of Staff during the period of 1894-1907; and retired as Brigadier General of the National Guard of Hawaii in 1907, having previously served in the California National Guard. Also a businessman, he was President of Hawaiian News Company in Honolulu; and also managed Soper, Wright & Company, a sugar plantation, on ʻŌʻōkala, Hawaii.

He served as honorary vice-president of the Societe des Sauveteurs du Dernier Adieu; and was a member of the Hawaiian Lodge No. 21, F. & A. M.. Soper married Mary Elizabeth Wundenberg at Vallejo, California in 1871; they had five children.Soper died July 26, 1944 in Honolulu.

John Smith Walker

John Smith Walker (1826 – May 29, 1893) was Minister of Finance of the Kingdom of Hawaii, and ad interim Attorney General of the Kingdom of Hawaii, under King Kalākaua.

Kaulana Nā Pua

"Kaulana Nā Pua" (literally, "Famous are the flowers") is a Hawaiian patriotic song written by Eleanor Kekoaohiwaikalani Wright Prendergast (April 12, 1865 – December 5, 1902) in 1893 for members of the Royal Hawaiian Band

who protested the overthrow of Queen Liliʻuokalani and the Hawaiian Kingdom. The song is also known under the title of Mele ʻAi Pōhaku, the Stone-Eating Song, or Mele Aloha ʻĀina, the Patriot's Song. It is still popular in Hawaiʻi today, although it is not clear how many non-Hawaiian speaking listeners are aware of the song's historical significance or the profound antipathy to U.S. annexation in its words. The song could be viewed as an act of subterfuge, since to the non-Hawaiian speaking listeners the lively melody gives no hint of the political intensity of the lyrics.

According to Elbert and Mahoe (1970), "The song was considered sacred and not for dancing." However, today hālau hula perform Kaulana Nā Pua as a hula ʻauana for makuahine (a graceful dance for mature women).

The Hawaiian lyrics,

with one English translation of them, are:

The "government" referred to in the song is the Provisional Government of Hawaii (which was later to become the Republic of Hawaii and subsequently the territory and state), proclaimed by the conspirators upon seizing power. Mrs. Prendergast composed the song for the Royal Hawaiian Band, who:

… had just walked out on their jobs after the bandmaster demanded they sign an oath of loyalty to the Provisional Government… . The bandmaster said they had better sign or they would be eating rocks. It is obvious that they meant it was not right to sell one's country or loyalty to one's country for money. If we hold on to the land, the land will always feed us. … [L]and endures. [1]

—Noenoe Silva, assistant professor in political science, University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, in Honolulu WeeklyThe Hawaiian Renaissance has lent the song Kaulana Nā Pua renewed significance in recent years. Its words are often cited in the context of the Hawaiian sovereignty movement as an expression of opposition to U.S. rule.

List of conflicts in Hawaii

This is a list of wars, bloodless wars, battles, conspiracies, rebellions, revolutions, nonviolent revolutions, massacres, and terrorist attacks in the Hawaiian Islands.

List of diplomats from the United Kingdom to Hawaii

Below is an incomplete List of Diplomats from the United Kingdom to Hawaii dealing with diplomatic representation in the Kingdom of Hawaii and its successor states the Provisional Government of Hawaii and the Republic of Hawaii before annexation to the United States in 1898.

List of diplomats of France to Hawaii

Below is a List of Diplomats of France to Hawaii dealing with diplomatic representation in the Kingdom of Hawaii and its successor states the Provisional Government of Hawaii and the Republic of Hawaii before annexation to the United States in 1898. The main diplomatic representative held the title of Commissioner and Consul of France while the second in command went to the Chancellor of the French Legation who often served as Acting Consul in the absence of the appointed Consul.

List of diplomats of Japan to Hawaii

Below is a List of Diplomats of Japan to Hawaii dealing with diplomatic representation in the Kingdom of Hawaii and its successor states the Provisional Government of Hawaii and the Republic of Hawaii before annexation to the United States in 1898.

Ministry of Finance (Hawaii)

The Minister of Finance (Hawaiian: Kuhina Waiwai) was a powerful office in the Kingdom of Hawaii, the Provisional Government of Hawaii and the Republic of Hawaii from 1842 to 1900. It made up one of the four offices of the monarchical or presidential cabinet which advised the Head of State of Hawaii on executive affairs. During the monarchy, ministers were also ex-officio members of the Privy Council and the House of Nobles in the legislature. During the republic, ministers were ex-officio members of both houses of the legislature. The head of state had the power to appoint the ministers but later Hawaiian constitutions limited the power the head of state had in removing the cabinet ministers by requiring a vote of no confidence from a majority of the elective members of the legislature. All acts of the head of state had to be countersigned by a minister.

National Guard of Hawaii

The National Guard of Hawaii was established by Provisional Government of Hawaii. It was a military branch intended to deal with internal conflict in Hawaii.

After the overthrow of the Hawaiian Monarchy the Provisional Government of Hawaii was established on January 17, 1893. On January 27, 1893 a military was formed and put under the command of Colonel John Soper. This military consisted of four companies: three National Guard companies and one regular army company. The national guard companies were: the A Company made up of ethnic German volunteers, commanded by Charles W. Zeigler; B Company made up of members of the Honolulu Rifles, commanded by Hugh Gunn; and C Company made up of ethnic Portuguese volunteers, commanded by Joseph M. Camara. The regulars were D company made up, like B Company, from the Honolulu Rifles, commanded by John Good.

The military was active under the Provisional Government of Hawaii where they were activated in the Leprosy War in 1893 and the Republic of Hawaii and were again activated during the 1895 Counter-Revolution in Hawaii in 1895. After Hawaii was annexed becoming the Territory of Hawaii in 1898 the companies entered the Army National Guard system and became part of the Hawaii Army National Guard.

Peter Cushman Jones

Peter Cushman Jones (October 12, 1837 – April 23, 1922) was a businessman and politician during the Kingdom of Hawaii, Provisional Government of Hawaii, Republic of Hawaii and Territory of Hawaii.

He founded the second bank in the Hawaiian Islands.

Postage stamps and postal history of Hawaii

This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of Hawaii.

The Hawaiian Islands occupy most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean, southwest of the continental United States. It was governed by the Kingdom of Hawaii until 1893, Provisional Government of Hawaii through 1894, and Republic of Hawaii until 1898. It became the Territory of Hawaii in 1898 and then US State of Hawaii in 1959.

Republic of Hawaii

The Republic of Hawaiʻi was a short-lived one-party state in Hawaiʻi between July 4, 1894, when the Provisional Government of Hawaii had ended, and August 12, 1898, when it became annexed by the United States as an organized incorporated territory of the United States. In 1893, U.S. Minister to Hawaii John L. Stevens and white native-born subjects of the Kingdom of Hawaii overthrew Queen Liliʻuokalani after she rejected the 1887 Bayonet Constitution which was forced on Hawaii. The perpetrators intended for Hawaii to be annexed by the United States but President Grover Cleveland, a Democrat opposed to imperialism, refused. A new constitution was subsequently written while Hawaii was being prepared for annexation.

While leaders of the republic such as Sanford B. Dole and Lorrin A. Thurston were native-born subjects of the Hawaiian Islands and spoke the Hawaiian language, they had strong financial, political, and family ties to the United States. They intended the Republic to become a territory of the United States. Dole was a former member of the Royal Legislature from Koloa, Kauai, and Justice of the Kingdom's Supreme Court, and he appointed Thurston—who had served as Minister of Interior under King Kalākaua—to lead a lobbying effort in Washington, D.C. to secure Hawaii's annexation by the United States. The issue of overseas imperialism was controversial in the United States due to its colonial origins, but rising jingoism during the Spanish–American War led to anti-imperialism’s decline. The day before the end of the war, Hawaii was annexed under Republican President William McKinley. The Territory of Hawaii was formally established as part of the U.S. on June 14, 1900.

The Blount Report "first provided evidence that officially identified the United States' complicity in the lawless overthrow of the lawful, peaceful government of Hawaii." American officials immediately recognized the new government and U.S. Marines were sent by the US Ambassador to aid in the overthrow. The Queen's supporters charged the Marines' presence frightened the Queen and thus enabled the revolution. Blount concluded that the United States had carried out unauthorized partisan activities, including the landing of U.S. Marines under a false or exaggerated pretext, to support the anti-royalist conspirators; that these actions were instrumental to the success of the revolution; and that the revolution was carried out against the wishes of a majority of the population of Hawaii.

William Henry Daniels

William Henry Daniels (June 2, 1855 – April 17, 1897) was a judge, lawyer, and businessman of Wailuku, Maui during the Kingdom of Hawaii. He was declined reappointment to his office as district magistrate for refusing to take an oath to the Provisional Government of Hawaii and was arrested by the Republic of Hawaii for suspected involvement in the 1895 Counter-Revolution in Hawaii.

William Owen Smith

William Owen Smith (August 4, 1848 – April 13, 1929) was a lawyer from a family of American missionaries who participated in the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii. He served as attorney general for the entire duration of the Provisional Government of Hawaii and the Republic of Hawaii.

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