Provincial-level administrative divisions (Chinese: 省级行政区; pinyin: shěng-jí xíngzhèngqū), or first-level administrative divisions (一级行政区; yī-jí xíngzhèngqū), are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions. There are 34 such divisions, classified as 23 provinces (Chinese: 省; pinyin: shěng), four municipalities, five autonomous regions, and two Special Administrative Regions. All but Taiwan Province and a small fraction of Fujian Province (currently administered by the Republic of China) are controlled by the People's Republic of China.
Note that every province (except Hong Kong and Macau, the two special administrative regions) has a Communist Party of China provincial committee (Chinese: 省委; pinyin: shěngwěi), headed by a secretary (Chinese: 书记; pinyin: shūjì). The committee secretary is effectively in charge of the province, rather than the nominal governor of the provincial government.
|Province-level administrative divisions|
|Category||Unitary one-party socialist republic|
Unitary semi-presidential republic
|Location|| People's Republic of China|
Republic of China (Taiwan)
|Created||1947 (ROC consitutiton)|
|Number||34 (including the claimed Taiwan Province)|
|Populations||552,300 (Macau) – 104,303,132 (Guangdong)|
|Areas||30.4 km2 (11.7 sq mi) (Macau) – 1,664,897 km2 (642,820 sq mi) (Xinjiang)|
SARs: 1 country, 2 systems
|Subdivisions||Sub-provincial city, Prefecture|
|province-level administrative divisions|
The government of each standard province (Chinese: 省; pinyin: shěng) is nominally led by a provincial committee, headed by a secretary. The committee secretary is first-in-charge of the province; second-in-command is the governor of the provincial government.
The People's Republic of China (PRC) claims the island of Taiwan and its surrounding islets, including Penghu, as "Taiwan Province", though Taiwan has not been under control of a government that ruled from mainland China since 1949, when the Republic of China lost the mainland to the Communist Party of China, which established the PRC. (Kinmen and the Matsu Islands are claimed by the PRC as part of its Fujian Province. Pratas and Itu Aba are claimed by the PRC as part of Guangdong and Hainan provinces respectively.) The territory is controlled by the Republic of China (ROC, commonly called "Taiwan").
A municipality (simplified Chinese: 直辖市; traditional Chinese: 直轄市; pinyin: zhíxiáshì; literally: 'direct-administrated city') or municipality directly under the administration of the central government is a higher level of city which is directly under the Chinese government, with status equal to that of the provinces. In practice, their political status is higher than that of common provinces.
An autonomous region (simplified Chinese: 自治区; traditional Chinese: 自治區; pinyin: zìzhìqū) is a minority subject which has a higher population of a particular minority ethnic group along with its own local government, but an autonomous region theoretically has more legislative rights than in actual practice. The governor of each autonomous region is usually appointed from the respective minority ethnic group.
A special administrative region (SAR) (simplified Chinese: 特别行政区; traditional Chinese: 特別行政區; pinyin: tèbié xíngzhèngqū) is a highly autonomous and self-governing sub national subject of the People's Republic of China that is directly under the Central People's Government. Each SAR has a chief executive as head of the region and head of government. The region's government is not fully independent, as foreign policy and military defence are the responsibility of the central government, according to the basic laws.
|GX||CN-GX||Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region||广西壮族自治区
Guǎngxī Zhuàngzú Zìzhìqū
|HA (HEN)||CN-HA||Henan Province||河南省
|HB (HUB)||CN-HB||Hubei Province||湖北省
|HE (HEB)||CN-HE||Hebei Province||河北省
|HK||CN-HK[f]||Hong Kong Special Administrative Region||香港特别行政区
Xiānggǎng Tèbié Xíngzhèngqū
|Hong Kong||7,061,200||6,396.01||1,108||港 |
|HN (HUN)||CN-HN||Hunan Province||湖南省
|MO||CN-MO[g]||Macau Special Administrative Region||澳门特别行政区
Àomén Tèbié Xíngzhèngqū
|NM||CN-NM||Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region||內蒙古自治区
Nèi Měnggǔ Zìzhìqū
|NX||CN-NX||Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region||宁夏回族自治区
Níngxià Huízú Zìzhìqū
|SN (SAA)||CN-SN||Shaanxi Province||陕西省
|SX (SAX)||CN-SX||Shanxi Province||山西省
|XJ||CN-XJ||Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region||新疆维吾尔自治区
Xīnjiāng Wéiwú'ěr Zìzhìqū
|XZ||CN-XZ||Tibet Autonomous Region||西藏自治区
By the time unity was finally reestablished by the Sui dynasty, the provinces had been divided and redivided so many times by different governments that they were almost the same size as commanderies, rendering the two-tier system superfluous. As such, the Sui merged the two together. In English, this merged level is translated as "prefectures". In Chinese, the name changed between zhou and jun several times before being finally settled on zhou. Based on the apocryphal Nine Province system, the Sui restored nine zhou.
|Provinces of the Sui dynasty|
|Pinyin||Capital||Approximate extent in terms of modern locations|
|Ancient name||Modern location|
|Yongzhou||雍州||雍州||Yōngzhōu||?||?||Guanzhong, Gansu, and the Upper Yellow basin|
|Jizhou||冀州||冀州||Jìzhōu||?||?||Shanxi and Northern Hebei, including modern Beijing and Tianjin|
|Yanzhou||兗州||兖州||Yǎnzhōu||?||?||Lower Yellow River area- west of Qingzhou and east of Jizhou|
|Xuzhou||徐州||徐州||Xúzhōu||?||?||Modern Xuzhou area- southern Shandong and northern Jiangsu|
|Liangzhou||梁州||梁州||Liángzhōu||?||?||Upper Yangtze- Sichuan Basin + south of the Qinling|
|Yangzhou||揚州||扬州||Yángzhōu||?||?||Lower Yangtze, entire SE Coast, Hainan, and Northern Vietnam|
Emperor Taizong (r. 626–649) set up 10 "circuits" (道, dào) in 627 as inspection areas for imperial commissioners monitoring the operation of prefectures, rather than a new primary level of administration. In 639, there were 10 circuits, 43 commanderies (都督府, dūdū fǔ), and 358 prefectures (州 and later 府, fǔ). In 733, Emperor Xuanzong expanded the number of circuits to 15 by establishing separate circuits for the areas around Chang'an and Luoyang, and by splitting the large Shannan and Jiangnan circuits into 2 and 3 new circuits respectively. He also established a system of permanent inspecting commissioners, though without executive powers.
|Circuits of the Tang dynasty|
|Pinyin||Capital||Approximate extent in terms of modern locations|
|Ancient name||Modern location|
|Duji*||都畿||都畿||Dūjī||Henan Fu||Luoyang||Luoyang and environs|
|Guannei||關內||关内||Guānnèi||Jingzhao Fu||Xi'an||northern Shaanxi, central Inner Mongolia, Ningxia|
|Hebei||河北||河北||Héběi||Weizhou||Wei County, Hebei||Hebei|
|Hedong||河東||河东||Hédōng||Puzhou||Puzhou, Yongji, Shanxi||Shanxi|
|Henan||河南||河南||Hénán||Bianzhou||Kaifeng||Henan, Shandong, northern Jiangsu, northern Anhui|
|Huainan||淮南||淮南||Huáinán||Yangzhou||central Jiangsu, central Anhui|
|Jiannan||劍南||剑南||Jiànnán||Yizhou||Chengdu||central Sichuan, central Yunnan|
|Jiangnan||江南||江南||Jiāngnán||Jiangnanxi + Jiangnandong (see map)|
|Qianzhong**||黔中||黔中||Qiánzhōng||Qianzhou||Pengshui||Guizhou, western Hunan|
|Jiangnanxi**||江南西||江南西||Jiāngnánxī||Hongzhou||Nanchang||Jiangxi, Hunan, southern Anhui, southern Hubei|
|Jiangnandong**||江南東||江南东||Jiāngnándōng||Suzhou||southern Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian, Shanghai|
|Jingji*||京畿||京畿||Jīngjī||Jingzhao Fu||Xi'an||Xi'an and environs|
|Lingnan||嶺南||岭南||Lǐngnán||Guangzhou||Guangdong, eastern Guangxi, northern Vietnam|
|Longyou||隴右||陇右||Lǒngyou||Shanzhou||Ledu County, Qinghai||Gansu|
|Shannan||山南||山南||Shānnán||Shannanxi + Shannandong (see map)|
|Shannanxi**||山南西||山南西||Shānnánxī||Liangzhou||Hanzhong||southern Shanxi, eastern Sichuan, Chongqing|
|Shannandong**||山南東||山南东||Shānnándōng||Xiangzhou||Xiangfan||southern Henan, Hubei|
* Circuits established under Xuanzong, as opposed to Taizong's original ten circuits.
** Circuits established under Xuanzong by dividing Taizong's Jiangnan and Shannan circuits.
The Song government abolished the previous commissioners and renamed their circuits 路 (lù, literally meaning "roads", but however is still usually translated into English as "circuits"). They also added a number of "army" prefectures (軍/军, jūn).
|Circuits of the Northern Song dynasty|
|Pinyin||Capital||Approximant extent in terms of modern locations|
|Ancient name||Modern location|
|Guangnan East||廣南東||广南东||Guǎngnándōng||Guangzhou||eastern Guangdong|
|Guangnan West||廣南西||广南西||Guǎngnánxī||Guizhou||Guilin||western Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan|
|Hebei East||河北東||河北东||Héběidōng||Beijing||Daming County, Hebei||eastern Hebei|
|Hebei West||河北西||河北西||Héběixī||Zhending||Zhengding County, Hebei||western Hebei|
|Huainan East||淮南東||淮南东||Huáinándōng||Yangzhou||central Jiangsu|
|Huainan West||淮南西||淮南西||Huáinánxī||Shouzhou||Fengtai County, Anhui||central Anhui|
|Jiangnan East||江南東||江南东||Jiāngnándōng||Jiangning Fu||Nanjing||southern Anhui|
|Jingdong East||京東東||京东东||Jīngdōngdōng||Qingzhou||Qingzhou, Shandong||eastern Shandong|
|Jingdong West||京東西||京东西||Jīngdōngxī||Nanjing||south of Shangqiu, Henan||western Shandong|
|Jinghu North||荊湖北||荆湖北||Jīnghúběi||Jiangling||Hubei, western Hunan|
|Jingji||京畿||京畿||Jīngjī||Chenliu||Chenliu, Kaifeng, Henan||Kaifeng and environs|
|Jingxi North||京西北||京西北||Jīngxīběi||Xijing||Luoyang||central Henan|
|Jingxi South||京西南||京西南||Jīngxīnán||Xiangzhou||Xiangfan||southern Henan, northern Hubei|
|Kuizhou||夔州||夔州||Kuízhōu||Kuizhou||Fengjie County, Chongqing||Chongqing, eastern Sichuan, Guizhou|
|Liangzhe||兩浙||两浙||Liǎngzhè||Hangzhou||Zhejiang, southern Jiangsu, Shanghai|
|Lizhou||利州||利州||Lìzhōu||Xingyuan||Hanzhong||northern Sichuan, southern Shaanxi|
|Zizhou||梓州||梓州||Zǐzhōu||Zizhou||Santai County, Sichuan||central southern Sichuan|
China was reoragnised into 11 provinces keeping most of the previous boundaries of provinces created by the previous dynasty unchanged, the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368) had 2 addition regions: Central region ruled by the Zhongshu Sheng (中書省) and the Tibetan region ruled by the Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs (宣政院).
|Gansu||甘肅 (甘肃)||Gānsù||Ganzhou Circuit||甘州路||Gānzhōu Lù||Zhangye||Consist of modern location of Gansu, Ningxia, & eastern Inner Mongolia.|
|Huguang||湖廣 (湖广)||Húguǎng||Wuchang Circuit||武昌路||Wǔchāng Lù||Wuhan||Consist of modern location of Hunan, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan,|
southern Hubei & western Guangdong.
|Henanjiangbei||河南江北||Hénánjiāngběi||Bianliang Circuit||汴梁路||Biànliáng Lù||Kaifeng||Consist of modern location of Henan, northern Hubei, northern Jiangsu, & northern Anhui.|
|Jiangxi||江西||Jiāngxī||Longxing Circuit||龍興路 (龙兴路)||Lóngxìng Lù||Nanchang||Consist of modern location of Jiangxi & eastern Guangdong.|
|Jiangzhe||江浙||Jiāngzhè||Hangzhou Circuit||杭州路||Hángzhōu Lù||Hangzhou||Consist of modern location of Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, southern Jiangsu, & southern Anhui.|
|Liaoyang||遼陽 (辽阳)||Liáoyáng||Liaoyang Circuit||遼陽路 (辽阳路)||Liáoyáng Lù||Liaoyang||Consist of modern location of Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, eastern Hebei,|
northwestern Inner Mongolia, northern Korea, & Outer Manchuria.
|Lingbei||嶺北 (岭北)||Lǐngběi||Hening Circuit||和寧路 (和宁路)||Héníng Lù||Kharkhorin||Consist of modern location of Mongolia & southern Siberia.|
|Shaanxi||陝西 (陕西)||Shǎnxi||Fengyuan Circuit||奉元路||Fèngyuán Lù||Xi'an||Consist of modern location of Shaanxi & mid-western Sichuan|
|Sichuan||四川||Sìchuān||Chengdu Circuit||成都路||Chéngdū Lù||Chengdu||Consist of modern location of western Sichuan & Chongqing|
|Yunnan||雲南 (云南)||Yúnnán||Zhongqing Circuit||中慶路 (中庆路)||Zhōngqìng Lù||Kunming||Consist of modern location of Yunnan and Upper Myanmar.|
|Zhengdong||征東 (征东)||Zhēngdōng||Kaicheng Circuit||開城路 (开城路)||Kāichéng Lù||Kaesong||Consist of modern location of southern Korea.|
|Central region*||中書省 (中书省)||Zhōngshū Shěng||none||Consist of modern location of Beijing, Tianjin, Shanxi, Shandong,|
northern Henan, central Inner Mongolia, & western Hebei.
A direct rule region under Zhongshu Sheng (Central Secretariat).
|Tibetan region*||宣政院||Xuānzhèng Yuàn||none||Consist of modern location of Tibet, Qinghai, & western Sichuan.|
A region set up to supervised Buddhist monks in addition to managing
the territory of Tibet under the Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs.
The Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) kept the province system set up by the Yuan Dynasty, however, it divided the original 10 provinces into 16 provinces, later 2 capital metropolitan areas and 13 provinces (兩京十三省) within China proper and 5 additional military ruled regions.
|Fujian||福建||Fújiàn||Fuzhou Prefecture||福州府||Fúzhōu Fǔ|
|Guangdong||廣東 (广东)||Guǎngdōng||Guangzhou Prefecture||廣州府 (广州府)||Guǎngzhōu Gǔ|
|Guangxi||廣西 (广西)||Guǎngxī||Guilin Prefecture||桂林府||Guìlín Fǔ|
|Guizhou||貴州 (贵州)||Guìzhōu||Guiyang Prefecture||貴陽府 (贵阳府)||Guìyáng Fǔ|
|Henan||河南||Hénán||Kaifeng Prefecture||開封府 (开封府)||Kāifēng Fǔ|
|Huguang||湖廣 (湖广)||Húguǎng||Wuchang Prefecture||武昌府||Wǔchāng Fǔ||Consist of modern location of Hunan & Hubei.|
Provincial seat modern location is Wuhan.
|Jiangxi||江西||Jiāngxī||Nanchang Prefecture||南昌府||Nánchāng Fǔ|
|Shaanxi||陝西 (陕西)||Shǎnxī||Xi'an Prefecture||西安府||Xī'ān Fǔ||Consist of modern location of Shaanxi, Gansu, & Ningxia.|
|Shandong||山東 (山东)||Shāndōng||Jinan Prefecture||濟南府 (济南府)||Jǐnán Fǔ|
|Shanxi||山西||Shānxī||Taiyuan Prefecture||太原府||Tàiyuán Fǔ|
|Sichuan||四川||Sìchuān||Chengdu Prefecture||成都府||Chéngdū Fǔ||Consist of modern location of Chongqing & eastern Sichuan.|
|Yunnan||雲南 (云南)||Yúnnán||Yunnan Prefecture||雲南府 (云南府)||Yúnnán Fǔ||Provincial seat modern location is Kunming.|
|Zhejiang||浙江||Zhèjiāng||Hangzhou Prefecture||杭州府||Hángzhōu Fǔ|
|Jiaozhi||交趾||Jiāozhǐ||Jiaozhou Prefecture||交州府||Jiāozhōu Fǔ||Consist of modern location of northern Vietnam.|
|North Zhili||北直隸 (北直隶)||Běizhílì||Shuntian Prefecture||順天府 (顺天府)||Shùntiān Fǔ||Consist of modern location of Beijing, Tianjin, & Hebei.|
Provincial seat modern location is Beijing.
|South Zhili||南直隸 (南直隶)||Nánzhílì||Yingtian Prefecture||應天府 (应天府)||Yìngtiān Fǔ||Consist of modern location of Shanghai, Jiangsu, & Anhui.|
Provincial seat modern location is Nanjing.
|Nurgan*||奴兒干 (奴儿干)||Nú'ergàn||none||Consist of modern location of Heilongjiang, Jilin, central-eastern Inner Mongolia, & Outer Manchuria.|
|Liaodong*||遼東 (辽东)||Liáodōng||none||Consist of modern location of Liaoning.|
|Ü-Tsang*||烏斯藏 (乌斯藏)||Wūsīzàng||none||Consist of modern location of Tibet.|
|Dokham*||朵甘||Duǒgān||none||Consist of modern location of Qinghai & western Sichuan.|
|Elis*||俄力思||Élìsī||none||Consist of modern location of Ngari, Tibet.|
By the latter half of the Qing Dynasty (1644–1912) there were 18 provinces, all of them in China proper (內地十八省). Jiangsu and Anhui were originally one province called Jiangnan, with its capital at Nanjing. There was no discrete time period when the two halves of Jiangnan were split, but rather, this was a gradual process.
Each province had a xunfu (巡撫; xúnfǔ; translated as "governor"), a political overseer on behalf of the emperor, and a tidu (提督; tídū; translated as "captain general"), a military governor. In addition, there was a zongdu (總督; zǒngdū), a general military inspector or governor general, for every two to three provinces.
Outer regions of China (those beyond China proper) were not divided into provinces. Military leaders or generals (將軍; jiāngjūn) oversaw Manchuria (consisting of Fengtian (now Liaoning), Jilin, Heilongjiang), Xinjiang, and Mongolia, while vice-dutong (副都統; fù dūtǒng) and civilian leaders headed the leagues (盟長; méng zhǎng), a subdivision of Mongolia. The ambans (駐藏大臣; zhù cáng dàchén) supervised the administration of Tibet.
In 1884 Xinjiang became a province; in 1907 Fengtian, Jilin, and Heilongjiang were made provinces as well. Taiwan became a province in 1885, but China ceded Taiwan to Japan in 1895. As a result, there were 22 provinces in China (Outer China and China proper) near the end of the Qing Dynasty.
The Republic of China, established in 1912, set up four more provinces in Inner Mongolia and two provinces in historic Tibet, bringing the total to 28. In 1931, Ma Zhongying established Hexi in the northern parts of Gansu but the ROC never acknowledged the province. However, China lost four provinces with the establishment of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo in Manchuria. After the defeat of Japan in World War II in 1945, China re-incorporated Manchuria as 10 provinces, and assumed control of Taiwan as a province. As a result, the Republic of China in 1946 had 35 provinces. Although the Republic of China now only controls one province (Taiwan), and some islands of a second province (Fujian), it continues to formally claim all 35 provinces (including those that no longer form part of the area of the People's Republic of China).
|Andong||安东||Āndōng||安 ān||Tonghua||通化||1949 abolished → Liaodong, Jilin|
|Anhui||安徽||Ānhuī||皖 wǎn||Hefei||合肥||1949 abolished → Wanbei, Wannan; 1952 reverted|
|Chahar||察哈尔||Cháhā'ěr||察 chá||Zhangjiakou||张家口||1952 abolished → Inner Mongolia, Hebei|
|Fujian||福建||Fújiàn||闽 mǐn||Fuzhou||福州||parts of the Fujian Province consisting of Kinmen and Matsu are retained by the ROC|
|Gansu||甘肃||Gānsù||甘 gān||Lanzhou||兰州||1958 Ningxia split into its own autonomous region|
|Guangdong||广东||Guǎngdōng||粤 yuè||Guangzhou||广州||1952 & 1965 Fangchenggang, Qinzhou, Beihai → Guangxi; 1955 reverted|
1988 Hainan split into its own province
|Guangxi||广西||Guǎngxī||桂 guì||Nanning||南宁||1958 province → autonomous region|
|Hebei||河北||Héběi||冀 jì||Baoding (1949–54; 1967–68)
|1967 Tianjin split into its own municipality|
|Hejiang||合江||Héjiāng||合 hé||Jiamusi||佳木斯||1949 abolished → Heilongjiang|
|Heilongjiang||黑龙江||Hēilóngjiāng||黑 hēi||Qiqihar (1949–54)
|1952 part of Xing'an split into Inner Mongolia|
|Henan||河南||Hénán||豫 yù||Kaifeng (1949–54)
|Jiangsu||江苏||Jiāngsū||苏 sū||Nanjing||南京||1949 abolished → Subei, Subnan; 1952 reverted|
|Jilin||吉林||Jílín||吉 jí||Jilin (1949–54)
|1952 north part split into Inner Mongolia|
|Liaobei||辽北||Liáoběi||洮 táo||Liaoyuan||辽源||1949 abolished → Jilin, Liaoning|
|Liaodong||辽东||Liáodōng||关 guān||Dandong||丹东||1954 abolished → Liaoning|
|Liaoning||辽宁||Liáoníng||辽 liáo||Shenyang||沈阳||1949 abolished → Liaodong, Liaoxi; 1954 reverted|
1952 north part split into Inner Mongolia
|Liaoxi||辽西||Liáoxī||辽 liáo||Jinzhou||锦州||1954 abolished → Liaoning|
|Nenjiang||嫩江||Nènjiāng||嫩 nèn||Qiqihar||齐齐哈尔||1949 abolished → Heilongjiang|
|Ningxia||宁夏||Níngxià||宁 níng||Yinchuan||银川||1954 province → Gansu|
|Mudanjiang||牡丹江||Mǔdānjiāng||丹 dān||Mudanjiang||牡丹江||1949 abolished → Heilongjiang|
|Pingyuan||平原||Píngyuán||平 píng||Xinxiang||新乡||1952 abolished → Henan, Shandong|
|Rehe||热河||Rèhé||热 rè||Chengde||承德||1955 abolished → Inner Mongolia, & Liaoning|
|Sichuan||四川||Sìchuān||川 chuān||Chengdu||成都||1949 abolished → Chuanbei, Chuandong, Chuannan, Chuanxi; 1952 reverted|
1997 Chongqing split into its own municipality
|Songjiang||松江||Sōngjiāng||松 sōng||Harbin||哈尔滨||1954 abolished → Heilongjiang|
|Suiyuan||绥远||Suíyuǎn||绥 suí||Hohhot||呼和浩特||1954 abolished → Inner Mongolia|
|Taiwan||台湾||Táiwān||台 tái||Taipei||台北||claimed since 1949 the founding of the PRC|
|Xikang||西康||Xīkāng||康 kāng||Kangding (1949–50)
|1955 abolished → Sichuan, Yunnan, Tibet Autonomous Region|
|Xing'an||兴安||Xīng'ān||兴 xīng||Hulunbuir||呼伦贝尔||1949 abolished → Heilongjiang|
|Xinjiang||新疆||Xīnjiāng||疆 jiāng||Ürümqi||乌鲁木齐||1955 province → autonomous region|
|Guangxi||广西||Guǎngxī||桂 guì||Nanning||南宁||1958 province → autonomous region|
|Inner Mongolia||内蒙古||Nèi Měnggǔ||蒙 měng||Ulaanhot (1947–50)
|1947 created; 1969 truncated → Liaoning, Heilongjiang,|
Jilin, Gansu, Ningxia; 1979 reverted
|Ningxia||宁夏||Níngxià||宁 níng||Yinchuan||银川||1958 special region → autonomous region|
|Tibet||西藏||Xīzàng||藏 zàng||Lhasa||拉萨||1965 area → autonomous region|
|Xinjiang||新疆||Xīnjiāng||疆 jiāng||Ürümqi||乌鲁木齐||1955 province → autonomous region|
|Anshan||鞍山||Ānshān||鞍 ān||Tiedong District||铁东区||1954 abolished → Liaoning|
|Beijing||北京||Běijīng||京 jīng||Dongcheng District
|Benxi||本溪||Běnxī||本 běn||Pingshan District||平山区||1954 abolished → Liaoning|
|Changchun||长春||Chángchūn||春 chūn||Nanguan District||南关区||1953 created; 1954 abolished → Jilin|
|Chongqing||重庆||Chóngqìng||渝 yú||Yuzhong District||渝中区||1954 abolished → Sichuan; 1997 reverted|
|Dalian → Lüda||大连→旅大||Dàlián||连 lián||Xigang District||西岗区||1949 abolished → Luda, 1950 reverted, 1954 abolished → Liaoning|
|Fushun||抚顺||Fǔshùn||抚 fǔ||Shuncheng District||顺城区||1954 abolished → Liaoning|
|Guangzhou||广州||Guǎngzhōu||穗 suì||Yuexiu District||越秀区||1954 abolished → Guangdong|
|Harbin||哈尔滨||Hā'ěrbīn||哈 hā||Nangang District||南岗区||1953 created, 1954 abolished → Heilongjiang|
|Nanjing||南京||Nánjīng||宁 níng||Xuanwu District||玄武区||1952 abolished → Jiangsu|
|Shanghai||上海||Shànghǎi||沪 hù||Huangpu District||黄浦区|
|Shenyang||沈阳||Shěnyáng||沈 shěn||Shenhe District||沈河区||1954 abolished → Liaoning|
|Tianjin||天津||Tiānjīn||津 jīn||Heping District||和平区||1954 abolished → Hebei, 1967 reverted|
|Hankou → Wuhan||汉口→武汉||Wǔhàn||汉 hàn||Jiang'an District||江岸区||1949 abolished → Hubei|
|Xi'an||西安||Xī'ān||镐 hào||Weiyang District||未央区||1954 abolished → Shaanxi|
|Hong Kong||香港||Xiānggǎng||港 gǎng||Hong Kong||香港||created 1997 (Transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong)|
|Macau||澳门||Àomén||澳 ào||Macau||澳门||created 1999 (Transfer of sovereignty over Macau)|
|Chuanbei||川北||Chuānběi||充 chōng||Nanchong||南充||1950 created; 1952 abolished → Sichuan|
|Chuandong||川东||Chuāndōng||渝 yú||Chongqing||重庆||1950 created; 1952 abolished → Sichuan|
|Chuannan||川南||Chuānnán||泸 lú||Luzhou||泸州||1950 created; 1952 abolished → Sichuan|
|Chuanxi||川西||Chuānxī||蓉 róng||Chengdu||成都||1950 created; 1952 abolished → Sichuan|
|Hainan||海南||Hǎinán||琼 qióng||Haikou||海口||1949 abolished → Guangdong|
|Lüda||旅大||Lǚdà||旅 lǚ||Dalian||大连||1949 created; 1950 abolished → Dalian|
|Subei||苏北||Sūběi||扬 yáng||Yangzhou||扬州||1949 created; 1952 abolished → Jiangsu|
|Sunan||苏南||Sūnán||锡 xī||Wuxi||无锡||1949 created; 1952 abolished → Jiangsu|
|Wanbei||皖北||Wǎnběi||合 hé||Hefei||合肥||1949 created; 1952 abolished → Anhui|
|Wannan||皖南||Wǎnnán||芜 wú||Wuhu||芜湖||1949 created; 1952 abolished → Anhui|
|Tibet||西藏||Xīzàng||藏 zàng||Lhasa||拉萨||1965 region → autonomous region|
|Qamdo||昌都||Chāngdū||昌 chāng||Qamdo||昌都||1965 merged into Tibet|
The People's Republic of China abolished many of the provinces in the 1950s and converted a number of them into autonomous regions. Hainan became a separate province in 1988, bringing the total number of provinces under PRC control to 22.
During the 20th century, China claimed that numerous neighbouring countries and regions in Asia were "lost territories" of China. Many of these "lost territories" were under the rule of Imperial Chinese dynasties or were tributary states. Sun Yat-sen claimed that these territories were lost due to unequal treaties, forceful occupation and annexation, and foreign interference. Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Zedong, among others, were supportive of these claims. China published a series of maps during this time known as a "Map of National Shame" (Chinese: 國恥地圖; pinyin: Guóchǐ dìtú) which showcased some of the "lost territories" that had links to various Imperial Chinese dynasties.
|South Tibet (part of modern-day Arunachal Pradesh)||藏南 (South Tibet)/
阿鲁纳恰尔邦 (Arunachal Pradesh)
|Zàng nán (South Tibet)/
Ā lǔ nà qià ěr bāng (Arunachal Pradesh)
|Lost to the British Empire|
|The Great Northeast (Left bank of Amur River)||N/A||N/A||Lost to the Russian Empire|
|The Great Northeast (Outer Manchuria)||N/A||N/A||Lost to the Russian Empire|
|Bhutan||不丹||Bù dān||Lost to the British Empire|
|Ryukyu Islands||琉球群岛||Liúqiú qúndǎo||Lost to the Empire of Japan|
|Annam (modern-day Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos)||安南都||Ānnán dū hù fǔ||Lost to French Empire|
|Burma||缅甸||Miǎndiàn||Lost to the British Empire|
|Sikkim||锡金邦||Xíjīn bāng||Lost to the British Empire|
|Ceylon (Sri Lanka)||锡兰||Xī lán||Lost to the British Empire|
|Malaya (part of modern-day Malaysia and Singapore)||马来亚||Mǎ lái yà||Lost to the British Empire|
|Taiwan and Penghu||台湾 (Taiwan)/
Pēnghú xiàn (Penghu
|Lost to the Empire of Japan|
|Korea||朝鲜||Cháoxiǎn||Lost to the Empire of Japan|
|Pamir Mountains/Ladakh area||N/A||N/A||Lost to the Russian Empire and the British Empire|
|Nepal||尼泊尔||Níbó'ěr||Lost to the British Empire|
|Thailand||泰国||Tàiguó||Became independent under joint Anglo-French control in 1904|
|Andaman Islands||安达曼群岛||Āndá màn qúndǎo||Lost to the British Empire|
|Sulu Archipelago||苏禄群岛||Sū lù qúndǎo||Lost to the Spanish Empire|
|Sakhalin (in Chinese, Kuye)||库页岛 (Kuye)
|Kùyè dǎo (Kuye)
Sàhālín dǎo (Sakhalin)
|Lost to the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan|
|Java||爪哇岛||Zhǎowā dǎo||Lost to the Dutch Empire|
|Borneo (part of modern-day Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei)||婆罗洲||Póluó zhōu||Lost to the British Empire and the Dutch Empire|
Andong / Antung (Wade-Giles) (traditional Chinese: 安東省; simplified Chinese: 安东省; pinyin: Āndōng Shěng), or Liaodong (simplified Chinese: 辽东省; traditional Chinese: 遼東省; pinyin: Liáodōng Shěng) was a former province in Northeast China, located in what is now part of Liaoning and Jilin provinces. It was bordered on the southeast by the Yalu River, which separated it from Korea.Annam (province)
For the French protectorate, see Annam (French protectorate). For other uses, see Annam (disambiguation).
Annam (Chinese: 安南; pinyin: Ānnán; Vietnamese: An Nam) was the southernmost province of China after the Tang dynasty. Annam is the Vietnamese form of the Chinese name Annan, which means "the Pacified the South" or "to pacify the South", a clipped form of the full name, the "Protectorate General to Pacify the South" Chinese: 安南都護府; pinyin: Ānnán Dūhùfǔ; Vietnamese: An Nam đô hộ phủ. This was one of a number of such protectorates formed by Tang China. Prior to the establishment of the protectorate, the area was known as Jiaozhou (Chinese: 交州; pinyin: Jiāozhōu) or Jiaozhi (Chinese: 交趾; pinyin: Jiāozhǐ; Vietnamese: Giao Chỉ). The same area is now sometimes known as Tonkin (Chinese: 東京; pinyin: Dōngjīng; Vietnamese: Đông Kinh), the "eastern capital" of the Lê dynasty, now modern Hanoi. Locally, the area is known as Bắc Kỳ (北區), the "northern area".Chahar Province
Chahar (Mongolian: ᠴᠠᠬᠠᠷ Чахар; traditional Chinese: 察哈爾; simplified Chinese: 察哈尔; pinyin: Cháhā'ěr), also known as Chaha'er, Chakhar, or Qahar, was a province of the Republic of China in existence from 1912 to 1936, mostly covering territory in what is part of eastern Inner Mongolia. It was named after the Chahar Mongolians.Goryeo under Mongol Rule
Goryeo under Mongol rule refers to the rule of the Mongol Empire, specifically the Mongol-ruled Yuan dynasty over the Korean Peninsula from about 1270 to 1356. After the Mongol invasions of Korea and the capitulation of Korea's Goryeo dynasty in the 13th century, Goryeo became a semi-autonomous vassal state and compulsory ally of the Yuan dynasty for about 80 years. The ruling line of Goryeo was permitted to rule Korea as a vassal of the Yuan, which established Zhengdong Province (literally "Conquering the East") in Korea. Members of the Goryeo royal family were taken to Dadu, and typically married to spouses from the Yuan imperial house. As a result, princes who became monarchs of Goryeo during this period were effectively imperial sons in-law (khuregen). Yuan overlordship ended in the 1350s when the Yuan dynasty itself started to crumble and King Gongmin of Goryeo began to push the Mongol garrisons back.Jiaozhi
Jiaozhi (Chinese: 交趾, 交阯; pinyin: Jiāozhǐ; Wade–Giles: Chiāo-chǐh; Vietnamese: Giao-chỉ, Tai: kɛɛuA1), was the name for various provinces, commanderies, prefectures, and counties in northern Vietnam from the era of the Hùng kings to the middle of the Third Chinese domination of Vietnam (c. 7th–10th centuries) and again during the Fourth Chinese domination (1407–1427).Liaoxi
Liaoxi (simplified Chinese: 辽西省; traditional Chinese: 遼西省; pinyin: Liáoxī Shěng) was a former province in Northeast China, located in what is now part of Liaoning and Jilin provinces. It existed from 1949 to 1954, and its capital was Jinzhou.Miao Rebellion (1795–1806)
The Miao Rebellion of 1795–1806 was an anti-Qing uprising in Hunan and Guizhou provinces, during the reign of the Jiaqing Emperor. It was catalyzed by tensions between local populations and Han Chinese immigrants. Bloodily suppressed, it served as the antecedent to the much larger uprising of Miao Rebellion (1854–73).
The term "Miao", as the anthropologist Norma Diamond explains, does not mean only the antecedents of today's Miao national minority; it is a term, which had been used by the Chinese to describe various indigenous, mountain tribes of Guizhou and other south-western provinces of China, which shared similar cultural traits. They consisted of 40–60% population of the province.Moroxydine
Moroxydine is an antiviral drug that was originally developed in the 1950s as an influenza treatment. It has potential applications against a number of RNA and DNA viruses. Structurally moroxydine is a heterocyclic biguanidine.
It was reported in March 2014 that three kindergartens in two provinces of China had been found to be secretly dosing their students with moroxydine hydrochloride to try to prevent them from becoming ill. The kindergartens are paid only for the days that pupils attend and wanted to ensure that they maximised their earnings.Nine Provinces
The term Nine Provinces or "Nine Regions" (Chinese: 九州; pinyin: Jiǔ Zhōu) is used in ancient Chinese histories to refer to territorial divisions or islands during the Xia and Shang dynasties, and has now come to symbolically represent China. "Province" is the word used to translate zhou (州) – since before the Tang dynasty (618–907 CE), it was the largest Chinese territorial division. Although the current definition of the Nine Provinces can be dated to the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, it was not until the Eastern Han dynasty that the Nine Provinces were treated as actual administrative regions.Pingyuan Province
Pingyuan (Chinese: 平原; pinyin: Píngyuán) was a former province of the People's Republic of China that existed between 1949 and 1952. Its capital was Xinxiang, now in Henan province.Rehe Province
Rehe, also known as Jehol, was a former Chinese special administrative region and province.Sichuan field mouse
The Sichuan field mouse (Apodemus latronum) is a species of rodent in the family Muridae. It is found in Qinghai and Sichuan provinces of China, and in India and Burma.Songjiang Province
Sungkiang or Songjiang (Chinese: 松江省; pinyin: Sōngjiāng Shěng; Wade–Giles: Sung-chiang Sheng) was a province (c.32,000 sq mi/82,880 km²) of the Republic of China. Mudanjiang was the capital. It was one of nine provinces created in Manchuria by the Chinese Nationalist government after World War II. Since the Nationalists never gained effective control of Manchuria, the province existed only on paper. It was bordered on the east by the USSR, and along part of the southern border ran the Nen (Nonni) and Songhua Rivers. In 1949 Hejiang was incorporated into Songjiang and in 1954, northern Songjiang was merged into Heilongjiang province and southern parts into Jilin province.Suiyuan
Suiyuan (traditional Chinese: 綏遠; simplified Chinese: 绥远; pinyin: Suíyuǎn; Wade–Giles: Sui-yuan) was a historical province of China. Suiyuan's capital was Guisui (now Hohhot). The abbreviation was 綏 (pinyin: suí). The area Suiyuan covered is approximated today by the prefecture-level cities of Hohhot, Baotou, Wuhai, Ordos, Bayan Nur, and parts of Ulaan Chab, all today part of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Suiyuan was named after a district in the capital established in the Qing Dynasty.
In the early 1930s Suiyuan was occupied by the Shanxi warlord Yan Xishan, who mined Suiyuan's iron, reorganized the province's finances, and brought over 4,000 acres (16 km2) of land under cultivation for the first time. Most of the work and settlement of Suiyuan at this time was done by Shanxi farmer-soldiers under the direction of retired officers from Yan's army. Yan's control of Suiyuan was sufficient to cause one visiting reporter to refer to Suiyuan as a "colony" of Shanxi.The Suiyuan Campaign took place in Suiyuan during the Second Sino Japanese War. It became a part of the puppet state of Mengjiang from 1937 to 1945 under Japanese rule.
During the Chinese Civil War in 1935, Communist leader Mao Zedong promised Mongol leaders a "unified autonomous" administration which would include all "historic" Mongol lands within China, in exchange for Mongol support against the Kuomintang. This promise included the declaration that "Under no circumstances should other [non-Mongol ethnic groups] be allowed to occupy the land of the Inner Mongolian nation". But following the Communist victory in 1949, the administrators of the soon-to-be "Mongolian" territories with Han Chinese majorities, the biggest of which was Suiyuan with a population of over 2 million, resisted annexation by the new Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. In 1954, Mao reached a compromise with Suiyuan, which involved the Mongols' taking over the administration of Suiyuan, but stipulated that the Han natives not be expelled from the territory. Uradyn Bulag thus notes that "ironically", the Mongols' territorial ambitions against Suiyuan resulted in their becoming a "small minority within their own [enlarged] autonomous region".United Provinces
United Provinces may refer to:
Former names of present-day Uttar Pradesh, India:
United Provinces of Agra and Oudh (1902–1921), a former province of British India
United Provinces of British India (1921–1937), a former province of British India
United Provinces (1937–1950), a former province of British India & Dominion of IndiaUnited Provinces of New Granada, (1810–1816), a Confederacy formed after the independence of Colombia
United Provinces of Central America (1823–1838), a former country in Central America
United Provinces of Central Italy (1859–1860), a short-lived client state of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia
United Provinces of China (1911–1912), was an early translation of the Republic of China in Xinhai Revolution
United Provinces of Heilongjiang and Nenjiang (1947), a short-lived Communist Chinese province; now Heilongjiang
United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata (1816–1831), official name of Argentina.
United Provinces, another name for the Dutch Republic (1581–1795), now the NetherlandsViceroys in China
Zongdu (Tsung-tu; simplified Chinese: 总督; traditional Chinese: 總督; pinyin: Zǒngdū; Wade–Giles: Tsung3-tu1; Manchu: Uheri kadalara amban), usually translated as Viceroy or Governor-General, governed one or more provinces of China during the Ming and Qing dynasties.
The title was first used use during the Ming dynasty (1368–1644).
One of the most important was the Viceroy of Zhili (Chihli), since it encompassed the imperial capital. Yuan Shikai, later president of Republican China, held this office.Xikang
Xikang or Sikang or Hsikang was a province of the Republic of China and early People's Republic of China. It comprised most of the Kham region of traditional Tibet, where the Khampa, a subgroup of the Tibetan people, live. The eastern part of the province was inhabited by a number of different ethnic groups, such as Han Chinese, Yi, Qiang people and Tibetan, while the western part of the province was inhabited by Tibetans. Xikang, then known as Chuanbian (川邊), was a special administrative region of the Republic of China until 1939, when it became an official province. The provincial capital was Kangding from 1939 to 1951 and Ya'an from 1951 to 1955. The province had a population of some 3.4 million in 1954.Xindian culture
Xindian culture (Chinese: 辛店文化; pinyin: Xīndiàn wénhuà) was a Bronze Age culture in the Gansu and Qinghai provinces of China. Xindian culture is dated ca. 1500–1000 BCE, a radiocarbon testing of an artefact produced a date around 1000 BCE, which roughly corresponds to the Western Zhou period of the Central Plain area (in the middle and lower course of the Yellow River).Yao folk religion
Yao folk religion is the ethnic religion of the Yao people, a non-Sinitic ethnic group who reside in the Guangxi, Hunan and surrounding provinces of China. Their religion is profoundly intermingled with Taoism since the 13th century, so much that it is frequently defined as Yao Taoism (瑶族道教 Yáozú Dàojiào). In the 1980s it was found that the Yao clearly identified with the Chinese-language Taoist theological literature, seen as a prestigious statute of culture (文化 wénhuà).Yao folk religion was described by a Chinese scholar of the half of the 20th century as an example of deep "Taoisation" (道教化 Dàojiàohuà). Yao core theology and cosmology is Taoist; they worship the deities of canonical Taoism (above all the Three Pure Ones) as the principal deities, while lesser gods are those who pertain to their own indigenous pre-Taoisation religion.The reason of this tight identification of Yao religion and identity with Taoism is that in Yao society every male adult is initiated as a Taoist, and Yao Taoism is therefore a communal religion; this is in sharp contrast to Chinese Taoism, which is an order of priests disembedded from the common Chinese folk religion. A shared sense of Yao identity is based additionally on tracing their descent from the mythical ancestor Panhu.
|Hanyu Pinyin||shěng-jí xíngzhèngqū|
|Special administrative regions|
|Special municipalities (6)|
Articles on first-level administrative divisions of Asian countries