Protective tariff

Protective tariffs are tariffs that are enacted with the aim of protecting a domestic industry.[1] They aim to make imported goods cost more than equivalent goods produced domestically, thereby causing sales of domestically produced goods to rise; supporting local industry. Tariffs are also imposed in order to raise government revenue, or to reduce an undesirable activity (sin tax). Although a tariff can simultaneously protect domestic industry and earn government revenue, the goals of protection and revenue maximization suggest different tariff rates, entailing a tradeoff between the two aims.

How tariffs work

Tariff Rates in Japan (1870-1960)
Tariff Rates in Japan (1870–1960)
Tariff Rates in Spain and Italy (1860-1910)
Tariff Rates in Spain and Italy (1860–1910)

A tariff is a tax added onto goods imported into a country; protective tariffs are taxes that are intended to increase the cost of a foreign import so it is less competitive against a roughly equivalent domestic good.[2] For example, if similar cloth for sale in America cost $4 in for a version imported from Britain (including additional shipping, etc.) and $4 for a version originating in the United States, the American government may wish to impose a protective tariff to make the price of British cloth higher for Americans.[3] The underlying goal for a protective tariff is to protect domestic industry from foreign competition.

This political issue relies with the purchasing power parity between the currencies of countries involved, and also with the parallel currency substitution in the domestic countries.


United States

Droits de douane (France, UK, US)
Tariff Rates (France, UK, US)
Average Tariff Rates in USA (1821-2016)
Average Tariff Rates in USA (1821–2016)
U.S. Trade Balance (1895–2015) and Trade Policies
U.S. Trade Balance (1895–2015) and Trade Policy

Alexander Hamilton was the first American to propose the use of protective tariffs to promote industrialization in his "Report on Manufactures." Hamilton thought that a tariff on textile imports would subsidize American efforts to establish manufacturing facilities to eventually compete with those of the British.[4] Heeding Hamilton's advice, president George Washington signed the Tariff Act of 1790 into law, as America's second piece of legislation. He stated tariffs were necessary for national security reasons:

A free people ought not only to be armed, but disciplined; to which end a uniform and well-digested plan is requisite; and their safety and interest require that they should promote such manufactories as tend to render them independent of others for essential, particularly military, supplies[5]

After the War of 1812, cheap British products flooded the American market, which undercut and threatened the infantile industry of the United States. Congress set a tariff in 1816 in order to prevent some of these British goods from entering the United States, followed by another in 1824 and culminating with the controversial Tariff of Abominations in 1828.[6]

President John Quincy Adams approved the Tariff of Abominations after it received a majority vote in the House of Representatives. This 1828 tariff's goal was to protect Northern and Western agricultural products from foreign competition, but in doing so sparked a national debate over the constitutionality of placing tariffs on imports without the intent to merely raise duty revenue.[7] The earmarked items in this case included iron, molasses, distilled spirits, flax, and other finished goods. Opposition to this tariff came predominantly from the South since this region lacked a manufacturing sector, leaving it dependent on the North and foreign trade to supply its manufactures. In addition to artificially elevating import costs, the so-called "Tariff of Abominations" afflicted the South by hampering its cotton trade to England, the region's primary source of income.[8] This 1828 tariff was so unpopular that it played a significant role in the failure of John Quincy Adams' reelection bid in 1828.[9]

Confederate States

The Confederate Constitution prohibited protective tariffs but allowed tariffs for providing domestic revenue.

Current use

In present day, the International Trade Commission reports over 12,000 specific tariffs on imports to the United States, including those on agricultural, textile, and manufactured items. Tobacco has a 350% tariff duty; unshelled peanuts have a 163.8% duty; European meats, truffles, and Roquefort cheese are tacked with a 100% tariff rate. Domestic sectors for these same products depend on tariffs in order to survive; without these elevated costs of competition, American goods would simply cost more than their foreign alternatives and would suffer in the eyes of consumers.[10]

See also


  1. ^ "Protective tariff" Collins English Dictionary-Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition.
  2. ^ Bianco, "Trade Barriers." Reference for Business.
  3. ^ Van Duyne, "How a Protective Tariff Works."
  4. ^ "Protective Tariffs." Boundless Open Textbook.
  5. ^ "George Washington: First Annual Message to Congress on the State of the Union". Retrieved 2017-01-04.
  6. ^ McNamara, "Definition of Tariff of Abominations."
  7. ^ "The Tariff of Abominations." History, Art & Archives, U.S. House of Representatives.
  8. ^ McNamara, "Definition of Tariff of Abominations."
  9. ^ History, Art & Archives, U.S. House of Representatives."
  10. ^ Lubin, "25 American Products That Rely on Huge Protective Tariffs To Survive." Business Insider, Sept. 2010.

Further reading

  • Atack, Jeremy, Peter Passell, and Susan Lee. A New Economic View of American History: From Colonial Times to 1940. 2nd ed. New York: Norton, 1994. 125.
  • Bianco, David. "Trade Barriers." Reference for Business.
  • Boundless Open Textbook."Protective Tariffs."
  • Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition, "protective tariff." HarperCollins Publishers.
  • "History, Art & Archives, U.S. House of Representatives. "The Tariff of Abominations."
  • "25 American Products That Rely on Huge Protective Tariffs To Survive." Business Insider, Sept. 2010.
  • McNamara, Robert. "Definition of Tariff of Abominations."
  • Van Duyne. "How a Protective Tariff Works."
Anti-Masonic Party

The Anti-Masonic Party, also known as the Anti-Masonic Movement, was the first third party in the United States. It strongly opposed Freemasonry as a single-issue party and later aspired to become a major party by expanding its platform to take positions on other issues. After emerging as a political force in the late 1820s, most of the Anti-Masonic Party's members joined the Whig Party in the 1830s and the party disappeared after 1838.

The party was founded in the aftermath of the disappearance of William Morgan, a former Mason who had become a prominent critic of the organization. Many believed that the Masons had murdered Morgan for speaking out against Masonry and many churches and other groups condemned masonry. As many Masons were prominent businessmen and politicians, the backlash against the Masons was also a form of anti-elitism. Mass opposition to Masonry eventually coalesced into a political party. Before and during the presidency of John Quincy Adams, there was a period of political realignment. The Anti-Masons emerged as an important third party alternative to Andrew Jackson's Democrats and Adams's National Republicans. In New York, the Anti-Masons supplanted the National Republicans as the primary opposition to the Democrats.

After experiencing unexpected success in the 1828 elections, the Anti-Masons began to adopt positions on other issues, most notably support for internal improvements and a protective tariff. Several Anti-Masons, including William A. Palmer and Joseph Ritner, won election to prominent positions. In states such as Pennsylvania and Rhode Island, the party controlled the balance of power in the state legislature and provided crucial support to candidates for the Senate. In 1831, the party held the first presidential nominating convention, a practice that was subsequently adopted by all major parties. The convention chose former Attorney General William Wirt as the party's standard bearer in the 1832 presidential election and Wirt won 7.8% of the popular vote and carried Vermont.

As the 1830s progressed, many of the Anti-Masonic Party's supporters joined the Whig Party, which sought to unite those opposed to the policies of President Jackson. The Anti-Masonic Party held a national convention in 1835, nominating William Henry Harrison, but a second convention announced that the party would not officially support a candidate. Harrison campaigned as a Whig in the 1836 presidential election and his relative success in the election encouraged further migration of Anti-Masons to the Whig Party. By 1840, the party had ceased to function as a national organization. In subsequent decades, former Anti-Masonic candidates and supporters such as Millard Fillmore, William H. Seward, Thurlow Weed and Thaddeus Stevens would become well-known members of the Whig Party.

Bernhard Eisenstuck

Bernhard Eisenstuck (20 September 1805, Annaberg-Buchholz, Electorate of Saxony – 5 April 1871), factory co-owner and president of the Chenmitz town council, was a prominent agitator for a trade policy, when only in the sense of a protective tariff. In 1848, he was a member of the Frankfurt preliminary parliament (Vorparlament) and then elected from Chemnitz to the succeeding Frankfurt parliament where he sat on the left. In May he was sent as an imperial commissioner to the insurgent Palatinate, but recalled for overstepping his authority. He was vice president of the leftovers of the Frankfurt parliament (Rumpfparlament) when it emigrated to Stuttgart. Before its forced dispersal, he resigned and went to Belgium. After a long absence, he returned home and was a representative in Saxony's parliament where his name and decisive stance lent prestige to the thinly populated liberal ranks. He died as director of a thread-spinning factory.

Cayley–Galt Tariff

The Cayley–Galt Tariff of 1858 was the first protective tariff in Canadian history. It imposed duties on imported manufactured goods of 20% and a duty of 10% on partially manufactured goods, in an attempt to spur domestic manufacturing industries.

The tariff caused immediate resentment among both the British and Americans. The anger of the Americans played an important role in their 1866 repeal of the Reciprocity Treaty, which had led to free trade in natural resources. The tariff was only a foretaste of the much more complete system of protection that was set up under the National Policy of 1879.

Charles Kingston

Charles Cameron Kingston (22 October 1850 – 11 May 1908) was an Australian politician. He was an early radical liberal Premier of South Australia serving from 1893 to 1899 with the support of Labor led by John McPherson from 1893 and Lee Batchelor from 1897 in the House of Assembly, winning the 1893, 1896 and 1899 colonial elections against the conservatives. He was a leading proponent of and contributed extensively on the Federation of Australia, and was elected to the federal House of Representatives with the most votes amongst the seven elected in the single statewide Division of South Australia at the 1901 election, serving under the Protectionist Party, going on to represent the Division of Adelaide at the 1903 election. A radical liberal in state politics, his government introduced such progressive measures as: electoral reform including the first law to give votes to women in Australia (and second in the world only to New Zealand), a legitimation Act, the first conciliation and arbitration Act in Australia, establishment of a state bank, a high protective tariff, regulation of factories, a progressive system of land and income taxation, a public works programme, and more extensive workers’ compensation.

David Ellicott Evans

David Ellicott Evans (March 19, 1788 – May 17, 1850), was a United States Representative from New York.

Evans was born in Ellicotts Upper Mills, Maryland. He attended the common schools, moved to New York in 1803 and settled in Batavia. He was employed as a clerk and afterward as an accounting clerk with the Holland Land Company. He served as a member of the New York State Senate, and was a member of the council of appointment.

Evans was elected as a Jacksonian candidate to the Twentieth Congress and served from March 4, 1827, until his resignation May 2, 1827, before the assembling of Congress. He was appointed resident agent of the Holland Land Company in 1827 and served until his resignation in 1837. Evans also engaged in banking, was a delegate to the convention held at Albany in 1827 to advocate a protective tariff, and retired from active business pursuits in 1837 to devote his attention to his extensive land interests.

He died in Batavia and was interred in Batavia Cemetery.

Fourth Party System

The Fourth Party System is the term used in political science and history for the period in American political history from about 1896 to 1932 that was dominated by the Republican Party, excepting the 1912 split in which Democrats held the White House for eight years. American history texts usually call the period the Progressive Era. The concept was introduced under the name "System of 1896" by E.E. Schattschneider in 1960, and the numbering scheme was added by political scientists in the mid-1960s.The period featured a transformation from the issues of the Third Party System, which had focused on the American Civil War, Reconstruction, race, and monetary issues. The era began in the severe depression of 1893 and the extraordinarily intense election of 1896. It included the Progressive Era, World War I, and the start of the Great Depression. The Great Depression caused a realignment that produced the Fifth Party System, dominated by the Democratic New Deal Coalition until the 1960s.

The central domestic issues concerned government regulation of railroads and large corporations ("trusts"), the money issue (gold versus silver), the protective tariff, the role of labor unions, child labor, the need for a new banking system, corruption in party politics, primary elections, the introduction of the federal income tax, direct election of senators, racial segregation, efficiency in government, women's suffrage, and control of immigration. Foreign policy centered on the 1898 Spanish–American War, Imperialism, the Mexican Revolution, World War I, and the creation of the League of Nations. Dominant personalities included presidents William McKinley (R), Theodore Roosevelt (R) and Woodrow Wilson (D), three-time presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan (D), and Wisconsin's progressive Republican Robert M. La Follette, Sr..

Horace B. Strait

Horace Burton Strait (January 26, 1835 – February 25, 1894) was a U.S. Representative from Minnesota.

He was born in Potter County, PA, January 26, 1835 and moved with his parents to Indiana in 1846. In 1855 he settled near Jordan, Minnesota, and engaged in agricultural pursuits. In 1860 he moved to Shakopee, Minnesota and ran a general store.

In 1862, Strait entered the Union Army as a captain in the Ninth Regiment, Minnesota Volunteer Infantry, being promoted to major in 1864. He served at the close of the war as inspector general on the staff of General McArthur and was honorably discharged in 1865.

He became a trustee of the Minnesota Hospital for the Insane in 1866 and mayor of Shakopee in 1870, 1871, and 1872, while engaging in mercantile pursuits, manufacturing, and banking.

Strait was elected as a Republican to the 43rd, 44th, and 45th congresses, but failed in his reelection bid in 1878 to the 46th congress. However, two years later he was elected to the 47th and reelected to 48th and 49th congresses.

Strait was more than the "tongueless wirepuller" that one enemy labeled him. Certainly he did not speak much. Most congressmen were sparing in their participation on the floor, but with a very few exceptions, Strait never said anything. One might scan the indexes of the Congressional Record for session after session and never find him intervening with a single word. What measures he dealt with mostly handled the public lands, in most cases opening them wider to settlement. He resisted measures that would take the government land grant away from the Northern Pacific Railroad.Strait's district, the Third Minnesota, was in the southern half of the state. It had been designed to guarantee a ten thousand vote Republican majority, made the firmer by a heavy Norwegian vote. But the protective tariff made that control less sure as the 1880s went on. Farmers needed cheap lumber and would have been happy to get it from anywhere, Canada included. Wheat growers complained that the tariff did not protect them from massive imports of grain out of Manitoba. Strait therefore had to stand with the shrinking group of low tariff Republicans in the House. During the 1870s, he would have had quite a lot of company; by the end of the 1880s, his stand was a lonely one, virtually on the party's outskirts. He was one of only three Republicans in 1886 to support the Morrison tariff reduction bill. Feeling increasingly isolated, Strait chose not to run for re-election in 1886.

Strait served as chairman of the Committee on Militia in the Forty-seventh Congress and resumed banking at Shakopee while also engaging in agricultural pursuits.

Strait died February 25, 1894, on a train at Cd. Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico, en route to the United States and is interred at Valley Cemetery, Shakopee, Minnesota.

Inauguration of Benjamin Harrison

The inauguration of Benjamin Harrison as the 23rd President of the United States took place on Monday, March 4, 1889. The inauguration marked the commencement of the four-year term of Benjamin Harrison as President and Levi P. Morton as Vice President. Chief Justice Melville W. Fuller administered the Oath of office while rain poured down.Harrison was 5' 6" tall, he was only slightly taller than James Madison, the shortest president, but much heavier; he was the fourth (and last) president to sport a full beard. Harrison's Inauguration ceremony took place during a rainstorm in Washington D.C.. Outgoing U.S. President Grover Cleveland attended the ceremony and held an umbrella over Harrison's head as he took the oath of office.

His speech was brief – half as long as that of his grandfather, William Henry Harrison, whose speech holds the record for the longest inaugural address of a U.S. president. In his speech, Benjamin Harrison credited the nation's growth to the influences of education and religion, urged the cotton states and mining territories to attain the industrial proportions of the eastern states and promised a protective tariff. Concerning commerce, he said, "If our great corporations would more scrupulously observe their legal obligations and duties, they would have less call to complain of the limitations of their rights or of interference with their operations." Harrison also urged early statehood for the territories and advocated pensions for veterans, a statement that was met with enthusiastic applause. In foreign affairs, Harrison reaffirmed the Monroe Doctrine as a mainstay of foreign policy, while urging modernization of the Navy and a merchant marine force. He gave his commitment to international peace through noninterference in the affairs of foreign governments.

John Philip Sousa's Marine Corps band played at the Inaugural Ball inside the Pension Building with a large crowd attending. After moving into the White House, Harrison noted, quite prophetically, "There is only a door – one that is never locked – between the president's office and what are not very accurately called his private apartments. There should be an executive office building, not too far away, but wholly distinct from the dwelling house. For everyone else in the public service there is an unroofed space between the bedroom and the desk."

James Laird (politician)

James Laird (June 20, 1849 – August 17, 1889) was an American Republican Party politician.

Laird was born in Fowlerville, New York and moved with his parents to Hillsdale County, Michigan. He attended Adrian College and enlisted at thirteen in the Sixteenth Regiment of the Michigan Volunteer Infantry in the Army of the Potomac during the American Civil War. At Gaines' Mill, a musket ball struck him in the breast; he was taken prisoner and held for six weeks at Libby Prison before being exchanged. Later he served at Chancellorsville and Gettysburg, and, after re-enlisting in 1864, took part in the Petersburg campaign. Over three years, from 1862 to 1865, he was wounded five times, and rose to the rank of major by the time he was seventeen. His two brothers both died in the war. He graduated from the law department of the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor and was admitted to the bar.

He set up practice in Hastings, Nebraska in 1872 and was a member of the Nebraska constitutional convention of 1875. He was elected as a Republican to fill the newly created 2nd district seat to the U.S. House of Representatives to the Forty-eighth United States Congress. He supported the moderate coinage of silver and favored revision of the high protective tariff, but not to the extent that would make him support either the Morrison tariff bill of 1886 or the Mills tariff bill of 1888. In that respect, he stayed safely in the good graces of the national party, and beat Democratic challengers easily, even with Prohibition third party candidates carrying somewhere between three and ten percent of the vote in a congressional race. As a member of the Military Affairs Committee, he pushed through a bill to make provision for homes for disabled soldiers in every state in the Union. He also served on the Pensions committee. As one senator said later, "No ex-soldier ever appealed to him in vain, and his generous nature could refuse nothing to the suffering or dependent." Breaking with other members of the Republican party, Laird strove to clear the name of General Fitz John Porter, who had been his old commanding general. "There was in his voice the sound of the ring of the saber," Congressman Byron Cutcheon of Michigan commented, "there was in his utterances the rattle of small arms in battle." Certainly one fellow congressman had cause to feel so that summer, when Laird took out a grievance by socking him in the mouth.He was re-elected three times serving from March 4, 1883, but after his re-election in 1888 had a nervous breakdown, complicated by insomnia; as a result, he never took his seat in the lame-duck session of the Fiftieth Congress and had no chance to attend the Congress that followed it. He died on August 17, 1889 in Hastings, aged 40. Laird is buried in Hastings' Parkview Cemetery.

Laird is the namesake of the community of Laird, Colorado.

John Ford (New York state senator)

John Ford (July 28, 1862 – July 1941) was an American lawyer and politician from New York.

John P. Young

John Philip Young (August 9, 1849 – April 23, 1921) was an American newsman and writer. He was managing editor of the San Francisco Chronicle for 44 years, and wrote variously on history, economics, and journalism. His books include the two-volume San Francisco: A History of the Pacific Coast Metropolis (1913), and Journalism in California (1915). He was also a founding member and treasurer of the Commonwealth Club of California.Young was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and at age 16 ran away from home and enlisted in the Navy. His parents organized his release while he was on his first cruise, and he then spent four years working in a Philadelphia store. He then moved out west, first to Arizona, then San Diego, where he became business manager and later an editor of the San Diego Union. In 1873 he went to Washington, D.C. for four years, where he was city editor of the Washington Chronicle. He moved back to California in 1877, joining the Chronicle in April of that year. After covering the 1877–78 session of the California legislature for the Chronicle, he was appointed managing editor.He authored several books and articles on economics, history, and journalism. He was an ardent supporter of American protectionism, which he explored in his 1899 book Protection and Progress, and in 1904 was elected an honorary member of the American Protective Tariff League. Other works include a two-volume history of San Francisco, and The Growth of Modern Trusts, the latter praised by president Theodore Roosevelt as performing a genuine service to the country. He was also an advocate of bimetallism in the debate against monometallism, and in 1895 published in the pages of the Chronicle his "Bimetallism and Monometallism" , a 25-chapter, 63-column exploration of the issue, an amount of space noted by a British magazine as "probably unprecedented in newspaper literature."In 1884 he married Georgina M. Brown of St. Louis. He died at the age of 71 on April 23, 1921, at his home in San Francisco, after suffering a stroke of paralysis 10 days earlier.

National Republican Party

The National Republican Party, also known as the Anti-Jacksonian Party and sometimes the Adams Party, was a political party in the United States that evolved from a faction of the Democratic-Republican Party that supported John Quincy Adams in the 1824 presidential election.

Known initially as "Adams-Clay Republicans" in the wake of the 1824 campaign, Adams' political allies in Congress and at the state-level were referred to as "Adams' Men" during his presidency (1825–1829). When Andrew Jackson became president, following his victory over Adams in the 1828 election, this group became the opposition, and organized themselves as "Anti-Jackson". The use of the term "National Republican" dates from 1830.

Henry Clay served as the party's nominee in the 1832 election, but he was defeated by Jackson. The party supported Clay's American System of nationally financed internal improvements and a protective tariff. After the 1832 election, opponents of Jackson coalesced into the Whig Party. National Republicans, Anti-Masons and others joined the new party.

Nullification Crisis

The Nullification Crisis was a United States sectional political crisis in 1832–33, during the presidency of Andrew Jackson, which involved a confrontation between South Carolina and the federal government. It ensued after South Carolina declared that the federal Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were unconstitutional and therefore null and void within the sovereign boundaries of the state.

The U.S. suffered an economic downturn throughout the 1820's, and South Carolina was particularly affected. Many South Carolina politicians blamed the change in fortunes on the national tariff policy that developed after the War of 1812 to promote American manufacturing over its European production competition. The controversial and highly protective Tariff of 1828 (known to its detractors as the "Tariff of Abominations") was enacted into law during the presidency of John Quincy Adams. The tariff was opposed in the South and parts of New England. By 1828, South Carolina state politics increasingly organized around the tariff issue. Its opponents expected that the election of Jackson as President would result in the tariff being significantly reduced. When the Jackson administration failed to take any actions to address their concerns, the most radical faction in the state began to advocate that the state itself declare the tariff null and void within South Carolina. In Washington, an open split on the issue occurred between Jackson and Vice President John C. Calhoun, a native South Carolinian and the most effective proponent of the constitutional theory of state nullification.On July 14, 1832, before Calhoun had resigned the Vice Presidency to run for the Senate where he could more effectively defend nullification, Jackson signed into law the Tariff of 1832. This compromise tariff received the support of most northerners and half of the southerners in Congress. The reductions were too little for South Carolina, and on November 24, 1832, a state convention adopted the Ordinance of Nullification, which declared that the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were unconstitutional and unenforceable in South Carolina after February 1, 1833. The state initiated military preparations to resist anticipated federal enforcement. On March 1, 1833, Congress passed both the Force Bill—authorizing the President to use military forces against South Carolina—and a new negotiated tariff, the Compromise Tariff of 1833, which was satisfactory to South Carolina. The South Carolina convention reconvened and repealed its Nullification Ordinance on March 15, 1833, but three days later nullified the Force Bill as a symbolic gesture to maintain its principles.

The crisis was over, and both sides could find reasons to claim victory. The tariff rates were reduced and stayed low to the satisfaction of the South, but the states' rights doctrine of nullification remained controversial. By the 1850's the issues of the expansion of slavery into the western territories and the threat of the Slave Power became the central issues in the nation.Since the Nullification Crisis, the doctrine of states' rights has been asserted again by opponents of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, proponents of California's Specific Contract Act of 1863 (which nullified the Legal Tender Act of 1862), opponents of federal civil rights legislation, opponents of Federal acts prohibiting the sale and possession of marijuana in the first decade of the 21st century, and opponents of implementation of laws and regulations pertaining to firearms from the late 1900's up to early 2000's.

Tariff of 1816

The Tariff of 1816, also known as the Dallas Tariff, is notable as the first tariff passed by Congress with an explicit function of protecting U.S. manufactured items from overseas competition. Prior to the War of 1812, tariffs had primarily served to raise revenues to operate the national government. Another unique aspect of the tariff was the strong support it received from Northern states.

The bill was conceived as part of a solution to the purely domestic matter of avoiding a projected federal deficit reported by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander J. Dallas. International developments added key facts to the debate; in 1816 there was widespread concern among Americans that war with Great Britain might be rekindled over economic and territorial issues. A tariff on manufactured goods, including war industry products, was deemed essential in the interests of national defense.

The tariff was approved on April 27, 1816, as a temporary measure, authorized for only three years (until June 1820). Northern efforts to establish permanent protection in 1820, after tensions with Great Britain had eased, provoked a backlash among Southern legislators. The South consistently opposed protective tariffs during the remainder of the ante bellum period.

Tariff of 1824

The Tariff of 1824 (Sectional Tariff of 1824, ch. 4, 4 Stat. 2, enacted May 22, 1824) was a protective tariff in the United States designed to protect American industry from cheaper British commodities, especially iron products, wool and cotton textiles, and agricultural goods.

The second protective tariff of the 19th century, the Tariff of 1824 was the first in which the sectional interests of the North and the South truly came into conflict. The Tariff of 1816 eight years before had passed into law upon a wave of nationalism that followed the War of 1812. But by 1824, this nationalism was transforming into strong sectionalism. Henry Clay advocated his three-point "American System", a philosophy that was responsible for the Tariff of 1816, the Second Bank of the United States, and a number of internal improvements. John C. Calhoun embodied the Southern position, having once favored Clay's tariffs and roads, but by 1824 was opposed to both. He saw the protective tariff as a device that benefited the North at the expense of the South, which relied on foreign manufactured goods and open foreign markets for its cotton. And a program of turnpikes built at federal expense, which Clay advocated, would burden the South with taxes without bringing it substantial benefits.

Nonetheless, Northern and Western representatives, whose constituencies produced largely for the domestic market and were thus mostly immune to the effects of a protective tariff, joined together to pass the tariff through Congress, beginning the tradition of antagonism between the Southern States and the Northern States that would ultimately help produce the American Civil War. The successor to the Tariff of 1824, the so-called "Tariff of Abominations" of 1828, was perhaps the most infamous of the protective tariffs for the controversy it incited known as the Nullification Crisis.

Tariff of 1832

The Tariff of 1832 (22nd Congress, session 1, ch. 227, 4 Stat. 583, enacted July 14, 1832) was a protectionist tariff in the United States. Enacted under Andrew Jackson's presidency, it was largely written by former President John Quincy Adams, who had been elected to the House of Representatives and appointed chairman of the Committee on Manufactures. It reduced the existing tariffs to remedy the conflict created by the tariff of 1828, but it was still deemed unsatisfactory by some in the South, especially in South Carolina. South Carolinian opposition to this tariff and its predecessor, the Tariff of Abominations, caused the Nullification Crisis. As a result of this crisis, the 1832 Tariff was replaced by the Compromise Tariff of 1833.

Tariff of Abominations

The Tariff of 1828 was a protective tariff passed by the Congress of the United States on May 19, 1828, designed to protect industry in the northern United States. Created during the presidency of John Quincy Adams and enacted during the presidency of Andrew Jackson, it was labeled the "Tariff of Abominations" by its southern detractors because of the effects it had on the antebellum Southern economy. It set a 38% tax on 92% of all imported goods.

Industries in the northern United States were being driven out of business by low-priced imported goods; the major goal of the tariff was to protect these industries by taxing those goods. The South, however, was harmed directly by having to pay higher prices on goods the region did not produce, and indirectly because reducing the exportation of British goods to the U.S. made it difficult for the British to pay for the cotton they imported from the South. The reaction in the South, particularly in South Carolina, led to the Nullification Crisis. The tariff marked the high point of U.S. tariffs in terms of average percent of value taxed, though not resulting revenue as percent of GDP.

William Garland McQuarrie

William Garland McQuarrie (July 26, 1876 – May 30, 1943) was a Canadian lawyer and politician in the province of British Columbia.

Born in Ottawa, Ontario, the son of Lachlan and Mary McQuarrie, McQuarrie was raised in Winnipeg, Manitoba and New Westminster, British Columbia. He studied law at Osgoode Hall Law School in Toronto and was called to the Bar of British Columbia in 1900. In 1919, he was created a King's Counsel. He first practiced law in Ashcroft, British Columbia and soon practiced in New Westminster.From 1916 to 1917, he was president of the New Westminster Federal Conservative Association. He was first elected to the House of Commons of Canada for the electoral district of New Westminster in the 1917 federal election. He was re-elected in 1921, 1925, and 1926 elections. He was defeated in 1930. McQuarrie was a staunch supporter of such old Conservative policies as Asian Exclusion and the protective tariff, and successfully faced down such strong Labour challengers as future Vancouver councillor R. P. Pettipiece (1921), legendary suffrage and co-operative advocate Rose Henderson (1925) and future Burnaby Reeve W. A. Pritchard (1926).

William McKinley Sr.

William McKinley Sr. (November 15, 1807 – November 24, 1892) was an American manufacturer, notable for being a pioneer of the iron industry in eastern Ohio, and best known as the father of President William McKinley.He was born to James S. McKinley and Mary Rose in Pine Township, Pennsylvania, on November 15, 1807. The second of thirteen children, he moved to Lisbon, Ohio, in 1809. Working in the iron business, as had his father, he operated foundries in New Lisbon, Niles, Poland, and finally Canton. He married Nancy Allison Campbell on January 6, 1829. His parents, James S. and Mary Rose McKinley, both died in South Bend, Indiana, on August 20, 1847.

McKinley Sr. was a Whig and later a Republican party member, and an "ardent advocate" for a protective tariff. McKinley kept a Bible, the works of Dante Alighieri, and Shakespeare with him consistently and used what little time of leisure was allocated from his work to read.He died in Canton, Ohio, on November 24, 1892. He was the father of the 25th President of the United States, William McKinley (born in 1843, when the family lived in Niles), along with 8 other children:

David Allison McKinley (1829–1892)

Anna McKinley (1832–1890)

James Rose McKinley (1833–1889)

Mary McKinley (1835–1868)

Helen Minerva McKinley (1834–1924)

Sarah Elizabeth McKinley (1840–1931)

Abigail Celia McKinley (1845–1846)

Abner Osborn McKinley (1847–1904)

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