Prophets in Judaism

The 48 prophets and seven prophetesses of Judaism, according to Rashi.[1] The last Jewish prophet is believed to have been Malachi. In Jewish tradition it is believed that the period of prophecy, called Nevuah, ended with Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi at which time the "Holy Spirit departed from Israel".[2][3]

Prophets

According to Rashi, there were 48 prophets and seven prophetesses.[4][1]

The 48 prophets

  1. Abraham
  2. Isaac
  3. Jacob
  4. Moses
  5. Aaron
  6. Joshua
  7. Phineas
  8. Elkanah
  9. Eli
  10. Samuel (Shmu'el שמואל)
  11. Gad
  12. Nathan
  13. David
  14. Solomon
  15. Iddo
  16. Michaiah son of Imlah
  17. Obadiah or Ovadyah [עובדיה]
  18. Ahijah the Shilonite
  19. Jehu son of Hanani
  20. Azariah son of Oded
  21. Jahaziel the Levite
  22. Eliezer son of Dodavahu
  23. Hosea or Hoshea [הושע]
  24. Amos [עמוס]
  25. Micah the Morashtite or Mikhah [מיכה]
  26. Amoz
  27. Elijah
  28. Elisha
  29. Jonah son of Amittai or Yonah [יונה]
  30. Isaiah (Yeshayahu [ישעיהו])
  31. Joel or Yo'el [יואל]
  32. Nahum or Nachum [נחום]
  33. Habakkuk or Habaquq [חבקוק]
  34. Zephaniah or Tsefania [צפניה]
  35. Uriah
  36. Jeremiah
  37. Ezekiel
  38. Shemaiah
  39. Baruch
  40. Neriah
  41. Seraiah
  42. Mehseiah
  43. Haggai [חגי]
  44. Zechariah Zekharia [זכריה]
  45. Malachi or Malakhi [מלאכי]
  46. Mordecai Bilshan
  47. Oded
  48. Hanani

The seven prophetesses

  1. Sarah
  2. Miriam
  3. Deborah
  4. Hannah
  5. Abigail
  6. Huldah
  7. Esther

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Scherman, Nosson. The Stone Edition Tanach. Mesorah Publications, Limited. p. 2038. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  2. ^ A Dictionary of the Jewish-Christian Dialogue, Paulist Press (1995), p167.
  3. ^ Light of Prophecy Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America/National Conference of Synagogue Youth (1990), p6.
  4. ^ Megillah 14a and glosses ad loc.

External links

Abu Isa

Abu 'Isa (also known as Ovadiah, Ishaq ibn Ya'qub al-Isfahani, Isaac ibn Jacob al-Isfahani) was a self-proclaimed Jewish prophet sometime in the 8th century AD in Persia and the leader of a short-lived revolt. Proclaimed by some of his followers to be the Messiah, Abu Isa himself never made such claims or inferences. He seems to have allied himself with Sunbadh after the assassination of Abu Muslim in 755 ad. His forces fought Caliph Al Mansur army at Rayy only to be defeated and Abu Isa fell in this battle.

Amoz

Amoz (Hebrew: אָמוֹץ, Modern: ʼAmōṣ, Tiberian: ʼĀmōṣ), also known as Amotz, was the father of the prophet Isaiah, mentioned in Isaiah 1:1; 2:1 and 13:1, and in II Kings 19:2, 20; 20:1. Nothing else is known for certain about him.

There is a Talmudic tradition that when the name of a prophet's father is given, the father was also a prophet, so that Amoz would have been a prophet like his son. Though it is mentioned frequently as the patronymic title of Isaiah, the name Amoz appears nowhere else in the Bible. The rabbis of the Talmud declared, based upon a rabbinic tradition, that Amoz was the brother of Amaziah (אמציה), the king of Judah at that time (and, as a result, that Isaiah himself was a member of the royal family). According to some traditions, Amoz is the "man of God" in 2 Chronicles 25:7–9 (Seder Olam Rabbah 20), who cautioned Amaziah to release the Israelite mercenaries that he had hired.

Baruch ben Neriah

Baruch ben Neriah (Hebrew: ברוך בן נריה Bārūḵ ben Nêrîyāh, "'Blessed' (Bārūḵ), son (ben) of 'My Candle is Jah' (Nêrîyāh)"; c. 6th century BC) was the scribe, disciple, secretary, and devoted friend of the Biblical prophet Jeremiah. He is traditionally credited with authoring the deuterocanonical Book of Baruch.

Beeri

There are two biblical figures named 'Beeri.' The etymology of Beeri (Hebrew: בְּאֵרִי‎, Bə’êrî) is given as "belonging to a fountain" by Wilhelm Gesenius, but as "expounder" by the International Standard Bible Encyclopedia and "well" according to the Holman Bible Dictionary.According to the Book of Hosea, Beeri was the father of the prophet Hosea. Jewish tradition says that he only uttered a few words of prophecy, and as they were insufficient to be embodied in a book by themselves, they were incorporated in the Book of Isaiah, viz., verses 19 and 20 of the 8th chapter. As such, Beeri is considered a prophet in Judaism. Beeri was sometimes identified with Beerah (1 Chronicles 5:6), who was taken into exile by the Assyrians. He is also considered holy by Muslims.

The other Beeri was the father of Judith, one of the wives of Esau (Genesis 26:34).

Beor (biblical figure)

Beor (Hebrew: בְּעוֹר Bə‘ōr, "a burning") is a name which appears in relation to a king ("Bela son of Beor") and a diviner ("Balaam son of Beor"). Because the two names vary only by a single letter (ם, -m, often added to the ends of names), scholars have hypothesized that the two refer to the same person.In a list of kings of Edom, Genesis records that a "Bela (בלע) son of Beor" was one of the kings of Edom who reigned "before there reigned any king over the children of Israel." Bela son of Beor is listed as the first of eight kings. The same information in Genesis is repeated in Chronicles."Balaam (בלעם) son of Beor" appears in a well-known story in Numbers, where he is asked to curse the Israelites but repeatedly blesses them instead. Later, he is killed for tempting the Israelites into sin. He is mentioned in passing in Deuteronomy, in a passage which repeats a synopsis of earlier biblical stories.Beor the father of Balaam is considered a prophet by Judaism. The Talmud says in Baba Bathra 15b, "Seven prophets prophesied to the heathen, namely, Balaam and his father, Job, Eliphaz the Temanite, Bildad the Shuhite, Zophar the Naamathite, and Elihu the son of Barachel the Buzite." In 2 Peter 2:15, Beor is called Bosor.

Bildad

Bildad (Hebrew: בִּלְדַּד‎ Bildaḏ), the Shuhite, was one of Job's three friends who visited the patriarch in the Hebrew Bible's Book of Job. He was a descendant of Shuah, son of Abraham and Keturah (Genesis 25:1 - 25:2), whose family lived in the deserts of Arabia, or a resident of the district. In speaking with Job, his intent was consolation, but he became an accuser, asking Job what he has done to deserve God's wrath.

Elihu (Job)

Elihu (Hebrew: אֱלִיהוּא ’Elihu) is a man in the Hebrew Bible's Book of Job. He is said to have descended from Buz who may be from the line of Abraham (Genesis 22:20–21 mentions Buz as a nephew of Abraham).

Eliphaz (Job)

Eliphaz (Hebrew: אֱלִיפָז‎ ’Ělîp̄āz, "El is pure gold") is called a Temanite (Job 4:1). He appears in the Book of Job in the Hebrew Bible.

Eliphaz appears mild and modest. In his first reply to Job's complaints, he argues that those who are truly good are never entirely forsaken by Providence, but that punishment may justly be inflicted for secret sins. He denies that any man is innocent and censures Job for asserting his freedom from guilt. Eliphaz exhorts Job to confess any concealed iniquities to alleviate his punishment. His arguments are well supported but God declares at the end of the book that Eliphaz has made a serious error in his speaking. Job offers a sacrifice to God for Eliphaz's error.Eliphaz, the first of the three visitors of Job (Job 2:11), was supposed to have come from Teman, an important city of Edom (Amos 1:12; Obadiah 9; Jeremiah 44:20). Thus Eliphaz appears as the representative of the wisdom of the Edomites, which, according to Obadiah 8, Jeremiah 49:7, and Baruch 3:22, was famous in antiquity.

The name "Eliphaz" for the spokesman of Edomite wisdom may have been suggested to the author of Job by the tradition which gave this name to Esau's son, the father of Theman (Genesis 36:11; 1 Chronicles 1:35-36). In the arguments that pass between Job and his friends, it is Eliphaz who opens each of the three series of discussions.

His primary belief was that the righteous do not perish; the wicked alone suffer, and in measure as they have sinned (Job 4:7-9). This argument is, in part, rooted in what he believes to have been a personal revelation he received through a dream (Job 4:12-16): "Can mankind be just before God? Can a man be pure before his Maker? He puts no trust even in His servants; And against His angels He charges error. How much more those who dwell in houses of clay" (Job 4:17-19a).

After mulling it over, Job responds to this "revelation" of Eliphaz (9:2), "In truth I know that this is so; but how can a man be in the right before God? If one wished to dispute with Him, he could not answer Him once in a thousand times." Eliphaz refers to his revelation again for emphasis in Job 15:14-16.

Bildad also refers to Eliphaz's revelation in chapter 25, although he presents the concept as his own. Job rebukes him for it: "What a help you are to the weak! How you have saved the arm without strength! What counsel you have given to one without wisdom! What helpful insight you have abundantly provided! To whom have you uttered words? And whose spirit was expressed through you?" Job pokes fun at Bildad asking him what spirit revealed it to him because he recognizes the argument as Eliphaz's spiritual revelation.

Although quick-witted, and quick to respond, Eliphaz loses his composure in chapter 22, accusing Job of oppressing widows and orphans, a far cry from how he had originally described Job: "Behold you have admonished many, and you have strengthened weak hands. Your words have helped the tottering to stand, and you have strengthened feeble knees. But now it has come to you, and you are impatient; it touches you, and you are dismayed. Is not your fear of God your confidence, and the integrity of your ways your hope?"Eliphaz also misconstrues Job's message as he scrambles to summarize Job's thoughts from chapter 21. "You say, ‘What does God know? Can He judge through the thick darkness? Clouds are a hiding place for Him, so that He cannot see; And He walks on the vault of heaven.'"Job wasn't arguing that God could not prevent evil. Job was observing that in this life God often chooses not prevent evil. Conventional wisdom told Eliphaz that God should immediately punish the wicked as that would be the just thing to do. Job, however, saw it differently, and in 24:1, Job laments. "Why does the Almighty not set times for judgment? Why must those who know him look in vain for such days?"

Job yearns for the justice Eliphaz claims exists – an immediate punishment of the wicked. However, that simply didn't hold true according to Job's observations. Nevertheless, Job doesn't question God's ultimate justice. He knows justice will eventually be served. Job asks, "For what hope have the godless when they are cut off, when God takes away their life? Does God listen to their cry when distress comes upon them?"

Elkanah

Elkanah (Hebrew: אֱלְקָנָה‎ ’Elqānāh "El has purchased") was, according to the Books of Samuel, the husband of Hannah, and the father of her children including her first, Samuel. Elkanah practiced polygamy; his other wife, less favoured but bearing more children, was named Peninnah. The names of Elkanah's other children apart from Samuel are not given. Elkanah plays only a minor role in the narrative, and is mostly a supporting character to Eli, Hannah, and Samuel.

Gether

According to the Table of Nations in the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible, Gether (Hebrew: גֶּ֫תֶר‎ Ḡeṯer; Aather in Arabic) was the third son of Aram, son of Shem. He appears only twice in the Hebrew Bible, and both times is only mentioned in passing in genealogical lists. In the Table of Nations (Genesis 10:23), he is identified as a son of Aram, while in 1 Chronicles 1:17, he is listed among the sons of Shem.

In Arabic traditions, he is sometimes considered the father of Thamud, whose brother the Qur'an calls Salih.According to the first-century Jewish historian Josephus, he is ancestor of the Bactrians. Jerome (c. 390) considers Gether the ancestor of the Acarnanians. Isidore of Seville (c. 635) makes him ancestor of the Acarnanians or Curians.

Mehseiah

Mehseiah is a minor figure in the Hebrew Bible, the grandfather of Baruch ben Neriah and father of Neriah. According to the Talmud, he was a prophet.

Neriah

Neriah ("Lord is my Lamp") is the son of Mahseiah, and the father of Baruch and Seraiah ben Neriah. He is mentioned in the Book of Jeremiah (32:12 and 51:59) of the Hebrew Bible.

Nevi'im

Nevi'im (; Hebrew: נְבִיאִים Nəḇî'îm, lit. "spokespersons", ("Prophets") is the second main division of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh), between the Torah (instruction) and Ketuvim (writings). The Nevi'im are divided into two groups. The Former Prophets (Hebrew: נביאים ראשונים Nevi'im Rishonim) consists of the narrative books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings; while the Latter Prophets (Hebrew: נביאים אחרונים Nevi'im Aharonim) include the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and The Twelve minor prophets.

Pharaoh's daughter (Exodus)

According to the Book of Exodus, Pharaoh's daughter (Hebrew: בַּת־פַּרְעֹה bat-parʿōh; Greek: ἡ θυγάτηρ Φαραὼ hē thugátēr Pharaṑ) saved the infant Moses from extermination under the oppression of her father, after finding Moses hidden in the rushes on the banks of the Nile in Egypt. This act, the "drawing out" (מָשָׁה māšāh) of Moses from the water, is given as the origin of Moses's name (מֹשֶׁה Mōšeh).Her story has been much expanded in Abrahamic tradition, and the drawing up of Moses from the water by Pharaoh's daughter has been a popular subject in art.

Prophets and messengers in Islam

Prophets in Islam (Arabic: ٱلْأَنۢبِيَاء فِي ٱلْإِسْلَام‎‎, romanized: nabī, lit. 'prophet' pl. الأنبياء,نب‎ anbiyāʼ) are individuals who Muslims believe were sent by God to various communities in order to serve as examples of ideal human behavior and to spread God's message on Earth. Some prophets are categorized as messengers (Arabic: رسل‎, romanized: rasūl pl. رسول‎ rasl), those who transmit divine revelation through the intercession of an angel. Muslims believe that many prophets existed, including many not mentioned in the Qur'an. The Qur'an states: "There is a Messenger for every community". Belief in the Islamic prophets is one of the six articles of the Islamic faith.Muslims believe that the first prophet was also the first human being, Adam (آدَم), created by Allah. Many of the revelations delivered by the 48 prophets in Judaism and many prophets of Christianity are mentioned as such in the Qur'an but usually in slightly different forms. For example, the Jewish Elisha is called Eliyas, Job is Ayyub, Jesus is Isa, etc. The Torah given to Moses (Musa) is called Tawrat, the Psalms given to David (Dawud) is the Zabur, the Gospel given to Jesus is Injil.The final and most important prophet in Islam is Muhammad (Muhammad ibn ʿAbdullāh), who Muslims believe to be the "Seal of the Prophets" (Khatam an-Nabiyyin, i.e. the last prophet), to whom the Qur'an was revealed in a series of revelations (and written down by his companions). Muslims believe the Qur'an is the sole divine and literal word of God, thus immutable and protected from distortion and corruption, destined to remain in its true form until the Last Day.Although Muhammad is considered the last prophet, some Muslim traditions also recognize and venerate saints (though some modern schools, such as Salafism and Wahhabism, reject the theory of sainthood).In Islam, every prophet preached the same core beliefs, the Oneness of God, worshipping of that one God, avoidance of idolatry and sin, and the belief in the Day of Resurrection or the Day of Judgement and life after death. Prophets and messengers are believed to have been sent by God to different communities during different periods in history.

In Islam there is a tradition of prophetic lineage, particularly with regard to the prophet Abraham (Ibrahim) who had many prophets in his lineage - Jesus (Isa), Zakariyyah, Muhammad, David (Dawud)), etc. - through his sons Ismael and Isaac.

Seraiah ben Neriah

Seriah ben Neriah was a Jewish aristocrat of the sixth century BCE. He was the son of Neriah and the brother of Baruch ben Neriah, the disciple of the biblical prophet Jeremiah.

Seriah served as chamberlain of King Zedekiah of Judah.

Table of prophets of Abrahamic religions

This is a table containing prophets of the modern Abrahamic religions.

Zophar

In the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament Book of Job, Zophar or Tzofar (צוֹפַר "Chirping; rising early", Standard Hebrew Tsofar, Tiberian Hebrew Ṣôp̄ar) the Naamathite is one of the three friends of Job who visits to comfort him during his illness. His comments can be found in Job chapter 11 and 20. He suggests that Job's suffering could be divine punishment, and goes into great detail about the consequences of living a life of sin.

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