A promotion is the advancement of an employee's rank or position in an organizational hierarchy system. Promotion may be an employee's reward for good performance, i.e., positive appraisal. Before a company promotes an employee to a particular position it ensures that the person is able to handle the added responsibilities by screening the employee with interviews and tests and giving them training or on-the-job experience. A promotion can involve advancement in terms of designation, salary and benefits, and in some organizations the type of job activities may change a great deal. The opposite of a promotion is a demotion.
A promotion involve advancement in terms of designation, salary and benefits, and in some organizations the type of job activities may change a great deal. In many companies and public service organizations, more senior positions have a different title: an analyst who is promoted becomes a "principal analyst"; an economist becomes a "senior economist"; or an associate professor becomes a "full professor". The amount of salary increase associated with a promotion varies a great deal between industries and sectors, and depending on what parts of the hierarchical ladder an employee is moving between. In some industries or sectors, there may be only a modest increase in salary for a promotions; in other fields, a promotion may substantially increase an employee's salary.
The same is true with benefits and other privileges; in some industries, the promotion only changes the title and salary, and there are no additional benefits or privileges (beyond the psycho-social benefits that may accrue to the individual). In some not-for-profit organizations, the values of the organization or the tightness of funding may result in there being only modest salary increases associated with a promotion. In other industries, especially in private sector companies, a promotion to senior management may carry a number of benefits, such as stock options, a reserved parking space, a corner office with a secretary, and bonus pay for good performance. The degree to which job activities change varies between industries and sectors. In some fields, even after an employee is promoted, they continue to do similar work. For example, a policy analyst in the federal government who is promoted to the post of senior policy analyst will continue to do similar tasks such as writing briefing notes and carrying out policy research. The differences may be in the complexity of the files that the individual is assigned to or in the sensitivity of the issues that they are asked to deal with. In other fields, when an employee is promoted, their work changes substantially. For example, whereas a staff engineer in a civil engineering firm will spend their time doing engineering inspections and working with blueprints, a senior engineer may spend most of their day in meetings with senior managers and reading financial reports. In symphony orchestras, when a musician such as a violinist is promoted to the position of concertmaster, their duties change substantially. As a violin player, the individual played the music as part of the violin section. As a concertmaster, the individual plays solo parts, decides on the bowings and interpretation of the music, and leads the violins during performances.
Different organizations grant the hiring and promoting managers different levels of discretion to award promotions. In some parts of the private sector, the senior management has a very high level of discretion to award promotions, and they can promote employees without going through much procedures or formalities such as testing, screening, and interviewing. In the public sector and in academia, there are usually many more checks and balances in place to prevent favoritism or bias. In many Western public service bodies, when a manager wants to promote an employee, they must follow a number of steps, such as advertising the position, accepting applications from qualified candidates, screening and interviewing candidates, and then documenting why they chose a particular candidate. In academia, a similar approach is used, with the added safeguard of including several layers of committee review of the proposed promotion using committees which include members of other faculty and experts from other universities.
The 1. FC Bamberg was a German association football club from the town of Bamberg, Bavaria.
In 2006, the club merged with TSV Eintracht Bamberg to form 1. FC Eintracht Bamberg. 1. FC Eintracht went bankrupt in 2010 and a new club was formed, FC Eintracht Bamberg 2010.1. FC had spent a number of seasons at top level in German football but, by the time of the merger, had fallen to an existence in the fifth and sixth division of German football. The new club briefly rose to tier-four Regionalliga Süd, dropped back to the Bayernliga before rising to the new Regionalliga Bayern again.2013 Lahad Datu standoff
The 2013 Lahad Datu standoff (also known as the Lahad Datu incursion) was a military conflict that started on 11 February 2013 and fully ended on 24 March 2013. The standoff arose after 235 militants, some of whom were armed, arrived by boats in Lahad Datu District, Sabah, Malaysia from Simunul island, Tawi-Tawi, in the southern Philippines, on 11 February 2013. The group, calling themselves the "Royal Security Forces of the Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo", was sent by Jamalul Kiram III, one of the claimants to the throne of the Sultanate of Sulu.
Kiram III stated that their objective was to assert the unresolved territorial claim of the Philippines to eastern Sabah (the former North Borneo). Malaysian security forces surrounded the village of Tanduo in Lahad Datu, where the group had gathered and, after several weeks of negotiations and unmet deadlines for the intruders to withdraw, especially after the killing of Malaysian police members, the Malaysian security forces began to launch a major operation to flush out the Sulu militants. At the end of the standoff, around 56 militants were killed together with 6 civilians and 10 Malaysian security forces. The rest of the militants were either captured, or escaped back to the Philippines.ASV Cham
The ASV Cham is a German association football club from the city of Cham, Bavaria. The club's most notable achievement was playing in the second division from 1950 to 1962.Advancement
Advancement may refer to:
A battlefield promotion (or field promotion) is an advancement in military rank that occurs while deployed in combat. A standard field promotion is advancement from current rank to the next higher rank; a "jump-step" promotion is advancement from current rank to a rank above the next highest.Circe chess
Circe chess (or just Circe) is a chess variant in which captured pieces are reborn on their starting positions as soon as they are captured. The game was invented by French composer Pierre Monréal in 1967 and the rules of Circe chess were first detailed by Monréal and Jean-Pierre Boyer in an article in Problème, 1968.
Circe is rarely played as a variant game (when it is, it is usually combined with progressive chess), but very often employed in composed fairy chess problems.Ennoblement
Ennoblement is the conferring of nobility—the induction of an individual into the noble class. Currently only a few kingdoms still grant nobility to people among them Spain, the United Kingdom, Belgium and the Vatican. Depending on time and region, various laws have governed who could be ennobled and how. Typically, nobility was conferred on individuals who had assisted the sovereign. In some countries (e.g., France under the Ancien Régime), this degenerated into the buying of patents of nobility, whereby rich commoners (e.g., merchants) could purchase a title of nobility.Federal Police (Austria)
The Federal Police (German: Bundespolizei) is the main federal law enforcement agency of the Austrian Republic. The Federal Police was formed in July 2005 as one formal unit of police. Before 2005 the police system operated the Gendarmerie for most of the country, and the Polizei in the heavy city and urban areas such as Vienna, Salzburg and Graz. In 2004 it was agreed by the Government of Austria that these two police forces, along with the criminal investigation service, the public security constabulary, and the security authorities, would all form together to become the 'Federal Police of Austria'. The Federal Police is also responsible for border control.German reserve football teams
German reserve football teams compete at all levels of league football within the German football league system apart from the top two divisions, the Bundesliga and 2. Bundesliga. The highest league these teams can currently enter is the 3. Liga, set at the third tier of the league system.
Until 2005, reserve teams of professional sides carried the title Amateure behind the club name to distinguish between the professional and reserve team of a club while all other reserve teams carried the Roman numeral II behind the club name as a distinction. Since 2005 all reserve teams carry the Roman numeral, regardless of the status of the first team. Any additional reserve teams carry the following Roman numeral behind the club's name.
From 1974 to 2008 reserve teams were permitted to compete in the DFB-Pokal, the premier German Cup competition. Arguably the greatest success of any reserve team has been the achievement of Hertha BSC Amateure which reached the German Cup final in 1992–93. Additional achievements have been the eleven titles won by reserve teams in the now defunct German amateur football championship.
In the former East Germany, reserve teams were at times permitted to play at the second tier of league football, below the DDR-Oberliga, in the DDR-Liga, and have achieved division titles at this level.Shunroku Hata
Shunroku Hata (畑俊六, Hata Shunroku, July 26, 1879 – May 10, 1962) was a Field Marshal (Gensui) in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II. He was the last surviving Japanese military officer with a marshal's rank. Hata was convicted of war crimes and sentenced to life imprisonment following the war.Three-dimensional chess
Three-dimensional chess (or 3D chess) is any chess variant that uses multiple boards representing different levels, allowing the chess pieces to move in three physical dimensions. In practical play, this is usually achieved by boards representing different layers being laid out next to each other.
Three-dimensional variants have existed since at least the late 19th century, one of the oldest being Raumschach (German for "Space chess"), invented in 1907 by Ferdinand Maack and considered the classic 3D game. Maack founded a Raumschach club in Hamburg in 1919, which remained active until World War II.
Chapter 25 of David Pritchard's The Classified Encyclopedia of Chess Variants discusses some 50 such variations extending chess to three dimensions contains, as well as a handful of higher-dimensional variants. Chapter 11 covers variants using multiple boards normally set side by side which can also be considered to add an extra dimension to chess."Three-dimensional chess" is used colloquially to describe complex, dynamic systems with many competing entities and interests, including politics, diplomacy and warfare. To describe an individual as "playing three-dimensional chess" implies a higher-order understanding and mastery of the system beyond the comprehension of their peers or ordinary observers.University of the Philippines Rural High School
The University of the Philippines Rural High School was established as a subsidiary of the Department of Agricultural Education (DAE, now Department of Agricultural Education and Rural Studies or DAERS) of the University of the Philippines College of Agriculture, pursuant to Sec.4 of Act 3377 of the Philippine Legislature which was approved on December 3, 1927. The school, with a vocational curriculum, served as a practice school for the training of teachers, provided secondary education in agriculture for those preparing for college, and trained intermediate school graduates in agriculture.
Subsequently, it has evolved into its current status as a full, state university high school with a science-oriented curriculum aligned with that of UP Los Baños. It also has continued to serve as a teaching laboratory for UPLB students whose degree programs allow teaching options.