The Progressive Alliance (PA) is a political international of social-democratic and progressive political parties and organisations founded on 22 May 2013 in Leipzig, Germany. The alliance was formed as an alternative to the existing Socialist International, of which many of its member parties are former or current members. The Progressive Alliance claims 140 participants from around the world.
|Motto||Freedom, Justice, Solidarity|
|Formation||14–15 December 2012 (first conference)|
22 May 2013 (foundation)
|Purpose||Global network of social-democratic and progressive political parties and organisations|
|Conference of the Progressive Alliance|
The first step towards the creation of the Progressive Alliance was the decision in January 2012 by Sigmar Gabriel, then chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), to cancel payment of the SPD's £100,000 yearly membership fee to the Socialist International. Gabriel had been critical of the Socialist International's admittance and continuing inclusion of undemocratic political movements into the organization.
An initial Conference of the Progressive Alliance was held in Rome, Italy on 14–15 December 2012, with representatives of 42 political parties attending. They included Pier Luigi Bersani, leader of the Democratic Party of Italy, Harlem Désir, Chair of the French Socialist Party, Hermes Binner, Chair of the Argentinian Socialist Party, Peter Shumlin, Democratic Governor of Vermont, and Mustapha Ben Jafar, Secretary General of the Tunisian Democratic Forum for Labour and Liberties. Also present were representatives of the Indian National Congress, the Workers Party of Brazil, and PASOK of Greece. The Dutch Labour Party also supported the formation of the organization, as did the Swiss Socialist Party, and the Social Democratic Party of Austria.
During the Council of the Socialist International in Cascais, Portugal, on 4–5 February 2013, 50 political parties discussed on the sidelines the formation of the Progressive Alliance, including the Movement for Democratic Change of Zimbabwe.
The official foundation of the organization was held on the 22 May 2013 in Leipzig, Germany, on the 150th anniversary of the formation of the General German Workers' Association (ADAV), the predecessor of the SPD. The organization stated the aim of becoming the global network of "the progressive, democratic, social-democratic, socialist and labour movement". It was reported that representatives of approximately 70 social-democratic political parties from across the world attended the event. The Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (S&D) group in the European Parliament joined the organization upon its official foundation. Many member parties are also affiliated to the Socialist International. In September 2013 the Democratic Party (DIKO) of Cyprus announced that it was negotiating to join the Progressive Alliance and that its representatives were to attend a seminar of the international in Stockholm on 24 October. On 4–5 December 2014, a Progressive Alliance conference was held in Lisbon for member parties of the S&D group. A regional seminar was held on 25 September 2015 in Batu Ferringhi, Malaysia, which also hosted delegates from the Democratic Action Party of Malaysia, Democratic Party of Japan and Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle. On 25 April 2016 the organisation held a seminar in São Paulo hosted by the Workers' Party of Brazil.
The Progressive Alliance lists the parties and organisations which participate in the network, rather than claiming members.
|Algeria||Socialist Forces Front||FFS||In opposition|
|Argentina||Generación para un Encuentro Nacional||GEN||In opposition|
|Argentina||Socialist Party||PS||In opposition|
|Australia||Australian Labor Party||ALP||In opposition||Forms government in Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, Northern Territory and Australian Capital Territory.|
|Austria||Social Democratic Party of Austria||SPÖ||In opposition||Part of governing coalitions in Vienna, Styria, Lower Austria, Carinthia, Burgenland and Upper Austria.|
|Belarus||Belarusian Social Democratic Party (Assembly)||Hramada|
|Belgium||Socialist Party||PS||In opposition|
|Belgium||Socialist Party Differently||SPA||In opposition|
|Bolivia||Movement for Socialism||MAS||In government|
|Brazil||Workers' Party||PT||In opposition|
|Brazil||Brazilian Socialist Party||PSB||In opposition|
|Bulgaria||Bulgarian Socialist Party||BSP||In opposition|
|Burkina Faso||People's Movement for Progress||MPP||In government|
|Burkina Faso||Party for Democracy and Progress / Socialist Party||PDP/PS|
|Cameroon||Social Democratic Front||SDF||In opposition|
|Canada||New Democratic Party||NDP/NPD||In opposition||Forms government in the provinces of Alberta and British Columbia|
|Central African Republic||Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People||MLPC||In opposition|
|Chile||Socialist Party of Chile||PS||In opposition|
|Chile||Party for Democracy||PPD||In opposition|
|Costa Rica||Citizens' Action Party||PAC||In government|
|Croatia||Social Democratic Party of Croatia||SDP||In opposition|
|Cyprus||Movement for Social Democracy||EDEK||In opposition|
|Cyprus||Democratic Party||Diko||In opposition|
|Cyprus||Republican Turkish Party||CTP||In opposition|
|Czech Republic||Czech Social Democratic Party||ČSSD||Junior party in coalition|
|Democratic Republic of Congo||Union for Democracy and Social Progress||UDPS||In opposition|
|Denmark||Social Democrats||SD||In opposition|
|Dominican Republic||Modern Revolutionary Party||PRM||In opposition|
|Egypt||Egyptian Social Democratic Party||ESDP||In opposition|
|Equatorial Guinea||Convergence for Social Democracy||CPDS||In opposition|
|Eritrea||Eritrean Peoples' Democratic Party||EPDP|
|Finland||Social Democratic Party of Finland||SDP||In opposition|
|France||Socialist Party||PS||In opposition|
|Georgia||Georgian Dream||In government|
|Germany||Social Democratic Party of Germany||SPD||Junior party in coalition|
|Ghana||National Democratic Congress||NDC||In government|
|Greece||Panhellenic Socialist Movement||PASOK||In opposition|
|Grenada||National Democratic Congress||NDC|
|Guinea||Guinean People's Assembly||RPG||In government|
|Hungary||Hungarian Socialist Party||MSzP||In opposition|
|India||Indian National Congress||INC||In opposition|
|India||Samajwadi (Socialist) Party||SP||In opposition|
|Indonesia||National Democratic Party||NasDem||Junior party in coalition|
|Indonesia||Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle||PDIP||Senior party in coalition|
|Iran||Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan||PDKI|
|Iran||Komala Party of Iranian Kurdistan||KPK|
|Iran||Komala Party of Iranian Kurdistan||KŞZK|
|Iraq||Patriotic Union of Kurdistan||PUK||In opposition|
|Iraq||Kurdistan Socialist Democratic Party||KSDP||In opposition|
|Ireland||Labour Party||In opposition|
|Israel||Israeli Labour Party||HaAvoda||In opposition|
|Italy||Democratic Party||PD||In opposition|
|Ivory Coast||Cap Union for Democracy and Development||CAP-UDD|
|Jordan||Jordanian Social Democratic Party||KPK|
|Kenya||Labour Party of Kenya||KLP|
|Latvia||Concord Social Democratic Party||SDPS||In opposition|
|Lebanon||Progressive Socialist Party||PSP||Junior party in coalition|
|Lithuania||Social Democratic Party of Lithuania||LSDP||In opposition|
|Luxembourg||Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party||LSAP||Junior party in coalition|
|Macedonia||Social Democratic Union of Macedonia||SDUM||In government|
|Malaysia||Democratic Action Party||DAP||Senior party in coalition|
|Mauritania||Rally of Democratic Forces||RFD||In opposition|
|Mauritius||Mauritius Militant Movement||MMM||In opposition|
|Mexico||Party of the Democratic Revolution||PRD||In opposition|
|Mexico||Citizens' Movement||MC||In opposition|
|Moldova||Democratic Party of Moldova||PDM||Senior party in coalition|
|Mongolia||Mongolian People's Party||MPP||In government|
|Montenegro||Social Democratic Party of Montenegro||SDP||In opposition|
|Montenegro||Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro||DPS||Senior party in coalition|
|Morocco||Socialist Union of Popular Forces||USFP||In opposition|
|Myanmar||Democratic Party for a New Society||DPNS|
|Nepal||Nepali Congress||NC||In opposition|
|Netherlands||Labour Party||PvdA||In opposition|
|New Zealand||New Zealand Labour Party||NZLP||Senior party in coalition|
|Niger||Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism||PNDS||In government|
|Norway||Norwegian Labour Party||Ap||In opposition|
|Northern Cyprus||Republican Turkish Party||CTP||In opposition|
|Palestine||Palestinian National Initiative||PNI||In opposition|
|Paraguay||Party for a Country of Solidarity||PPS||In opposition|
|Philippines||Akbayan Citizens' Action Party||In opposition|
|Poland||Democratic Left Alliance||SLD|
|Portugal||Socialist Party||PS||In government|
|Republic of Congo||Convergence Citoyenne||CC|
|Romania||Social Democratic Party||PSD||Senior party in coalition|
|Sao Tome and Principe||Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe/Social Democratic Party||MLSTP-PSD||In opposition|
|Senegal||Socialist Party of Senegal||PS|
|Serbia||Democratic Party||DS||In opposition|
|Serbia||Social Democratic Party||SDS||In opposition|
|Slovakia||Direction – Social Democracy||SD||In government|
|Slovenia||Social Democrats||SD||Junior party in coalition|
|Somalia||Somali Social Unity Party||SSUP|
|Spain||Spanish Socialist Workers' Party||PSOE||In government|
|Saint Lucia||Saint Lucia Labour Party||In opposition|
|Swaziland||People’s United Democratic Movement||PUDEMO|
|Swaziland||Swazi Democratic Party||SWADEPA|
|Sweden||Swedish Social Democratic Party||SAP||Senior party in coalition|
|Switzerland||Social Democratic Party of Switzerland||SP||Junior party in coalition|
|Syria||Syrian Democratic People's Party|
|Tanzania||Chama Cha Mapinduzi||CCM||In government|
|Thailand||Future Forward Party (Guest since 2018)||FFP||( Candidate in
|Timor Leste||Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor||FRETILIN||In government|
|Tunisia||Democratic Forum for Labour and Liberties||Ettakatol|
|Turkey||Peoples' Democratic Party||HDP||In opposition|
|Turkey||Republican People's Party||CHP||In opposition|
|Uruguay||Socialist Party of Uruguay||PSU||In government|
|United Kingdom||Labour Party||In opposition||In government in the Welsh Assembly, holds the London Mayoralty and minority party on London Assembly.|
|United States||Democratic Party||D||In opposition||In government in the House of Representatives, 23 states and some territories.|
|Western Sahara||Polisario Front||In government|
|Yemen||Yemeni Socialist Party||YSP||In opposition|
|Zimbabwe||Movement for Democratic Change||MDC||In opposition|
|Zimbabwe||People's Democratic Party||PDP||In opposition|
|International||Socialist International Women||SIW|
|International||International Union of Socialist Youth||IUSY|
|Europe||Party of European Socialists||PES|
|European Union||Group of the Progressive Alliance of Socialists & Democrats in the European Parliament||S&D||Junior party in coalition|
|Europe||Party of European Socialists Women||PES Women|
|Europe||Young European Socialists||YES|
|Asia||Network of Social Democracy in Asia||SOCDEM|
|Asia||Arab Social Democratic Forum||ASDF|
|Africa||Central African Progressive Alliance||APAC|
|International||International Trade Union Confederation||ITUC|
|The Americas||Trade Union Confederation of the Americas||CSA|
|International||Trade Union Advisory Committee to the OECD||TUAC|
|International||Industrial Global Union|
|International||Global Progressive Forum|
|International||Just Jobs Network|
|United States||Center for American Progress||CAP|
|Europe||Foundation for European Progressive Studies||FEPS|
|France||Foundation Jean Jaurès|
|Brazil||Foundation João Mangabeira|
|Germany||Friedrich Ebert Foundation||FES|
|Sweden||Olof Palme International Center||OPIC|
Members of the 15th Lok Sabha were elected during the 2009 general election in India. It was dissolved on 18 May 2014 by President Pranab Mukherjee.Indian National Congress led United Progressive Alliance won 44 more seats than previous 14th Lok Sabha. The next 16th Lok Sabha was convened after Indian general election, 2014.
The Second Manmohan Singh ministry introduced a total of 222 Bills (apart from Finance and Appropriations Bills) in the 15th Lok Sabha. A total of 165 Bills were by passed by the House, including bills introduced in previous Lok Sabhas.14 sitting members from Rajya Sabha, the Upper House of Indian Parliament, were elected to 15th Lok Sabha after the Indian general election, 2009.2004 Indian general election
Legislative elections were held in India in four phases between 20 April and 10 May 2004. Over 670 million people were eligible to vote, electing 543 members of the 14th Lok Sabha. The Lok Sabha, or "House of the People," is the directly elected lower house of the Parliament of India.
On 13 May, the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and its alliance National Democratic Alliance conceded defeat. The Indian National Congress, which had governed India for all but five years from independence until 1996, returned to power after a record eight years out of office. It was able to put together a comfortable majority of more than 335 members out of 543 with the help of its allies. The 335 members included both the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance, the governing coalition formed after the election, as well as external support from the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), Samajwadi Party (SP), Kerala Congress (KC) and the Left Front. (External support is support from parties that are not part of the governing coalition).
Congress President Sonia Gandhi surprised observers by declining to become the new prime minister, instead asking former Finance Minister Manmohan Singh, a respected economist, to head the new government. Singh had previously served in the Congress government of Prime Minister Narasimha Rao in the early 1990s, where he was seen as one of the architects of India's first economic liberalisation plan, which staved off an impending national monetary crisis. Despite the fact that Singh had never won a Lok Sabha seat, his considerable goodwill and Sonia Gandhi's nomination won him the support of the UPA allies and the Left Front.
Seven states also held assembly elections to elect state governments along with the parliamentary elections.2009 Indian general election
India held general elections to the 15th Lok Sabha in five phases between 16 April 2009 and 13 May 2009. With an electorate of 714 million (larger than the electorate of the European Union and United States combined), it was the largest democratic election in the world till the Indian General Elections 2014 held from 7 April 2014.By constitutional requirement, elections to the Lok Sabha (lower house of the parliament of India) must be held every five years, or whenever Parliament is dissolved by the President of India. The previous election to the 14th Lok Sabha was conducted in May 2004 and its term would have naturally expired on 1 June 2009. Elections are organised by the Election Commission of India (ECI) and are normally held in multiple phases to better handle the large electoral base and its security concerns. The 2009 elections were held in five phases. In February 2009, Rs.11.20 billion ($200.5 million) was budgeted for election expenses by the Indian Parliament.A total of 8070 candidates contested for 543 Lok Sabha seats. The average election turnout over all 5 phases was around 59.7%. The results of the election were announced within three days of phase five, on 16 May 2009, following the first past the post system.
The United Progressive Alliance (UPA) led by the Indian National Congress formed the government after obtaining the majority of seats based on strong results in Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. Manmohan Singh became the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru in 1962 to be re-elected after completing a full five-year term. The UPA was able to put together a comfortable majority with support from 322 members out of 543 members of the House. Though this is less than the 335 members who supported the UPA in the last parliament, UPA alone had a plurality of over 260 seats as opposed to 218 seats in the 14th Lok Sabha. External support came from the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), Samajwadi Party (SP), Janata Dal (Secular) (JD(S)), Rashtriya Janata Dal (RJD) and other minor parties.On 22 May 2009, Manmohan Singh was sworn in as the Prime Minister at the Ashoka Hall of Rashtrapati Bhavan.2014 Indian general election in Tamil Nadu
The Indian general election, 2014 polls in Tamil Nadu were held for 39 seats in the state on 24 April 2014.The total voter strength of Tamil Nadu is 53,752,682. The voting turnout in the election was 73.67%.The results of the elections were declared on 16 May 2014.2019 Indian general election
The Indian General elections, 2019 are expected to be held in April and May 2019 to constitute the 17th Lok Sabha.
Legislative Assembly elections in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Odisha, Sikkim and Jammu and Kashmir are expected to be held simultaneously with the general elections.Alliance of Progressives
The Alliance of Progressives (Italian: Alleanza dei Progressisti), also known as simply the Progressives (Progressisti), was a centre-left to left-wing political and electoral alliance of political parties in Italy formed in 1994. The leader of the alliance was Achille Occhetto.Australian Progressive Alliance
The Australian Progressive Alliance (APA) was a minor "small-l-liberal" party in Australia, formed by Meg Lees, an independent senator and former leader of the Australian Democrats, in April 2003. The party ceased to operate and was deregistered in June 2005 following Senator Lees's defeat at the 2004 election and the expiry of her term.Democratic People's Front
The Western People's Front, currently named the Democratic People's Front (Tamil: ஜனநாயக மக்கள் முன்னணி, translit. Jaṉanāyaka Makkaḷ Muṉṉaṇi; Sinhalese: ප්රජාතන්ත්රවාදී ජනතා පෙරමුණේ Prajathanthravadi Janatha Peramunay), is a political party in Sri Lanka active in the Western Province.
WPF was originally a trade union, then converted into a political party. It draws support from the Tamil population of Colombo. Party leader Hon. Manoharan Ganesan (Mano Ganesan) (Tamil: மனோ கணேசன்) is former a Member of Parliament, elected on a United National Party ticket.
Today this party has one Provincial council seat and four Municipal council seats, and the party has grown a lot with recruiting more members and supporters.Hong Kong Progressive Alliance
The Hong Kong Progressive Alliance (Chinese: 香港協進聯盟, abbreviated 港進聯; HKPA) was a pro-Beijing pro-business political party in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. It was established in 1994 and was merged into the Democratic Alliance for the Betterment of Hong Kong (DAB) in 2005. The DAB then renamed as Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong.National Democratic Congress (Ghana)
The National Democratic Congress (NDC) is a social democratic political party in Ghana, founded by Jerry Rawlings, who was Head of State of Ghana from 1981 to 1993 and the President of Ghana from 1993 to 2001. Following the formation of the Provisional National Defence Council (PNDC) which ruled Ghana following the military coup d'état on 31 December 1981, there was pressure from the international community to restore democracy. The NDC was formed as the ruling party ahead of elections in 1992, in which Rawlings was elected president, and in 1996 Rawlings as re-elected as the NDC candidate. Rawlings' second term ended in 2001. The NDC lost the presidency in the 2000 election, and it was not until the 2008 election that they regained it with candidate John Atta Mills.
The NDC party symbol is an umbrella with the head of a dove at the tip. The party colors are red, white, green, and black, and the party slogan or motto is "Unity, stability, and development." Internationally, the NDC is a member of the Progressive Alliance and Socialist International.On 9 December 2012, the Electoral Commission of Ghana declared NDC candidate John Dramani Mahama to be President-elect after a hotly contested race in which he won 50.7% of votes cast.Pattali Makkal Katchi
Paattali Makkal Katchi (English: abbreviated in English as PMK) is a political party in Tamil Nadu, India, founded by S. Ramadoss in 1989 for the upliftment of Tamil community.Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats
The Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (S&D) is the political group in the European Parliament of the Party of European Socialists (PES). The Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats was officially founded as a Socialist Group on 29 June 1953 which makes it the second oldest political group in the European Parliament after ALDE. It adopted its present-day name on 23 June 2009. Centre-left in orientation, the group mostly comprises social-democratic parties and is affiliated with the Progressive Alliance.
Until the 1999 European Parliament elections, it was the largest group in the Parliament, but since those elections it has constantly been the second-largest group. During the 8th EU Parliament Assembly, the S&D is the only Parliament group with representation from all 28 EU member states.
In the European Council, 8 out of 28 Heads of State and Government belong to the S&D Group and in the European Commission, 8 out of 28 Commissioners come from PES parties.Richmond Progressive Alliance
The Richmond Progressive Alliance (RPA) is a community/political group in Richmond, western Contra Costa County, California, United States of America. It supports various community efforts including campaigns to force the local Chevron refinery to pay higher taxes and reduce pollution; opposition to racial profiling; and opposition to urban casino development in Point Molate. It supports candidates for the nonpartisan races in the city. It calls itself the organization of progressive politics. Its members include voters registered in the Democratic, Green, and other parties as well as independents.Social Democratic Party "Harmony"
The Social Democratic Party "Harmony" (Latvian: Sociāldemokrātiskā Partija "Saskaņa", SDPS, Russian: Социал-демократическая партия «Согласие»), also commonly referred to as Harmony (Saskaņa), is a social-democratic political party in Latvia. It is the main catch-all party of the centre-left in Latvian politics. The party was founded in 2010 as the merger of the National Harmony Party (TSP) with New Centre (JC) and the Social Democratic Party (SDP), a breakaway from the Latvian Social Democratic Workers' Party (LSDSP). At that time, all three were members of the former electoral alliance Harmony Centre. The alliance also included the communist Socialist Party of Latvia. The Daugavpils City Party merged into the party in 2011.The chairman of the party, Nils Ušakovs is the current Mayor of Riga and was the "Harmony" candidate for the office of Prime Minister of Latvia in 2014. In the Saeima the party has 24 out of 100 seats after polling 23% of the vote at the 2014 parliamentary election. Its parliamentary group is therefore the largest among the six groups in the Latvian Parliament, and the leading opposition group. Internationally, "Harmony" is a member of the Progressive Alliance and the Party of European Socialists. Formerly, its sole MEP Andrejs Mamikins sat in the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats (S&D) group in the European Parliament. In 2018 after disagreements with Ušakovs he defected to the Latvian Russian Union and the party is since then unrepresented in the European Parliament.
"Harmony" is currently the governing party on the Riga City Council in coalition with Honor to serve Riga, the successor to the centre-right Latvia's First Party/Latvian Way which dissolved in 2011. "Harmony" is the largest party seeking to represent the Russian-speaking population of Latvia.
On social policy, the party contains strong conservative elements in line with its voter base and setting it apart from the contemporary European social-democratic mainstream. The parliamentary membership is not uniformly socially conservative.Social Democratic Party of Germany
The Social Democratic Party of Germany (German: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands or SPD; [ˌzɔtsi̯alˈdeːmɔkʁaːtɪʃə paʁˈtaɪ̯ ˈdɔʏtʃlants]) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
Led by Andrea Nahles since 2018, the party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in Germany along with the Christian Democratic Union (CDU). The Social Democrats have governed at the federal level in Germany as part of a grand coalition with the CDU and the Christian Social Union (CSU) since December 2013 following the results of the 2013 and 2017 federal elections. The party participates in 14 state governments and 7 of them are governed by SPD Minister-Presidents.
The SPD is a member of the Party of European Socialists and initiated the founding of the Progressive Alliance international for social-democratic parties on 22 May 2013 after criticising the Socialist International for its acceptance of authoritarian parties. Established in 1863, the SPD is by far the oldest extant political party represented in the German Parliament and was one of the first Marxist-influenced parties in the world.Social Democratic Party of Switzerland
The Social Democratic Party of Switzerland (also rendered as Swiss Socialist Party; German: Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz, SP; French: Parti socialiste suisse, PS; Italian: Partito Socialista Svizzero; Romansh: Partida Socialdemocrata de la Svizra) is a political party in Switzerland. It has been represented by two Federal Councilors since 1960 and got the second-most votes in the 2015 national elections.
The party was founded on 21 October 1888, and is currently the second largest of the four leading coalition political parties in Switzerland. It is the only left-wing party with representatives in the Swiss Federal Council. It is also the second largest political party in the Swiss parliament. The current members in the Swiss Federal Council are Alain Berset and Simonetta Sommaruga.
The SP is the largest pro-European party in Switzerland and supports Swiss membership of the European Union, unlike most other Swiss parties. Additionally, it is strongly opposed to capitalism and maintains a long-term goal of "overcoming capitalism." The party is a member of the Progressive Alliance, and an associate member of the Party of European Socialists.Tamil Progressive Alliance
The Tamil Progressive Alliance (TPF; Tamil: தமிழ் முற்போக்கு கூட்டணி Tamiḻ Muṟpōkku Kūṭṭaṇi) is a Sri Lankan political alliance. It was formed in 2015 by the Democratic People's Front (DPF), National Union of Workers (NUW) and the Up-Country People's Front (UCPF) to represent the 1.5 million Tamils, mostly Indian Tamils, living outside the Northern and Eastern provinces.The 1.6 million Tamils, mostly Sri Lankan Tamils, living in the Northern and Eastern provinces are represented by the Tamil National Alliance which is not active outside the two provinces.Third Front (India)
Third Front in Indian politics refers to various alliances formed by smaller parties at various points of time since 1989 to offer a third option to Indian voters, challenging the Indian National Congress and Bhartiya Janata Party.United Progressive Alliance
The United Progressive Alliance (UPA) is a coalition of centre-left political parties in India formed after the 2004 general election. The largest member party of the UPA is the INC, whose Former National President Sonia Gandhi is chairperson of the UPA. It formed a government with support from some other left-aligned parties in 2004.