Progne is a genus of birds. The genus name refers to Procne (Πρόκνη), a mythological girl who was turned into a swallow to save her from her husband. She had killed their son to avenge the rape of her sister.[1]

PurpleMartin cajay
Male Purple martin (Progne subis)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Hirundinidae
Subfamily: Hirundininae
Genus: Progne
F. Boie, 1826

9, See text

Extant Species

Created by Friedrich Boie in 1826, the genus contains nine American swallows.[2]

Image Scientific name Common name Distribution
Purple martins (Progne subis) Ford Bay Marina 09 Progne subis Purple martin west coast from British Columbia to Mexico
Progne dominicensis -Tobago, Trinidad and Tobago-8 Progne dominicensis Caribbean martin mainland Central and South America, Caribbean islands from Jamaica east to Tobago
Progne cryptoleuca Cuban martin Cuba
Progne sinaloae Sinaloa martin Mexico
Progne chalybea -Sao Jose do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil-8 Progne chalybea Grey-breasted martin Central and South America.
Progne modesta Galapagos martin Galápagos Islands.
Progne murphyi Peruvian martin Peru and far northern Chile.
Southern Martin (Progne elegans) (15934988176) Progne elegans Southern martin Argentina and southern Bolivia
Progne tapera -Ceibas, Entre Rios, Argentina-8 Progne tapera Brown-chested martin Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, the United States, Uruguay, Venezuela, and is a vagrant to Chile and the Falkland Islands.


  1. ^ Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 317. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  2. ^ "ITIS Report: Progne". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
Aracuri-Esmeralda Ecological Station

Aracuri-Esmeralda Ecological Station (Portuguese: Estação Ecológica de Aracuri-Esmeralda) is an ecological station in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

It is in the Atlantic Forest biome.

Brown-chested martin

The brown-chested martin (Progne tapera) is a species of passerine bird in the swallow family.

It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, the United States, Uruguay, Venezuela, and is a vagrant to Chile and the Falkland Islands. Its natural habitats are dry savanna, subtropical or tropical seasonally wet or flooded lowland grassland, rivers, and heavily degraded former forest.

It usually swoops at low heights, showing white on the sides of its tail, with wings bowed. It may dig burrows into banks to nest (or occasionally in snags) or sometimes use old hornero nests.

Caribbean martin

The Caribbean martin or white-bellied martin (Progne dominicensis) is a large swallow.

It breeds on Caribbean islands from Jamaica east to Tobago. It is closely related to two species to which it used to be considered conspecific-P. sinaloae (Sinaloa martin) and P. cryptoleuca (Cuban martin). There are sight records from mainland Central and South America, and most birds appear to migrate to the South American mainland. A single bird was recorded in Key West, Florida, on May 9, 1895 (AOU 2000).

It has at various times been considered alternatively as a race of the purple martin, Progne subis.

Caspian tern

The Caspian tern (Hydroprogne caspia) is a species of tern, with a subcosmopolitan but scattered distribution. Despite its extensive range, it is monotypic of its genus, and has no accepted subspecies. The genus name is from Ancient Greek hudros, "water", and Latin progne, "swallow". The specific caspia is from Latin and, like the English name, refers to the Caspian Sea.

Cuban martin

The Cuban martin (Progne cryptoleuca) is a large swallow endemic to Cuba.

It is closely related to the Caribbean martin, P. dominicensis which breeds on Caribbean islands from Jamaica east to Tobago, and the P. d. sinaloae (Sinaloa martin) from Mexico.

It has at various times been considered alternatively as a race of the purple martin, Progne subis.

Adult Cuban martins are 18.5 cm in length, with a forked tail and relatively broad wings, and weigh 40 g. Adult males are a glossy blue-black with contrasting white lower underparts. Females and juveniles are duller than the male, with grey-brown breast and flanks and white lower underparts.

The Cuban martin nests in cavities in banks and buildings, or old woodpecker holes. 3-6 eggs are laid in the lined nest, and incubated for 15 days, with another 26-27 to fledging. Just as the purple martin, this species may compete with other passerines for nesting cavities. In particular, the main foe is the house sparrow in urban areas, where they mostly use man-made structures, whereas in more rural locations Picidae holes in coconut trees are favored, and there is less competition with the sparrows.

Cuban martins are gregarious birds which hunt for insects in flight. Their call is a gurgly chew-chew.

Friedrich Boie

Friedrich Boie (4 June 1789 – 3 March 1870) was a German entomologist, herpetologist, ornithologist, and lawyer. He was born at Meldorf in Holstein and died at Kiel. Friedrich Boie was the brother of Heinrich Boie.

In 1860 Friedrich Boie was elected a Member of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina.

Friedrich Boie was the author of Bemerkungen über Merrem's Versuch eines Systems der Amphibien (Isis von Oken 1827) and Auszüge aus dem System der Ornithologie (Isis von Oken 1844).

Friedrich Boie was the author of several new species and new genera of birds including the hummingbird genus Glaucis, the swallow genus Progne, the cuckooshrike genus Minivet, the passerine genus Lipaugus, the owl genus Athene, and the cuckoo genus Chrysococcyx. Also, he and his brother Heinrich, working together, described about 50 new species of reptiles.A species of Indian gecko, Cnemaspis boiei, is named in honor of Friedrich Boie or his brother Heinrich Boie.

Galápagos martin

The Galápagos martin (Progne modesta) is a species of bird in the Hirundinidae family, endemic to the Galápagos Islands.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, subtropical or tropical seasonally wet or flooded lowland grassland, pastureland, and heavily degraded former forest.

Grey-breasted martin

The grey-breasted martin (Progne chalybea) is a large swallow from Central and South America.

List of butterflies of Iowa

This is a list of butterflies that are found in Iowa.

Long-tailed widowbird

The long-tailed widowbird (Euplectes progne), also known as the "Sakabula", is a species of bird in the family Ploceidae. The species are found in Angola, Botswana, the DRCongo, Kenya, Lesotho, South Africa, Swaziland, and Zambia. The long-tailed widowbird is a medium-sized bird and one of the most common in the territories it inhabits. Adult breeding males are almost entirely black with orange and white shoulders (epaulets), long, wide tails, and a bluish white bill. Females are rather inconspicuous, their feathers streaked tawny and black with pale patches on the chest, breast and back, narrow tail feathers, and horn-colored bills.When flying, male long-tailed widowbirds are readily visible due to their extremely long tails. Between six and eight of their twelve tail feathers are approximately half a metre (approximately 20 inches) long. The tail during flight display is expanded vertically into a deep, long keel below the male as he flies with slow wingbeats 0.5 to 2 metres (20 to 78 inches) above his territory.

Because of the seemingly large cost to such male ornaments, the long-tailed widowbird has been the subject of extensive research into the function and evolution of sexually selected traits. This research has demonstrated the existence of female choice in sexual selection and indicates the trade-offs between sexual appeal and physical constraints with regard to the evolution of sexual ornaments.

Peruvian martin

The Peruvian martin (Progne murphyi) is a species of bird in the family Hirundinidae. It is found in Peru and far norther Chile.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, subtropical or tropical moist montane forest, subtropical or tropical dry lowland grassland, subtropical or tropical high-altitude grassland, pastureland, and urban areas. It is threatened by habitat loss.


Polygonia (from Greek πολύς - polys, "many" and γωνία - gōnia, "angle") is a genus of butterflies with a conspicuous white mark on the underside of each hindwing, hence the common name comma. They also have conspicuous angular notches on the outer edges of their forewings, hence the other common name anglewing butterflies. The related genus Nymphalis also includes some anglewing species; Polygonia is sometimes classified as a subgenus of Nymphalis.Many members of Polygonia hibernate as adults.

Species include:

Polygonia c-album (Linnaeus, 1758) – comma

Polygonia c-aureum (Linnaeus, 1758) – Asian comma

Polygonia comma (Harris, 1842) – eastern comma

Polygonia egea (Cramer, 1775) – southern comma

Polygonia faunus (Edwards, 1862) – Faunus anglewing, Faunus comma, green comma

Polygonia g-argenteum Doubleday & Hewitson, 1846 – Mexican anglewing

Polygonia gigantea (Leech, 1883) – giant comma

Polygonia gracilis (Grote & Robinson, 1867) – hoary comma

Polygonia haroldii Dewitz, 1877 – spotless anglewing

Polygonia interposita (Staudinger, 1881)

Polygonia interrogationis (Fabricius, 1798) – question mark

Polygonia oreas (Edwards, 1869) – oreas anglewing, oreas comma, sylvan anglewing

Polygonia progne (Cramer, 1775) – grey comma, gray comma

Polygonia satyrus (Edwards, 1869) – satyr anglewing, satyr comma

Polygonia undina (Grum-Grshimailo, 1890)

Polygonia zephyrus (Edwards, 1870) – zephyr comma

Polygonia progne

Polygonia progne, the gray comma or grey comma, is a species of Polygonia that occurs in North America.


Procne (; Ancient Greek: Πρόκνη, Próknē [pró.knɛː]) is a minor figure in Greek mythology. She was the elder daughter of a king of Athens named Pandion and the wife of King Tereus of Thrace. Her beautiful sister Philomela visited the couple and was raped by Tereus, who tore out her tongue to prevent her revealing the crime. She wove a tapestry which made it clear what had been done, and the two women took their revenge.Procne killed her son by Tereus, Itys (or Itylos), boiled him and served him as a meal to her husband. After he had finished his meal, the sisters presented Tereus with the severed head of his son, and he realised what had been done. He snatched up an axe and pursued them with the intent to kill the sisters. They fled but were almost overtaken by Tereus. In desperation, they prayed to the gods to be turned into birds and escape Tereus' rage and vengeance. The gods transformed Procne into a swallow, Philomela into a nightingale and Tereus into a hoopoe. The swallow genera Progne, Ptyonoprogne and Psalidoprocne and the treeswift family Hemiprocnidae derive their names from the myth.

Purple martin

The purple martin (Progne subis) is the largest North American swallow. They are known for their speed and agility in flight, and when approaching their housing, will dive from the sky at great speeds with their wings tucked.

Sibley-Monroe checklist 15

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.

Sinaloa martin

The Sinaloa martin (Progne sinaloae) is a species of bird in the family Hirundinidae.

It breeds semicolonially in sheer cliff faces within pine-oak forests of the Sierra Madre Occidental of western Mexico. Presumed migrant records also come from Belize and Guatemala. It is assumed to winter in South America.

Southern martin

The southern martin (Progne elegans) is a species of bird in the family Hirundinidae.

It is found in Argentina and southern Bolivia ; in winter it migrates to the western Amazon Basin.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, subtropical or tropical moist montane forest, subtropical or tropical dry lowland grassland, subtropical or tropical high-altitude grassland, and urban areas.


The swallows, martins and saw-wings, or Hirundinidae, are a family of passerine birds found around the world on all continents, including occasionally in Antarctica. Highly adapted to aerial feeding, they have a distinctive appearance. The term Swallow is used colloquially in Europe as a synonym for the barn swallow. There are around 90 species of Hirundinidae, divided into 19 genera, with the greatest diversity found in Africa, which is also thought to be where they evolved as hole-nesters. They also occur on a number of oceanic islands. A number of European and North American species are long-distance migrants; by contrast, the West and South African swallows are non-migratory.

This family comprises two subfamilies: Pseudochelidoninae (the river martins of the genus Pseudochelidon) and Hirundininae (all other swallows, martins and saw-wings). Within the Old World, the name martin tends to be used for the squarer-tailed species, and the name swallow for the more fork-tailed species; however, there is no scientific distinction between these two groups. Within the New World, "martin" is reserved for members of the genus Progne. (These two systems are responsible for the sand martin being called "bank swallow" in the New World.)

Swallows (family: Hirundinidae)


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