Professional development

Professional development is learning to earn or maintain professional credentials such as academic degrees to formal coursework, attending conferences, and informal learning opportunities situated in practice. It has been described as intensive and collaborative, ideally incorporating an evaluative stage.[1] There are a variety of approaches to professional development, including consultation, coaching, communities of practice, lesson study, mentoring, reflective supervision and technical assistance.[2]

History

The University of Management and Technology notes the use of the phrase "professional development" from 1857 onwards.

In the training of school staff in the United States, "[t]he need for professional development [...] came to the forefront in the 1960s".[3]

Participants

A wide variety of people, such as teachers, military officers and non-commissioned officers, health care professionals, lawyers, accountants and engineers engage in professional development. Individuals may participate in professional development because of an interest in lifelong learning, a sense of moral obligation, to maintain and improve professional competence, to enhance career progression, to keep abreast of new technology and practices, or to comply with professional regulatory requirements.[4][5] Many American states have professional development requirements for school teachers. For example, Arkansas teachers must complete 60 hours of documented professional development activities annually.[6] Professional development credits are named differently from state to state. For example, teachers: in Indiana are required to earn 90 Continuing Renewal Units (CRUs) per year;[7] in Massachusetts, teachers need 150 Professional Development Points (PDPs);[8] and in Georgia, must earn 10 Professional Learning Units (PLUs).[9] American and Canadian nurses, as well as those in the United Kingdom, have to participate in formal and informal professional development (earning credit based on attendance of education that has been accredited by a regulatory agency) in order to maintain professional registration.[10][11][12]

Professional school

A professional school is a graduate school level institution that prepares students for careers in specific fields. Some of the schools also offer undergraduate degrees in specific professions. Examples of this type of school include: Architecture school, Business school, Divinity school, Engineering school, Journalism school, Law school, Library school, Education school (Normal school), Public policy school and Social work school. The field of healthcare has many professional schools including Medical school, Chiropractic school, Dental school, Pharmacy school, Physician Assistant school, Physiotherapy school, Podiatric medical school, Public health school, Speech-Language Pathology School, Occupational therapy school, Nursing school, Veterinary school and Optometry school.

Approaches

In a broad sense, professional development may include formal types of vocational education, typically post-secondary or poly-technical training leading to qualification or credential required to obtain or retain employment. Professional development may also come in the form of pre-service or in-service professional development programs. These programs may be formal, or informal, group or individualized. Individuals may pursue professional development independently, or programs may be offered by human resource departments. Professional development on the job may develop or enhance process skills, sometimes referred to as leadership skills, as well as task skills. Some examples for process skills are 'effectiveness skills', 'team functioning skills', and 'systems thinking skills'.[13][14]

Professional development opportunities can range from a single workshop to a semester-long academic course, to services offered by a medley of different professional development providers and varying widely with respect to the philosophy, content, and format of the learning experiences. Some examples of approaches to professional development include:[2]

  • Case Study Method – The case method is a teaching approach that consists in presenting the students with a case, putting them in the role of a decision maker facing a problem (Hammond 1976) – See Case method.
  • Consultation – to assist an individual or group of individuals to clarify and address immediate concerns by following a systematic problem-solving process.
  • Coaching – to enhance a person’s competencies in a specific skill area by providing a process of observation, reflection, and action.
  • Communities of Practice – to improve professional practice by engaging in shared inquiry and learning with people who have a common goal
  • Lesson Study – to solve practical dilemmas related to intervention or instruction through participation with other professionals in systematically examining practice
  • Mentoring – to promote an individual's awareness and refinement of his or her own professional development by providing and recommending structured opportunities for reflection and observation
  • Reflective Supervision – to support, develop, and ultimately evaluate the performance of employees through a process of inquiry that encourages their understanding and articulation of the rationale for their own practices
  • Technical Assistance – to assist individuals and their organization to improve by offering resources and information, supporting networking and change efforts.

The World Bank's 2019 World Development Report on the future of work [15] argues that professional development opportunities for those both in and out of work, such as flexible learning opportunities at universities and adult learning programs, enable labor markets to adjust to the future of work.

Initial

Initial professional development (IPD) is defined as "a period of development during which an individual acquires a level of competence necessary in order to operate as an autonomous professional".[16] Professional associations may recognise the successful completion of IPD by the award of chartered or similar status. Examples of professional bodies that require IPD prior to the award of professional status are the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications,[17] the Institution of Structural Engineers,[18] and the Institution of Occupational Safety and Health.[19]

Continuing

Continuing professional development (CPD) or continuing professional education (CPE) is continuing education to maintain knowledge and skills. Most professions have CPD obligations. Examples are the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors,[20] American Academy of Financial Management,[21] safety professionals with the International Institute of Risk & Safety Management (IIRSM)[22] or the Institution of Occupational Safety and Health (IOSH),[23] and medical and legal professionals, who are subject to continuing medical education or continuing legal education requirements, which vary by jurisdiction.

See also

References

  1. ^ Speck, M. & Knipe, C. (2005) Why can't we get it right? Designing high-quality professional development for standards-based schools(2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press
  2. ^ a b National Professional Development Center on Inclusion. (2008). "What do we mean by professional development in the early childhood field?". Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina, FPG Child Development Institute.
  3. ^ Murphy-Latta, Terry (2008). A Comparative Study of Professional Development Utilizing the Missouri Commissioner's Award of Excellence and Indicators of Student Achievement. ProQuest. p. 19. ISBN 9780549489900. Retrieved 2013-08-12. Throughout the history of American education, numerous theories and issues have been emphasized as important factors in teaching and learning. The need for professional development for school staff came to the forefront in the 1960s.
  4. ^ Golding, L. & Gray, I. (2006).Continuing professional development for clinical psychologists:A practical handbook. The British Psychological Society. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing
  5. ^ Jasper, M. (2006).Professional development, reflection, and decision-making. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
  6. ^ "Professional Development and Renewal of Standard Teaching License". ArkansasEd.org. Arkansas Department of Education. Archived from the original on 30 April 2009.
  7. ^ "Indiana Certification Renewal | Find Out How to Renew Indiana Teaching Certificates on". Teacher-world.com. Retrieved 2014-03-20.
  8. ^ "Recertification Q and A - Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education". Doe.mass.edu. 2014-02-03. Retrieved 2014-03-20.
  9. ^ "Georgia Teacher Certification Information - Georgia PLU's Resources Online - GA Teaching License Resources". Teachersprofessionallearningunits.com. Archived from the original on 2013-12-16. Retrieved 2014-03-20.
  10. ^ "Continuing Competence". College of Registered Nurses of Manitoba. April 2004. Archived from the original on 31 May 2008.
  11. ^ "Continuing Education". North Dakota Board of Nursing. Archived from the original on 7 February 2009.
  12. ^ "The Nursing and Midwifery Council | Nursing and Midwifery Council". Nmc-uk.org. 2014-03-14. Retrieved 2014-03-20.
  13. ^ Garet, M. S.; Porter, A. C; Desimone, L.; Birman, B. F; Yoon, K. S. (1 January 2001). "What Makes Professional Development Effective? Results From a National Sample of Teachers". American Educational Research Journal. 38 (4): 915–945. doi:10.3102/00028312038004915.
  14. ^ "Connecting Coaches to Corporates". twofold.asia. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  15. ^ World Bank World Development Report 2019: The Changing Nature of Work.
  16. ^ The UK Initial Professional Development (IPD) Forum http://www.littlerichley.eclipse.co.uk/ukipdforum/
  17. ^ "Initial Professional Development (IPD)". The Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  18. ^ "Initial Professional Development". The Institution of Structural Engineers. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
  19. ^ "Membership: About membership: Professional development: About IPD". (IOSH). Retrieved 9 August 2014.
  20. ^ "About RCIS: What we do: Continuing professional development (CPD)". Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
  21. ^ "GAFM ® Certified Financial Analyst Certification Risk Certified Financial Planner Books GAFM ® - AFA Accredited Financial Analyst ® Certification - AMA Accredited Management Accountant ® - MMC Master Management Consultant ® Chartered Economist - Continuing Ed". www.financialanalyst.org.
  22. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-09-27. Retrieved 2013-09-16.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  23. ^ "Membership: About membership: Professional development: About CPD". (IOSH). Retrieved 9 August 2014.

External links

2012–13 Professional U18 Development League

The 2012–13 Professional U18 Development League (League 1 referred to as the Barclays Under 18 Premier League for sponsorship reasons) is the first season of the Professional Development League system.

2012–13 Professional U21 Development League

The 2012–13 Professional U21 Development League (League 1 referred to as the Barclays Under 21 Premier League for sponsorship reasons ) was the inaugural season of the Professional Development League's U21 competition.

There were 45 participating teams in the 2012–13 Professional U21 Development Leagues; 22 in League 1 and 23 in League 2 (12 in the North Division, 11 in the South Division).

2013–14 Professional U21 Development League

The 2013–14 Professional U21 Development League (League 1 referred to as the Barclays Under 21 Premier League for sponsorship reasons) was the second season of the Professional Development League system.

There were 42 participating teams in the 2013–14 Professional U21 Development Leagues; 22 in League 1, and 20 in League 2.

League 1 had a new format, with the three groups system being abandoned in favour of a single league system with the teams finishing in the top four positions qualifying for a playoff stage.

2014–15 Professional U21 Development League

The 2014–15 Professional U21 Development League was the third season of the Professional Development League system.

2017–18 Professional U23 Development League

The 2017–18 Professional U23 Development League was the sixth season of the Professional Development League system.

2018–19 Professional U23 Development League

The 2018–19 Professional U23 Development League is the seventh season of the Professional Development League system.

ASME

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) is an American professional association that, in its own words, "promotes the art, science, and practice of multidisciplinary engineering and allied sciences around the globe" via "continuing education, training and professional development, codes and standards, research, conferences and publications, government relations, and other forms of outreach." ASME is thus an engineering society, a standards organization, a research and development organization, an advocacy organization, a provider of training and education, and a nonprofit organization. Founded as an engineering society focused on mechanical engineering in North America, ASME is today multidisciplinary and global.

ASME has over 110,000 members in more than 150 countries worldwide.ASME was founded in 1880 by Alexander Lyman Holley, Henry Rossiter Worthington, John Edison Sweet and Matthias N. Forney in response to numerous steam boiler pressure vessel failures. Known for setting codes and standards for mechanical devices, ASME conducts one of the world's largest technical publishing operations, holds numerous technical conferences and hundreds of professional development courses each year, and sponsors numerous outreach and educational programs.

Career break

A career break is a period of time out from employment. Traditionally, this is for women to raise children, but it is sometimes used for people taking time out of their career for personal development and/or professional development.

Cornell University School of Hotel Administration

The School of Hotel Administration (SHA, more commonly known as the Hotel School) at Cornell University is a specialized business school in the SC Johnson College of Business at Cornell University, a private Ivy League university located in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1922, it was the world's first four-year intercollegiate school devoted to hospitality management.

The undergraduate business curriculum at SHA is one of only three such Ivy League programs accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB). Students in the Hotel School are referred to as Hotelies.

EBSCO Information Services

EBSCO Information Services, headquartered in Ipswich, Massachusetts, is a division of EBSCO Industries Inc., the third largest private company in Birmingham, Alabama, with annual sales of nearly $2 billion according to the BBJ's 2013 Book of Lists. EBSCO offers library resources to customers in academic, medical, K–12, public library, law, corporate, and government markets. Its products include EBSCONET, a complete e-resource management system, and EBSCOhost, which supplies a fee-based online research service with 375 full-text databases, a collection of 600,000-plus ebooks, subject indexes, point-of-care medical references, and an array of historical digital archives. In 2010, EBSCO introduced its EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS) to institutions, which allows searches of a portfolio of journals and magazines.

Faculty of Education, University of Cambridge

The Faculty of Education is the School of Education located in Cambridge, UK. It is part of the School of Humanities and Social Sciences at the University of Cambridge. Established in 2001.

Courses at the school include undergraduate programme, masters and doctoral programmes, initial teacher education and training and professional development studies:

MPhil (full-time)

Master of Education (part-time)

PhD (full and part-time)

EdD (part-time)

Undergraduate Education BA

Postgraduate Professional Development, including an accredited Counselling Programme

Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE)

Students at the University of Cambridge Faculty of Education also join one of the Cambridge Colleges.

The Faculty is situated on Hills Road, near Homerton College.

Missouri Research and Education Network

Missouri Research and Education Network (MOREnet) is a member-driven consortium, operating as a separate business unit within the University of Missouri. They are primarily made up of Missouri's K-12 schools, colleges and universities, public libraries and government organizations. In addition to maintaining a computer network for Internet access to school districts and libraries in the U.S. state of Missouri. they also provide technology consulting, a technology help desk as well as professional development and training, consortium discounts and a la carte services by a team of approximately 85 subject matter experts.

Naval Education and Training Command

The Naval Education and Training Command (NETC) is an enterprise level shore command of the United States Navy that is responsible for training, education and professional development of the Navy's 400,000 active duty and reserve Sailors through accession, continuing education, and advancement training. The Chief of Naval Education and Training (CNET), currently a 2-star Admiral, directs over 22,000 personnel and over 160 various activities tasked with the preponderance of training activities for USN and USMC officer and enlisted personnel. NETC itself is headquartered aboard Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida, with NETC N7 located onboard Naval Station Norfolk.

Non-Commissioned Officer Professional Development Ribbon

A Noncommissioned Officer Professional Development Ribbon is an award presented by the United States Army and Air Force to recognize those noncommissioned officers who have completed a prescribed leadership course at an NCO training school. The Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard have no equivalent to the Noncommissioned Officer Development Ribbon.

Professional Development League

The Professional Development League is a system of youth football leagues that are managed, organised and controlled by the Premier League or by the Football League. It was introduced by the Football Association via the Elite Player Performance Plan in 2012.The system was introduced in early 2012 and was active for the first time during the 2012–13 season. It is a successor to the Premier Reserve League, Premier Academy League and Football Combination. The Football League Youth Alliance makes up League 3 of the under 18 system. The system covers the under-18, under-21 and under-23 age groups.Previously, clubs participating in the Premier Reserve League (the highest level of reserve football in England) were removed from the competition if their first team in the Premier League were relegated and replaced with a promoted team. Under the Professional Development League system, Premier League reserves teams' league status is not directly linked to the first team's Premier League status. Instead, there are three different Professional Development Leagues at each age-group level and clubs in the top four tiers of the English football league system are placed in the system based on the assessment of their academy for the Elite Player Performance Plan (EPPP).

Routing Information Protocol

The Routing Information Protocol ('RIP') is one of the oldest distance-vector routing protocols which employ the hop count as a routing metric. RIP prevents routing loops by implementing a limit on the number of hops allowed in a path from source to destination. The largest number of hops allowed for RIP is 15, which limits the size of networks that RIP can support.

RIP implements the split horizon, route poisoning and holddown mechanisms to prevent incorrect routing information from being propagated.

In RIPv1 routers broadcast updates with their routing table every 30 seconds. In the early deployments, routing tables were small enough that the traffic was not significant. As networks grew in size, however, it became evident there could be a massive traffic burst every 30 seconds, even if the routers had been initialized at random times.

In most networking environments, RIP is not the preferred choice for routing as its time to converge and scalability are poor compared to EIGRP, OSPF, or IS-IS. However, it is easy to configure, because RIP does not require any parameters unlike other protocols.

RIP uses the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) as its transport protocol, and is assigned the reserved port number 520.

Sabbatical

A sabbatical (from Hebrew: shabbat (שבת) (i.e., Sabbath), in Latin: sabbaticus, in Greek: sabbatikos (σαββατικός)) is a rest or break from work.

Teacher education

Teacher education (TE) or teacher training refers to the policies, procedures, and provision designed to equip (prospective) teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school, and wider community.

The professionals who engage in this activity are called teacher educators (or, in some contexts, teacher trainers).

There is a longstanding and ongoing debate about the most appropriate term to describe these activities. The term 'teacher training' (which may give the impression that the activity involves training staff to undertake relatively routine tasks) seems to be losing ground, at least in the U.S., to 'teacher education' (with its connotation of preparing staff for a professional role as a reflective practitioner).

Training

Training is teaching, or developing in oneself or others, any skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. Training has specific goals of improving one's capability, capacity, productivity and performance. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of technology (also known as technical colleges or polytechnics). In addition to the basic training required for a trade, occupation or profession, observers of the labor-market recognize as of 2008 the need to continue training beyond initial qualifications: to maintain, upgrade and update skills throughout working life. People within many professions and occupations may refer to this sort of training as professional development.

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