Productivity (ecology)

In ecology, productivity refers to the rate of generation of biomass in an ecosystem. It is usually expressed in units of mass per unit surface (or volume) per unit time, for instance grams per square metre per day (g m−2 d−1). The mass unit may relate to dry matter or to the mass of carbon generated. Productivity of autotrophs such as plants is called primary productivity, while that of heterotrophs such as animals is called secondary productivity.[1]

Primary production

Primary production is the synthesis of new organic material from inorganic molecules such as H
and CO
. It is dominated by the process of photosynthesis which uses sunlight to synthesise organic molecules such as sugar.

Secondary production

Secondary production is the generation of biomass of heterotrophic (consumer) organisms in a system. This is driven by the transfer of organic material between trophic levels, and represents the quantity of new tissue created through the use of assimilated food. Secondary production is sometimes defined to only include consumption of primary producers by herbivorous consumers[2] (with tertiary production referring to carnivorous consumers),[3] but is more commonly defined to include all biomass generation by heterotrophs.[1]

Organisms responsible for secondary production include animals, protists, fungi and many bacteria.

Secondary production can be estimated through a number of different methods including increment summation, removal summation, the instantaneous growth method and the Allen curve method.[4] The choice between these methods will depend on the assumptions of each and the ecosystem under study. For instance, whether cohorts should be distinguished, whether linear mortality can be assumed and whether population growth is exponential.

See also


  1. ^ a b Allaby, Michael, ed. (2006) [1994]. A Dictionary of Ecology (Third ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-860905-6. Retrieved 2009-12-03.
  2. ^ "Definition of term: "Secondary production"". The Glossary Table. FishBase. Retrieved 2009-12-03.
  3. ^ "Definition of term: "Tertiary production"". The Glossary Table. FishBase. Retrieved 2009-12-03.
  4. ^ Allen, K.R. (1951). "The Horokiwi Stream: A study of a trout population". New Zealand Marine Department Fisheries Bulletin. 10: 1–238.
Beed district

Beed district is an administrative district in the state of Maharashtra in India. The district headquarters are located at Beed. The district occupies an area of 10,693 km² and has a population of 2,585,962 of which 17.91% were urban (as of 2011).

J. Chokka Rao Devadula lift irrigation sceheme

The J. Chokka Rao Devadula lift irrigation scheme is a lift irrigation scheme in India. It is the second biggest of its kind in Asia. Devadula is the place in Warangal District, Telangana, where the scheme's intake well is located.

Kamptee Coalfield

Kamptee Coalfield is located in Nagpur district in the Vidarbha region of the Indian state of Maharashtra.

Karanja River

The Karanja River is a tributary of the Manjira River. The river basin is up to 2,422 km sq. The Karanja river is perennial river. It flows over a distance of 74 km with Karanja reservoir being major water source. The river is not navigable.

Kinnerasani River

Kinnerasani' is an important tributary of Godavari flowing through the Warangal and Bhadradri districts of Telangana and West Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh.

In the Khammam District, a dam known as the Kinnerasani Dam is built on this river. The back waters of the dam are surrounded by verdant hills and come to be protected under the precincts of the Kinnerasani Wildlife Sanctuary.

The river drains on the right bank of Godavari in Telangana and forms common boundary between Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states before its confluence with main Godavari river.

Maner River

The Maner river or Manair or Maneru (Marathi : मानेर)(Telugu: మానేరు) is a tributary to the Godavari River in India. The Lower Maner Dam built across this river provides drinking water to Karimnagar, Telangana and also to the NTPC power plant at Ramagundam. Mid Manair Dam was constructed at Manvada village near Sircilla and upper Manair Dam was constructed during Nizam period near Narmala village in Gambhiraopet mandal of Karimnagar district.

Medak district

Medak district is a district located in the Indian state of Telangana. Medak is the district headquarters. The district shares boundaries with Sangareddy, Kamareddy, Siddipet and Medchal districts.


A planktivore is an aquatic organism that feeds on planktonic food, including zooplankton and phytoplankton.

Pravara River

Pravara is the smallest of the major tributaries of Godavari river located in Maharashtra, India. Among the 7 major tributaries, it is the only tributary which originates in the Western Ghats akin to Godavari. Also, it is the only major tributary of Godavari to have both its source and confluence located within the same district - Ahmednagar.


Production may be:

In economics:

Production (economics)

Outline of industrial organization, the act of making products (goods and services)

Production, the act of manufacturing goods

Production as statistic, gross domestic product

A Production lineIn ecology:

Primary production, the production of new biomass by autotrophs in ecosystems

Productivity (ecology), the wider concept of biomass production in ecosystemsIn entertainment:

FilmProduction, phase of filmmaking

Production, film distributor of a companyOtherProduction, phase of video games development

Production, category of illusory magic trick

Production, theatrical performance

Production, video production

Production, Record producer

Production, deployment environment where changes go "live" and users interact with itIn abstract systems:

Production (computer science), formal-grammar concept

Productivity (disambiguation)

Productivity, in economics, is the amount of output created produced per unit input used.

Productivity may also refer to:

Agricultural productivity, the ratio of agricultural outputs to agricultural inputs.

Productivity (linguistics), the degree to which a grammatical process can be extended to new cases.

Productivity (ecology), the rate of generation of biomass in an ecosystem.

Primary production, in ecology is a measure of the amount of energy incorporated into a biological system.

Productivity (economic history), the historical role of technology and non technology factors in creating the modern economy.

Programming productivity, the degree of the ability of individual programmers or development teams to build and evolve software systems.

Time management, the process of planning and exercising conscious control over the amount of time spent on specific activities, especially to increase effectiveness, efficiency or productivity.

Ramagundam B Thermal Power Station

Ramagundam B Super Thermal Power Plant is located at Ramagundam in Telangana. The power plant is one of the coal based power plants of TSGENCO

Ravva oil field

The Ravva oil field in the Krishna Godavari Basin located in coastal Andhra Pradesh.

Shivana River

Shivna Nadi is a minor but important tributary of Godavari lying entirely within Aurangabad district, Maharashtra.It rises in the Kannad taluka, from the south-western slope of the Ajanta Hills which also holds the origin to another major tributary Purna.

Taliperu River

Taliperu is a river in the Godavari system originating in the Bijapur District of Chhattisgarh. It is a left-bank tributary of Godavari River, draining into it through a confluence located near Cherla in the Khammam District in Telangana.

The river has been harnessed for agricultural purposes through extensive canal systems developed in that region. A dam known as the Taliperu Project has been built on the river for this purpose. The water impounded by it is known as the Taliperu Reservoir, which is a medium irrigation project located at Cherla Village and Mandal, Khammam District, Telangana. This project utilizes about 5.0 TMC of water and creates 24500 Acres of Ayacut in both Cherla and Dummugudem Mandals, Khammam District.

Upper Dudhana Dam

Upper Dudhana Dam, is an earthfill dam on Dudhana river near Jalna in the state of Maharashtra in India.

Wardha River

The Wardha River (Varada River, is one of the biggest rivers in Vidarbha region in India. The Wardha River joins the Wainganga River south of Chamorshi and forms the Pranahita River at Adilabad District, Telangana.

Wardha Valley Coalfield

Wardha Valley Coalfield is located mainly in Chandrapur district in the Vidarbha region of the Indian state of Maharashtra.

Wardha district

Wardha district is in the state of Maharashtra in western India. This district is a part of Nagpur Division. The city of Wardha is the administrative headquarters of the district. Hinganghat and wardha are the major cities in district.The district had a population of 1,300,774, of which 26.28% were urban as of 2011.

Food webs
Example webs
Ecology: Modelling ecosystems: Other components
Aquatic ecosystems

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