Procrastination is the avoidance of doing a task that needs to be accomplished by a certain deadline.[1] It could be further stated as a habitual or intentional delay of starting or finishing a task despite knowing it might have negative consequences.[2] It is a common human experience involving delay in everyday chores or even putting off salient tasks such as attending an appointment, submitting a job report or academic assignment, or broaching a stressful issue with a partner. Although typically perceived as a negative trait due to its hindering effect on one's productivity often associated with depression, low self-esteem, guilt and inadequacy;[3] it can also be considered a wise response to certain demands that could present risky or negative outcomes or require waiting for new information to arrive.[4]

From a cultural perspective, students from both Western and non-Western cultures are found to exhibit academic procrastination, but for different reasons. Students from Western cultures tend to procrastinate in order to avoid doing worse than they have done before or from failing to learn as much as they should have, whereas students from non-Western cultures tend to procrastinate in order to avoid looking incompetent, or to avoid demonstrating a lack of ability in front of their peers.[5] It is also important to consider how different cultural perspectives of time management can impact procrastination. For example, in cultures that have a multi-active view of time, people tend to place a higher value on making sure a job is done accurately before finishing. In cultures with a linear view of time, people tend to designate a certain amount of time on a task and stop once the allotted time has expired.[6]

Various types of procrastination (such as academic/non-academic or behavioural/indecisive) have their own underlying causes and effects. The most prominent explanation in present literature draws upon "Intemporal discounting, task averseness and certain personality traits such as indecisiveness and distractibility" as the common causes of procrastination.

A study of behavioral patterns of pigeons through delayed reward suggests that procrastination is not unique to humans, but can also be observed in some other animals.[7] There are experiments finding clear evidence for "procrastination" among pigeons, which show that pigeons tend to choose a complex but delayed task rather than an easy but hurry-up one.[8]


Latin: procrastinare, pro-, 'forward', with -crastinus, 'till next day' from "cras", 'tomorrow'.


In a study of academic procrastination from the University of Vermont, published in 1984, 46% of the subjects reported that they "always" or "nearly always" procrastinate writing papers, while approximately 30% reported procrastinating studying for exams and reading weekly assignments (by 28% and 30% respectively). Nearly a quarter of the subjects reported that procrastination was a problem for them regarding the same tasks. However, as many as 65% indicated that they would like to reduce their procrastination when writing papers, and approximately 62% indicated the same for studying for exams and 55% for reading weekly assignments.[9]

A 1992 study showed that "52% of surveyed students indicated having a moderate to high need for help concerning procrastination."[10] It is estimated that 80–95% of college students engage in procrastination, and approximately 75% consider themselves procrastinators.

In a study performed on university students, procrastination was shown to be greater on tasks that were perceived as unpleasant or as impositions than on tasks for which the student believed they lacked the required skills for accomplishing the task.[11]

Another point of relevance is that of procrastination in industry. A study: The Impact of Organizational and Personal Factors on Procrastination in Employees of a Modern Russian Industrial Enterprise published in the Psychology in Russia: State of the Art journal, helped to identify the many factors that affected employees' procrastination habits. Some of which include intensity of performance evaluations, importance of their duty within a company, and their perception and opinions on management and/or upper level decisions.[12]

Behavioral criteria of academic procrastination

Gregory Schraw, Theresa Wadkins, and Lori Olafson in 2007 proposed three criteria for a behavior to be classified as academic procrastination: it must be counterproductive, needless, and delaying.[13] Steel reviewed all previous attempts to define procrastination, and concluded in a 2007 study that procrastination is "to voluntarily delay an intended course of action despite expecting to be worse off for the delay."[14] Sabini & Silver argued that postponement and irrationality are the two key features of procrastination. Delaying a task is not deemed as procrastination, they argue, if there are rational reasons behind the delay.

An approach that integrates several core theories of motivation as well as meta-analytic research on procrastination is the temporal motivation theory. It summarizes key predictors of procrastination (expectancy, value, and impulsiveness) into a mathematical equation.[14]

Psychological perspective

The pleasure principle may be responsible for procrastination; one may prefer to avoid negative emotions by delaying stressful tasks. As the deadline for their target of procrastination grows closer, they are more stressed and may, thus, decide to procrastinate more to avoid this stress.[15] Some psychologists cite such behavior as a mechanism for coping with the anxiety associated with starting or completing any task or decision.[16] Piers Steel indicated in 2010 that anxiety is just as likely to induce people to start working early as late, and that the focus of studies on procrastination should be impulsiveness. That is, anxiety will cause people to delay only if they are impulsive.[17]

Coping responses

Negative coping responses of procrastination tend to be avoidant or emotional rather than task-oriented or focused on problem-solving. Emotional and avoidant coping is employed to reduce stress (and cognitive dissonance) associated with delaying intended and important personal goals. This option provides immediate pleasure and is consequently very attractive to impulsive procrastinators, at the point of discovery of the achievable goals at hand.[18][19] There are several emotion-oriented strategies, similar to Freudian defense mechanisms, coping styles and self-handicapping.

Coping responses of procrastinators include the following.

  • Avoidance: Avoiding the location or situation where the task takes place (e.g. a graduate student avoiding driving into the university).
  • Denial and trivialization: Pretending that procrastinatory behavior is not actually procrastinating, but rather a task which is more important than the avoided one, or that the essential task that should be done is not of immediate importance.
  • Distraction: Engaging or immersing in other behaviors or actions to prevent awareness of the task (e.g. intensive video game playing or web browsing). The subject is very sensitive to instant gratification and becomes absorbed in coping behaviors beyond self-restraint.
  • Descending counterfactuality: Comparing consequences of one's procrastinatory behavior with others' worse situations (e.g. "Yes, I procrastinated and got a B− in the course, but I didn't fail like one other student did.")
  • Valorisation: Pointing in satisfaction to what one achieved in the meantime while one should have been doing something else.
  • Blaming: Delusional attributions to external factors, such as rationalizing that the procrastination is due to external forces beyond one's control (e.g. "I'm not procrastinating, but this assignment is tough.")
  • Mocking: Using humor to validate one's procrastination. The person uses slapstick or slipshod methods to criticize and ridicule others' striving towards the goal.

Task- or problem-solving measures are taxing from a procrastinator's outlook. If such measures are pursued, it is less likely the procrastinator would remain a procrastinator. However, pursuing such measures requires actively changing one's behavior or situation to prevent and minimize the re-occurrence of procrastination.

In 2006, it was suggested that neuroticism has no direct links to procrastination and that any relationship is fully mediated by conscientiousness.[20] In 1982, it had been suggested that irrationality was an inherent feature of procrastination. "Putting things off even until the last moment isn't procrastination if there is a reason to believe that they will take only that moment".[21] Steel et al. explained in 2001, "actions must be postponed and this postponement must represent poor, inadequate, or inefficient planning".[22]

Cultural Perspective

According to Holly McGregor & Andrew Elliot (2002); Christopher Wolters (2003), academic procrastination among portions of undergraduate students has been correlated to performance-avoidance orientation which is one factor of the four factor model of achievement orientation.[5] Andrew Elliot and Judith Harackiewicz (1996) showed that students with a performance-avoidance orientation tend to be concerned with comparisons to their peers. These students procrastinate as a result of not wanting to look incompetent, or to avoid demonstrating a lack of ability and adopt a facade of competence for a task in front of their peers.[5]

Gregory Arief Liem and Youyan Nie (2008) found that cultural characteristics are shown to have a direct influence on achievement orientation because it is closely aligned with most students cultural values and beliefs.[5] Sonja Dekker and Ronald Fischer's (2008) meta-analysis across thirteen different societies revealed that students from Western cultures tend to be motivated more by mastery-approach orientation because the degree of incentive value for individual achievement is strongly reflective of the values of Western culture. By contrast, most students from Eastern cultures have been found to be performance-avoidance orientated. They often make efforts to maintain a positive image of their abilities, which they display while in front of their peers.[5] In addition, Hazel Rose Markus and Shinobu Kitayama (1991) showed that in non-Western cultures, rather than standing out through their achievements, people tend to be motivated to become part of various interpersonal relationships and to fit in with those that are relevant to them.[5]

Research by Sushila Niles (1998) with Australian (Western) students and Sri Lankan (Eastern) students confirm these differences, revealing that Australian students often pursued more individual goals, whereas Sri Lankan students usually desired more collaborative and social goals.[5] Multiple studies by Kuo-Shu Yang and An-Bang Yu (1987, 1988, 1990) have indicated that individual achievement among most Chinese and Japanese students are measured by a fulfillment of their obligation and responsibility to their family network, not to an individual accomplishment.[5] Yang and Yu (1987) have also shown that Collectivism and Confucianism are very strong motivators for achievement in many non-Western cultures because of their emphasis on cooperation in the family unit and community.[5] Guided by these cultural values, it is believed that the individual intuitively senses the degree of pressure that differentiates his or her factor of achievement orientation.[5]

Health perspective

To a certain degree it is normal to procrastinate and it can be regarded as a useful way to prioritize between tasks, due to a lower tendency of procrastination on truly valued tasks (for most people).[23] On the other hand, excessive procrastination can become a problem and impede normal functioning. When this happens, procrastination has been found to result in health problems, stress,[24] anxiety, sense of guilt and crisis as well as loss of personal productivity and social disapproval for not meeting responsibilities or commitments. Together these feelings may promote further procrastination and for some individuals procrastination becomes almost chronic. Such procrastinators may have difficulties seeking support due to procrastination itself, but also social stigma and the belief that task-aversion is caused by laziness, lack of willpower or low ambition. In some cases problematic procrastination might be a sign of some underlying psychological disorder, but not necessarily.[14]

Research on the physiological roots of procrastination have been concerned with the role of the prefrontal cortex,[25] the area of the brain that is responsible for executive brain functions such as impulse control, attention and planning. This is consistent with the notion that procrastination is strongly related to such functions, or a lack thereof. The prefrontal cortex also acts as a filter, decreasing distracting stimuli from other brain regions. Damage or low activation in this area can reduce one's ability to avert diversions, which results in poorer organization, a loss of attention, and increased procrastination. This is similar to the prefrontal lobe's role in ADHD, where it is commonly underactivated.[26]

In a 2014 U.S. study surveying procrastination and impulsiveness in fraternal- and identical twin pairs, both traits were found to be "moderately heritable". The two traits were not separable at the genetic level (rgenetic = 1.0), meaning no unique genetic influences of either trait alone was found.[27] The authors confirmed three constructs developed from the evolutionary hypothesis that procrastination arose as a by-product of impulsivity: "(a) Procrastination is heritable, (b) the two traits share considerable genetic variation, and (c) goal-management ability is an important component of this shared variation."[27]


Psychologist William J. Knaus estimated that more than 90% of college students procrastinate.[28] Of these students, 25% are chronic procrastinators and typically abandon higher education (college dropouts).

Perfectionism is a prime cause for procrastination[29] because pursuing unattainable goals (perfection) usually results in failure. Unrealistic expectations destroy self-esteem and lead to self-repudiation, self-contempt, and widespread unhappiness. To overcome procrastination, it is essential to recognize and accept the power of failure without condemning,[30] to stop focusing on faults and flaws and to set goals that are easier to achieve.

Behaviors and practices that reduce procrastination:

  • Awareness of habits and thoughts that lead to procrastinating.
  • Seeking help for self-defeating problems such as fear, anxiety, difficulty in concentrating, poor time management, indecisiveness, and perfectionism.
  • Fair evaluation of personal goals, strengths, weaknesses, and priorities.
  • Realistic goals and personal positive links between the tasks and the concrete, meaningful goals.[31]
  • Structuring and organization of daily activities.[31]
  • Modification of one's environment for that newly gained perspective: the elimination or minimization of noise or distraction; investing effort into relevant matters; and ceasing day-dreaming.[31]
  • Disciplining oneself to set priorities.[31]
  • Motivation with enjoyable activities, socializing and constructive hobbies.
  • Approaching issues in small blocks of time, instead of attempting whole problems at once and risking intimidation.
  • To prevent relapse, reinforce pre-set goals based on needs and allow yourself to be rewarded in a balanced way for accomplished tasks.

Making a plan to complete tasks in a rigid schedule format might not work for everyone. There is no hard-and-fast rule to follow such a process if it turns out to be counter-productive. Instead of scheduling, it may be better to execute tasks in a flexible, unstructured schedule which has time slots for only necessary activities.[32]

Piers Steel suggests[33] that better time management is a key to overcoming procrastination, including being aware of and using one's "power hours" (being a "morning person" or "night owl"). A good approach is to creatively utilize one's internal circadian rhythms that are best suited for the most challenging and productive work. Steel states that it is essential to have realistic goals, to tackle one problem at a time and to cherish the "small successes". Brian O'Leary supports that "finding a work-life balance...may actually help us find ways to be more productive", suggesting that dedicating leisure activities as motivation can increase one's efficiency at handling tasks.[34] Procrastination is not a lifelong trait. Those likely to worry can learn to let go, those who procrastinate can find different methods and strategies to help focus and avoid impulses.[35]

After contemplating his own procrastination habits, philosopher John Perry authored an essay entitled "Structured Procrastination",[36] wherein he proposes a "cheat" method as a safer approach for tackling procrastination: using a pyramid scheme to reinforce the unpleasant tasks needed to be completed in a quasi-prioritized order.

Severe and negative impact

For some people, procrastination can be persistent and tremendously disruptive to everyday life. For these individuals, procrastination may be symptomatic of a psychological disorder. Procrastination has been linked to a number of negative associations, such as depression, irrational behaviour, low self-esteem, anxiety and neurological disorders such as ADHD. Others have found relationships with guilt[37] and stress.[24] Therefore, it is important for people whose procrastination has become chronic and is perceived to be debilitating to seek out a trained therapist or psychiatrist to investigate whether an underlying mental health issue may be present.[38]

With a distant deadline, procrastinators report significantly less stress and physical illness than do non-procrastinators. However, as the deadline approaches, this relationship is reversed. Procrastinators report more stress, more symptoms of physical illness, and more medical visits,[24] to the extent that, overall, procrastinators suffer more stress and health problems.


Procrastination has been linked to the complex arrangement of cognitive, affective and behavioral relationships from task desirability to low self esteem and anxiety to depression.[9] A study found that procrastinators were less future-oriented than their non-procrastinator counterparts. This result was hypothesized to be in association with hedonistic perspectives on the present; instead it was found procrastination was better predicted by a fatalistic and hopeless attitude towards life.[39]

A correlation between procrastination and eveningness was observed where individuals who had later sleeping and waking patterns were more likely to procrastinate. It has been shown that Morningness increases across lifespan and procrastination decreases with age.,[14][40]


Traditionally, procrastination has been associated with perfectionism: a tendency to negatively evaluate outcomes and one's own performance, intense fear and avoidance of evaluation of one's abilities by others, heightened social self-consciousness and anxiety, recurrent low mood, and "workaholism". However, adaptive perfectionists—egosyntonic perfectionism—were less likely to procrastinate than non-perfectionists, while maladaptive perfectionists, who saw their perfectionism as a problem—egodystonic perfectionism—had high levels of procrastination and anxiety.[41] In a regression analysis study of Steel, from 2007, it is found that mild to moderate perfectionists typically procrastinate slightly less than others, with "the exception being perfectionists who were also seeking clinical counseling".[14]


According to an Educational Science Professor, Hatice Odaci, academic procrastination is a significant problem during college years in part because many college students lack efficient time management skills in using the Internet. Also, Odaci notes that most colleges provide free and fast twenty-four-hour Internet service which some students are not usually accustomed to, and as a result of irresponsible use or lack of firewalls these students become engulfed in distractions, and thus in procrastination.[42]

"Student syndrome" refers to the phenomenon where a student will begin to fully apply themself to a task only immediately before a deadline. This negates the usefulness of any buffers built into individual task duration estimates. Results from a 2002 study indicate that many students are aware of procrastination and accordingly set binding deadlines long before the date for which a task is due. These self-imposed binding deadlines are correlated with a better performance than without binding deadlines though performance is best for evenly spaced external binding deadlines. Finally, students have difficulties optimally setting self-imposed deadlines, with results suggesting a lack of spacing before the date at which results are due.[43] In one experiment, participation in online exercises was found to be five times higher in the final week before a deadline than in the summed total of the first three weeks for which the exercises were available. Procrastinators end up being the ones doing most of the work in the final week before a deadline.[22]

Other reasons cited on why students procrastinate include fear of failure and success, perfectionist expectations, as well as legitimate activities that may take precedence over school work, such as a job.[44]

Procrastinators have been found to receive worse grades than non-procrastinators. Tice et al. (1997) report that more than one-third of the variation in final exam scores could be attributed to procrastination. The negative association between procrastination and academic performance is recurring and consistent. Howell et al. (2006) found that, though scores on two widely used procrastination scales[9][45] were not significantly associated with the grade received for an assignment, self-report measures of procrastination on the assessment itself were negatively associated with grade.[46]

In 2005, a study conducted by Angela Chu and Jin Nam Choi and published in the Journal of Social Psychology intended to understand task performance among procrastinators with the definition of procrastination as the absence of self-regulated performance, from the 1977 work of Ellis & Knaus. In their study they identified two types of procrastination: the traditional procrastination which they denote as passive, and active procrastination where the person finds enjoyment of a goal-oriented activity only under pressure. The study calls this active procrastination positive procrastination, as it is a functioning state in a self-handicapping environment. In addition, it was observed that active procrastinators have more realistic perceptions of time and perceive more control over their time than passive procrastinators, which is considered a major differentiator between the two types. But surprisingly, active and passive procrastinators showed similar levels of academic performance. The population of the study was college students and the majority of the sample size were women and Asian in origin. Comparisons with chronic pathological procrastination traits were avoided.[47]

Different findings emerge when observed and self-reported procrastination are compared. Steel et al. constructed their own scales based on Silver and Sabini's "irrational" and "postponement" criteria. They also sought to measure this behavior objectively.[22] During a course, students could complete exam practice computer exercises at their own pace, and during the supervised class time could also complete chapter quizzes. A weighted average of the times at which each chapter quiz was finished formed the measure of observed procrastination, whilst observed irrationality was quantified with the number of practice exercises that were left uncompleted. Researchers found that there was only a moderate correlation between observed and self-reported procrastination (r = 0.35). There was a very strong inverse relationship between the number of exercises completed and the measure of postponement (r = −0.78). Observed procrastination was very strongly negatively correlated with course grade (r = −0.87), as was self-reported procrastination (though less so, r = −0.36). As such, self-reported measures of procrastination, on which the majority of the literature is based, may not be the most appropriate measure to use in all cases. It was also found that procrastination itself may not have contributed significantly to poorer grades. Steel et al. noted that those students who completed all of the practice exercises "tended to perform well on the final exam no matter how much they delayed."

Procrastination is considerably more widespread in students than in the general population, with over 70 percent of students reporting procrastination for assignments at some point.[48] A 2014 panel study from Germany among several thousand university students found that increasing academic procrastination increases the frequency of seven different forms of academic misconduct, i.e., using fraudulent excuses, plagiarism, copying from someone else in exams, using forbidden means in exams, carrying forbidden means into exams, copying parts of homework from others, fabrication or falsification of data and the variety of academic misconduct.[49] This study argues that academic misconduct can be seen as a means to cope with the negative consequences of academic procrastination such as performance impairment.

See also


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  49. ^ Patrzek, J.; Sattler, S.; van Veen, F.; Grunschel, C.; Fries, S. (2014). "Investigating the Effect of Academic Procrastination on the Frequency and Variety of Academic Misconduct: A Panel Study". Studies in Higher Education. 40 (6): 1–16. doi:10.1080/03075079.2013.854765.

Further reading


Impulse control


External links

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder predominantly inattentive

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder predominantly inattentive (ADHD-PI or ADHD-I), is one of the three presentations of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Before 1994, it was classified as attention deficit disorder (ADD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM).

The 'predominantly inattentive subtype' is similar to the other presentations of ADHD except that it is characterized primarily by problems with inattention or a deficit of sustained attention, such as procrastination, hesitation, and forgetfulness. It differs in having fewer or no typical symptoms of hyperactivity or impulsiveness. Lethargy and fatigue are sometimes reported, but ADHD-PI is a separate condition from the proposed cluster of symptoms known as sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT).

Bad habit

A bad habit is a negative behaviour pattern. Common examples include: procrastination, overspending, stereotyping,

nail-biting and spending too much time watching television or using a computer.

Bruce Tuckman

Bruce Wayne Tuckman (November 24, 1938 - March 13, 2016) carried out research into the theory of group dynamics. In 1965, he published one of his theories called "Tuckman's stages of group development". In 1977, he added a fifth stage named Adjourning. According to the Tuckman theory of group development, there are four phases of group development: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing (and Adjourning, added in 1977).

Tuckman was also known for his research on college students' procrastination and development of the Tuckman Procrastination Scale (1991).

He served as professor of educational psychology at The Ohio State University, where he founded and directed the Walter E. Dennis Learning Center with the mission of providing students of all backgrounds with strategies for college success that enabled them to enter, excel in, and complete programs of postsecondary education. To teach students strategies for succeeding in college, he co-authored the textbook, Learning and Motivation Strategies: Your Guide to Success, with Dennis A. Abry and Dennis R. Smith.

Callands, Virginia

Callands is an unincorporated community in Pittsylvania County, in the U.S. state of Virginia. It was named after Samuel Calland, a native of Scotland that immigrated during the 18th century, whose general store became a popular fixture of the community. The area around the store served as the county seat of Pittsylvania County until the end of 1776.

Before the American Revolutionary War, Callands was also the seat of the Antrim Parish, which later became the Camden Parish, of the Virginia colony's established church, the Church of England. The parish priest lived here, and traveled to other churches of the parish in rotation, including the Old Chapel Church in Penhook, Virginia.

"The larger building, on the other side of present-day VA 969, appears (by its exterior and interior design, and by local tradition) to be the courthouse, constructed during 1772 by Roberts after five years' procrastination, but incomplete records of Roberts' tumultuous business and public dealings make it difficult to identify the building for certain as the courthouse structure. By 1777 the court had been moved to present-day Chatham, and by 1788 the large brick building had come into the ownership of James Smith and Samuel Calland. By 1792 Calland was sole owner, and in subsequent years his store and post office in this building gave the community the name used to this day."The Callands Festival (Autumn Potpourri Festival) is held there on the first Saturday of each October.

Prominent families in the Callands community include the Oakes, Rigney, Ricketts, Marlowe, Amos, Blair, Sherlock, Gammon, Jones, Barbour, Harris, Witcher and Brooks.

John Perry (philosopher)

John Richard Perry (born 1943) is Henry Waldgrave Stuart Professor of Philosophy Emeritus at Stanford University and Distinguished Professor of Philosophy Emeritus at the University of California, Riverside. He has made significant contributions to philosophy in the fields of philosophy of language, metaphysics, and philosophy of mind. He is known primarily for his work on situation semantics (together with Jon Barwise), reflexivity, indexicality, personal identity, and self-knowledge.

List of SpongeBob SquarePants episodes

SpongeBob SquarePants is an American animated television series created by marine biologist and animator, Stephen Hillenburg for Nickelodeon. The series is set in the fictional underwater city of Bikini Bottom, and centers on the adventures and endeavors of SpongeBob SquarePants, an over-optimistic sea sponge that annoys other characters. Many of the ideas for the show originated in an unpublished, educational comic book titled The Intertidal Zone, which Hillenburg created in the mid-1980s. He began developing SpongeBob SquarePants into a television series in 1996 after the cancellation of Rocko's Modern Life, another Nickelodeon television series that Hillenburg previously directed.Since its debut on May 1, 1999, SpongeBob SquarePants has broadcast 244 episodes, and its twelfth season premiered on November 11, 2018. The SpongeBob SquarePants Movie, a feature-length film, was released in theaters on November 19, 2004 and grossed over US$140 million worldwide. Atlantis SquarePantis, a television film guest starring David Bowie, debuted as part of the fifth season. In 2009, Nickelodeon celebrated the show's tenth anniversary with Square Roots: The Story of SpongeBob SquarePants and SpongeBob's Truth or Square. The SpongeBob Movie: Sponge Out of Water, a stand-alone sequel, was released in theaters on February 6, 2015 and grossed over US$324 million worldwide.Episodes of SpongeBob SquarePants have been nominated for a variety of different awards, including 17 Annie Awards (with six wins), 17 Golden Reel Awards (with eight wins), 15 Emmy Awards (with one win), 16 Kids' Choice Awards (with 15 wins), and four BAFTA Children's Awards (with two wins). Several compilation DVDs have been released. In addition, the first nine seasons have been released on DVD, and are available for Regions 1, 2 and 4 as of October 10, 2017.


Motivation is the reason for people's actions, willingness and goals. Motivation is derived from the word motive in the English language which is defined as a need that requires satisfaction. These needs could also be wants or desires that are acquired through influence of culture, society, lifestyle, etc. or generally innate. Motivation is one's direction to behaviour, or what causes a person to want to repeat a behaviour, a set of force that acts behind the motives. An individual's motivation may be inspired by others or events (extrinsic motivation) or it may come from within the individual (intrinsic motivation). Motivation has been considered as one of the most important reasons that inspires a person to move forward in life. Motivation results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors. Mastering motivation to allow sustained and deliberate practice is central to high levels of achievement e.g. in the worlds of elite sport, medicine or music.

National Procrastination Week

National Procrastination Week is a national holiday devoted to procrastination and putting-off important tasks. It is an annual event that takes place during the first two weeks of March, but, in spirit of the holiday, the specific dates change annually.


The Complaint: or, Night-Thoughts on Life, Death, & Immortality, better known simply as Night-Thoughts, is a long poem by Edward Young published in nine parts (or "nights") between 1742 and 1745.

The poem is written in blank verse. It describes the poet's musings on death over a series of nine "nights" in which he ponders the loss of his wife and friends, and laments human frailties. The best-known line in the poem (at the end of "Night I") is the adage "procrastination is the thief of time", which is part of a passage in which the poet discusses how quickly life and opportunities can slip away.

Night-Thoughts had a very high reputation for many years after its publication, but is now best known for a major series of illustrations by William Blake in 1797. A lesser-known set of illustrations was created by Thomas Stothard in 1799.

The nine nights are each a poem of their own. They are: "Life, Death, and Immortality" (dedicated to Arthur Onslow); "Time, Death, Friendship" (dedicated to Spencer Compton); "Narcissa" (dedicated to Margaret Bentinck); "The Christian Triumph" (dedicated to Philip Yorke); "The Relapse" (dedicated to George Lee); "The Infidel Reclaim'd" (in two parts, "Glories and Riches" and "The Nature, Proof, and Importance of Immortality"; dedicated to Henry Pelham); "Virtue's Apology; or, The Man of the World Answered" (with no dedication); and "The Consolation" (dedicated to Thomas Pelham-Holles).

In his Life of Samuel Johnson, James Boswell called Night-Thoughts "the grandest and richest poetry that human genius has ever produced".

Passive-aggressive behavior

Passive-aggressive behavior is characterized by a pattern of indirect resistance to the demands or requests of others and an avoidance of direct confrontation. Pretending not to understand is a typical passive-aggressive strategy. Such behavior is often protested by associates, evoking frustration or anger, and labelled "catty", "manipulative", or "acting/going dumb". Passive-aggressive behavior may be subconsciously or consciously used to evoke these emotions and reactions in others. It may also be used as an alternative to verbalizing or acting out their own anger.

It is an act if it is occasional and does not substantially interfere with social or occupational function, or relationships; it is a behavior if it used more persistently; it is a personality disorder if there is a pervasive pattern of such behavior which does interfere in these areas.

Passive–aggressive personality disorder

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders revision IV (DSM-IV) describes passive–aggressive personality disorder as a "pervasive pattern of negativistic attitudes and passive resistance to demands for adequate performance in social and occupational situations."

Passive-aggressive behavior is the obligatory symptom of the passive–aggressive personality disorder. Persons with passive–aggressive personality disorder are characterized by procrastination, covert obstructionism, inefficiency and stubbornness.

SpongeBob SquarePants (season 2)

The second season of the American animated television series SpongeBob SquarePants, created by Stephen Hillenburg, aired on Nickelodeon from October 26, 2000 to July 26, 2003, and consists of 20 episodes (39 segments). The series chronicles the exploits and adventures of the title character and his various friends in the fictional underwater city of Bikini Bottom. The season was executive produced by series creator Hillenburg, who also acted as the showrunner.

During the season's run, SpongeBob SquarePants became Nickelodeon's No. 2 children's program, behind Rugrats. Nearly 40 percent of SpongeBob's audience of 2.2 million were aged 18 to 34. The show signed a marketing deal with Target Corporation and Burger King, expanding its merchandising, and SpongeBob's popularity translated well into sales figures. In 2002, the show was nominated at the Primetime Emmy Awards for Outstanding Children's Program. Tom Kenny and Mary Jo Catlett were individually nominated at the 29th Annie Awards for their voice performances as SpongeBob and Mrs. Puff, respectively. Peter Straus and Paul Tibbitt were also nominated at the ceremony for their work on the "Christmas Who?" special. The episodes "The Secret Box" and "Band Geeks" won at the 2002 Golden Reel Awards for Best Sound Editing in Television—Animation, while the episodes "Jellyfish Hunter" and "The Fry Cook Games" received a nomination for Best Sound Editing in Television Animation—Music category.

Several compilation DVDs that contained episodes from the season were released. The SpongeBob SquarePants: The Complete 2nd Season DVD was released in Region 1 on October 19, 2004, Region 2 on October 23, 2006, and Region 4 on November 30, 2006.

Student syndrome

Student syndrome refers to planned procrastination, when, for example, a student will only start to apply themselves to an assignment at the last possible moment before its deadline. This eliminates any potential safety margins and puts the person under stress and pressure. According to one academic source, it is done in order to induce a level of urgency high enough to ensure the proper amount of effort is put into the task.The term is used to describe this form of procrastination in general, and not only by students, e.g. in the field of software engineering: "This initial research investigates three behavioral issues which may affect team member productivity in both a traditional waterfall project and in a Scrum project: the management of stress, the use of slack and the student syndrome."The term is said to have been introduced by Eliyahu M. Goldratt in his novel Critical Chain.

Temporal motivation theory

Temporal motivation theory (TMT) is an integrative motivational theory. Developed by Piers Steel and Cornelius J. König, the theory emphasizes time as a critical, motivational factor. The argument for a broad, integrative theory stems from the absence of a single theory that can address motivation in its entirety. Thus, it incorporates primary aspects of multiple major theories, including expectancy theory, hyperbolic discounting, need theory and cumulative prospect theory. According to Schmidt, Dolis, and Tolli, Temporal Motivation Theory "may help further the understanding of the impact of time, and particularly deadlines, on dynamic attention allocation." The Temporal Motivation Theory formula can be applied to the human behaviour, procrastination and to goal setting. According to Lord, Diefenforff, Schmidt, and Hall, the theory "models the motivating power of approaching deadlines, arguing that the perceived utility of a given activity increases exponentially as the deadline nears. These and similar ideas have been applied to the pervasive phenomenon of procrastination".

Tempus fugit

Tempus fugit is a Latin phrase, usually translated into English as "time flies". The expression comes from line 284 of book 3 of Virgil's Georgics, where it appears as fugit inreparabile tempus: "it escapes, irretrievable time". The phrase is used in both its Latin and English forms as a proverb that "time's a-wasting". Tempus fugit, however, is typically employed as an admonition against sloth and procrastination (cf. carpe diem) rather than a motto in favor of licentiousness (cf. "gather ye rosebuds while ye may"); the English form is often merely descriptive: "time flies like the wind", "time flies when you're having fun".

The phrase's full appearance in the Georgics is:

The phrase is a common motto, particularly on sundials and clocks.

The Emancipation Procrastination

The Emancipation Procrastination is a studio album by American jazz trumpeter Christian Scott released on October 20, 2017 by Ropeadope Records. The album is the third and final installment of The Centennial Trilogy, with Ruler Rebel and Diaspora being the first and the second respectively. The Emancipation Procrastination was nominated for a Grammy Award at the 61st Grammy ceremony.

Wasting Time

Wasting Time may refer to:



Goofing off


time sink

What Yo Name Iz?

"What Yo Name Iz?" is the debut single by American rapper Kirko Bangz. The Sound M.O.B. produced song was featured on his mixtape Procrastination Kills 3 (2011). It's also Kirko Bangz's first song to chart on the US Billboard charts.

Wishful thinking

Wishful thinking describes decision-making and the formation of beliefs based on what might be pleasing to imagine, rather than on evidence, rationality, or reality. It is a product of resolving conflicts between belief and desire.Methodologies to examine wishful thinking are diverse. Various disciplines and schools of thought examine related mechanisms such as neural circuitry, human cognition and emotion, types of bias, procrastination, motivation, optimism, attention and environment. This concept has been examined as a fallacy.

It is related to the concept of wishful seeing.

Some psychologists believe that positive thinking is able to positively influence behavior and so bring about better results. This is called the "Pygmalion effect".Christopher Booker described wishful thinking in terms of

"the fantasy cycle" ... a pattern that recurs in personal lives, in politics, in history – and in storytelling. When we embark on a course of action which is unconsciously driven by wishful thinking, all may seem to go well for a time, in what may be called the "dream stage". But because this make-believe can never be reconciled with reality, it leads to a "frustration stage" as things start to go wrong, prompting a more determined effort to keep the fantasy in being. As reality presses in, it leads to a "nightmare stage" as everything goes wrong, culminating in an "explosion into reality", when the fantasy finally falls apart.Studies have consistently shown that holding all else equal, subjects will predict positive outcomes to be more likely than negative outcomes (see unrealistic optimism). However, research suggests that under certain circumstances, such as when threat increases, a reverse phenomenon occurs.

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