Proclamation of Indonesian Independence

The Proclamation of Indonesian Independence (Indonesian: Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia, or simply Proklamasi) was read at 10:00 a.m. on Friday, 17 August 1945. The declaration marked the start of the diplomatic and armed resistance of the Indonesian National Revolution, fighting against the forces of the Netherlands and pro-Dutch civilians, until the latter officially acknowledged Indonesia's independence in 1949. In 2005, the Netherlands declared that they had decided to accept de facto 17 August 1945 as Indonesia's independence date.[1] On September 14, 2011 a Dutch court ruled in the Rawagede massacre case that the Dutch state was responsible because it has the duty to defend its inhabitants, which also indicated that the area was part of the Dutch East Indies in contradiction of the Indonesian claim of 17 August 1945 as its date of independence.[2] In a 2013 interview the Indonesian historian Sukotjo, amongst others, asked the Dutch government to formally acknowledge the date of independence as 17 August 1945.[3] The United Nations recognizes the date of December 27, 1949.[4]

The document was signed by Sukarno (who signed his name "Soekarno" using the Dutch orthography) and Mohammad Hatta, who were appointed president and vice-president respectively the following day.[5]

Indonesia declaration of independence 17 August 1945
Sukarno, accompanied by Mohammad Hatta (right), proclaiming the independence of Indonesia

Declaration

SoekarnoDoaProKemRI
Sukarno praying before proclaiming the independence of Indonesia

The draft was prepared only a few hours earlier, on the night of 16 August, by Sukarno, Hatta, and Soebardjo, at the house of Rear-Admiral Tadashi Maeda, 1 Miyako-dōri (都通り), Jakarta (now the Formulation of Proclamation Text Museum, Jl. Imam Bonjol No. 1, Jakarta). Aside from the three Indonesian leaders and Admiral Maeda, three Japanese agents were also present at the drafting: Tomegoro Yoshizumi (of the Navy Communications Office Kaigun Bukanfu (海軍武官府)), Shigetada Nishijima, and Shunkichiro Miyoshi (of the Imperial Japanese Army).[6] The original Indonesian Declaration of Independence was typed by Sayuti Melik.[7][8] Maeda himself was sleeping in his room upstairs. He was agreeable to the idea of Indonesia's independence, and had lent his house for the drafting of the declaration. Marshal Terauchi, the highest-ranking Japanese leader in South East Asia and son of former Prime Minister Terauchi Masatake, was however against Indonesia's independence, scheduled for 24 August.

While the formal preparation of the declaration, and the official independence itself for that matter, had been carefully planned a few months earlier, the actual declaration date was brought forward almost inadvertently as a consequence of the Japanese unconditional surrender to the Allies on 15 August. The historic event was triggered by a plot, led by a few more radical youth activists such as Adam Malik and Chairul Saleh, that put pressure on Sukarno and Hatta to proclaim independence immediately. The declaration was to be signed by the 27 members of the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI) symbolically representing the new nation's diversity. The particular act was apparently inspired by a similar spirit of the United States Declaration of Independence. However, the idea was heavily turned down by the radical activists mentioned earlier, arguing that the committee was too closely associated with then soon to be defunct Japanese occupation rule, thus creating a potential credibility issue. Instead, the radical activists demanded that the signatures of six of them were to be put on the document. All parties involved in the historical moment finally agreed on a compromise solution which only included Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta as the co-signers 'in the name of the nation of Indonesia'.

Sukarno had initially wanted the declaration to be read at Ikada Plain, the large open field in the centre of Jakarta, but due to unfounded widespread apprehension over the possibility of Japanese sabotage, the venue was changed to Sukarno's house at Pegangsaan Timur 56. There was no concrete evidence for the growing suspicions, as the Japanese had already surrendered to the Allies, The declaration of independence passed without a hitch.

The proclamation at 56, Jalan Pegangsaan Timur, Jakarta, was heard throughout the country because the text was secretly broadcast by Indonesian radio personnel using the transmitters of the Jakarta Broadcasting Station (ジャカルタ放送局 Jakaruta Hōsōkyoku). An English translation of the proclamation was broadcast overseas.

Draft

Proklamasi Klad
Draft of the proclamation

Indonesian

Proklamasi

Kami, bangsa Indonesia, dengan ini menjatakan kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Hal2 jang mengenai pemindahan kekoeasaan d.l.l., diselenggarakan dengan tjara saksama dan dalam tempoh jang sesingkat-singkatnja

Djakarta, 17-8-'05

Wakil2 Bangsa Indonesia

Amendments

Three amendments were made to the draft, as follows:

  • "tempoh": changed to "tempo", both meaning "time period".
  • Numeric date "17-8-'05": changed to "hari 17, boelan 8, tahoen 05" (day 17, month 8, year 05 (2605) of the Japanese imperial year);
  • "Wakil-Wakil Bangsa Indonesia" (Representatives of the people of Indonesian nation): changed to "Atas nama bangsa Indonesia" ("in the name of the nation of Indonesia").[9]

Final text

NaskahProklamasiKetik
The original Indonesian Declaration of Independence
Sukarno reading the proclamation. According to Rushdy Hussein, Indonesian historian, this record was made in 1951, not 1945.[10]
Proclamation Monument Jakarta
The monument commemorating the Indonesian Declaration of Independence
P R O K L A M A S I

Kami, bangsa Indonesia, dengan ini menjatakan kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Hal-hal jang mengenai pemindahan kekoeasaan d.l.l., diselenggarakan dengan tjara saksama dan dalam tempo jang sesingkat-singkatnja.

Djakarta, hari 17 boelan 8 tahoen 05

Atas nama bangsa Indonesia,

Soekarno/Hatta.

Sukarno Signature

Mohammad Hatta signature

Sukarno Signature
Mohammad Hatta signature

English translation

An English translation published by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as of October 1948 included the entire speech as read by Sukarno. It incorporated remarks made immediately prior to and after the actual proclamation. George McTurnan Kahin, a historian on Indonesia, believed that they were omitted from publication in Indonesia either due to Japanese control of media outlets or fear of provoking a harsh Japanese response.[11]

PROCLAMATION

WE THE PEOPLE OF INDONESIA HEREBY DECLARE THE INDEPENDENCE OF
INDONESIA. MATTERS WHICH CONCERN THE TRANSFER OF POWER AND
OTHER THINGS WILL BE EXECUTED BY CAREFUL MEANS AND IN THE
SHORTEST POSSIBLE TIME.

DJAKARTA, 17 AUGUST 1945

IN THE NAME OF THE PEOPLE OF INDONESIA

SOEKARNO/HATTA

Banknote

Indonesian Rupiah proclamation of independence 1945
A 100,000 Rupiah banknote, containing the Proclamation of Independence.

This proclamation is printed in the front of the Rp.100,000 Indonesian banknote of the year 1999 and 2004 series.

References

  1. ^ "Dutch govt expresses regrets over killings in RI". Jakarta Post. 18 August 2005. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 23 November 2008.
  2. ^ https://uitspraken.rechtspraak.nl/inziendocument?id=ECLI:NL:RBSGR:2011:BS8793
  3. ^ "Indonesië wil erkenning onafhankelijkheidsdag" (in Dutch). Nederlandse Omroep Stichting. 8 September 2013. Retrieved 15 September 2013.
  4. ^ http://www.un.org/en/decolonization/nonselfgov.shtml#n
  5. ^ Soekarno Profile
  6. ^ Isnaeni, Hendri F. (16 August 2015). "Begini Naskah Proklamasi Dirumuskan". historia.id (in Indonesian). Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  7. ^ "Former governor Ali Sadikin, freedom fighter SK Trimurti die". Jakarta Post. 21 May 2008. Retrieved 7 June 2008.
  8. ^ Yuliastuti, Dian (21 May 2008). "Freedom Fighter SK Trimurti Dies". Tempo Interactive. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2008.
  9. ^ The draft picture
  10. ^ "Twitter". twitter.com. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  11. ^ Kahin, George McT. (April 2000). "Sukarno's Proclamation of Indonesian Independence". Indonesia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Modern Indonesia Project. 69 (69): 1–4. doi:10.2307/3351273. JSTOR 3351273. Retrieved 24 June 2009.

Further reading

  • Anderson, Ben (1972). Java in a Time of Revolution: Occupation and Resistance, 1944–1946. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-0687-0.
  • Ricklefs, M.C., 1981, A History of modern Indonesia Macmillan Southeast Asian Reprint, p198
  • Lembaga Soekarno-Hatta, 1984 Sejarah Lahirnya Undang Undang Dasar 1945 dan Pancasila, Inti Idayu Press, Jakarta, p19
  • Direktorat Jenderal Kebudayaan Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan,1991:52–53.
1945 in Indonesia

Events in the year 1945 in Indonesia. The country had an estimated population of 68,517,300 people.

Brimstone (TV series)

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First Division 7 December

The First Division 7 December (Dutch: Eerste Divisie "7 December") was a division of the Royal Netherlands Army, active from at least 1946 to 2004. It was sent to Indonesia in 1946 to restore "peace, order and security" after the proclamation of Indonesian Independence in 1945.

The division was named after the speech of Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands in London on 7 December 1942: "I imagine, without prejudice to the government conference's advice, that they will focus on a National Association, which the Netherlands, Indonesia, Suriname and Curaçao will have participated together, while each in itself, its own autonomy in internal affairs and drawing on their own, but together with the will to assist, will represent. It will be difference of treatment based on race or national character have no place, but will only have the personal ability of citizens and the needs of different populations for the decisive policy of the Government."

The division was withdrawn from the East Indies in 1949–1950 and spent the remainder of the Cold War as part of NATO Northern Army Group's I (Netherlands) Corps as a deterrent against a Soviet attack on West Germany. In 1985, it had its headquarters at Schaarsbergen, and divisional troops included the 102nd Reconnaissance Battalion (maintained through the Dutch mobilisation system RIM) at Hoogland. The 11th Mechanised Brigade included the 12th and 48th Mechanised Battalions, the 101st Tank Battalion, and the 11th Field Artillery Battalion. The 12th Mechanised Brigade was headquartered at Nunspeet and the 13th Armoured Brigade was at Oirschot.

After the end of the Cold War, it became part of the I. German/Dutch Corps for a period. The division was disbanded on 1 January 2004 and the title of '7 December' was transferred to the 11 Luchtmobiele Brigade (11th Airmobile Brigade).

Formulation of Proclamation Text Museum

The Formulation of Proclamation Text Museum (Indonesian: Museum Perumusan Naskah Proklamasi) is a history museum in Jakarta, Indonesia. The building is where the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence was formulated.

Frans Mendur

Frans Sumarto Mendur (16 April 1913 – 24 April 1971) was an Indonesian journalistic photographer whose photos of the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence were the only photos published of the historic event. He also photographed other iconic photos recording the struggle of the young nation.

Mendur was working at the Indonesian newspaper Asia Raya when he heard that the proclamation would be announced by Sukarno at his home at Pegangsaan Timur No. 56. After independence, Mendur worked briefly at the Indonesian newspaper Merdeka. In 1946, he established the Indonesian Press Photo Service (IPPHOS) with Oscar Ganda, Alex Mamusung, Alex Mendur (his brother), Frans Umbas, and Justus Umbas.

Mendur along with his brother, Alex, received the Bintang Jasa Utama on 9 November 2009 for their photo journalistic roles during the beginning of the republic. The following year, they received the Bintang Mahaputera Nararya on 12 November 2010. A monument in honor of them in their hometown of Kawangkoan was dedicated by President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono on 11 February 2013. Mendur was the fourth of eleven children of August Mendur and Ariantje Mononimbar.

Freddy Jaques Inkiriwang

Ir. Freddy Jaques Inkiriwang (2 September 1912 – 19 October 1972) was a former Indonesian Minister of Industry in the Djuanda Cabinet. He received a Ingenieur degree (abbreviated as "Ir.", a Dutch type engineer's degree) in electrical engineering from at the Delft University of Technology in 1937. After the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence, Inkiriwang was involved in the formation of the state electricity company and the independence struggle in Sulawesi (his family was from the Minahasa region in North Sulawesi). After the establishment of the Bureau of Electricity and Gas on 27 October 1945, Inkiriwang was assigned to head the West Java region. He was also appointed as head of development in the Sulawesi Commissariat organization in Jakarta to assist the struggle in Sulawesi.In 1950, Inkiriwang was included in the last cabinet of the State of East Indonesia (NIT) led by Prime Minister Martinus Putuhena. This Cabinet was dubbed the Liquidation Cabinet as it aimed to restore the unitary Republic of Indonesia where NIT was included. From 1957 to 1959, Inkiriwang served as Minister of Industry in the cabinet led by Prime Minister Djuanda. In his role as minister of industry, he was also an acting member of the Monetary Board of Bank Indonesia.

Gustaaf Adolf Maengkom

Gustaaf Adolf Maengkom (11 March 1907 – 25 May 1984) was a former Indonesian Minister of Justice in the Djuanda Cabinet and Indonesian ambassador to Poland. He studied at the College of Law or Rechtshoogeschool te Batavia (RHS) in Batavia, but did not finish. After the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence, Maengkom became a member of the Tamtomo Battalion in the Siliwangi Division from 1947 to 1949. He subsequently served as a District Court judge in the cities of Denpasar in Bali, Sukabumi and Cianjur in West Java, and Jakarta. From 1957 to 1959 Maengkom served as Minister of Justice in the cabinet led by Prime Minister Djuanda. Subsequently from 1962 to 1966, Maengkom served as Indonesian ambassador to Poland.

Hadi Thayeb

Teuku Mohammad Hadi Thayeb (14 September 1922 – 10 January 2014) was a senior Indonesia diplomat and politician. Thayeb, one of Indonesia's first diplomats, was a co-founder of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1945. He also served as the national Minister of Industry from 1964 to 1966 and the Governor of Aceh from 1981 to 1986.Thayeb was born on 14 September 1922, in Peureulak, Aceh.Thayeb was one of the co-founders of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which was founded in 1945 following the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence. The Ministry was initially headquartered in the garage of the country's first Foreign Minister, Achmad Soebardjo, at Jl. Cikini 80-82 in Jakarta. Thayeb was one of the Foreign Ministry's first six staff members. Thayeb served as Indonesia's envoy to numerous countries throughout his diplomatic career, including Ambassador to Italy, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. In 2012, he was appointed an Honorary Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order.Thayeb as served as Indonesia's Minister of Industry from 1964 to 1966 and the Governor of the National Resilience Institute from 1974 to 1979. He was also the Governor of Aceh from 1981 to 1986.Hadi Thayeb died in Jakarta on 10 January 2014, at the age of 91. His death was announced in a press release issued by Foreign Minister Marty Natalegawa who wrote, "He was one of the founders of the Foreign Ministry...He was one of Indonesia’s best diplomats." Thayeb was buried at Karet Bivak Cemetery in Jakarta.

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The Hague Agreement, also called the Round Table Conference Agreement, is a treaty ratified on November 2, 1949, between the Netherlands and the Republic of Indonesia, that attempted to bring to an end the Dutch-Indonesian conflict that followed the proclamation of Indonesian independence in 1945. After prolonged disagreement over its provisions, the treaty was revoked in 1956.

Herling Laoh

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Second Sjahrir Cabinet and Third Sjahrir Cabinet as Junior Minister of Public Works.

First Amir Sjarifuddin Cabinet as Junior Minister of Public Works and then as Minister of Public Works when Mohammad Enoch resigned.

Second Amir Sjarifuddin Cabinet as Minister of Public Works.

First Hatta Cabinet as Minister of Public Works replacing Djuanda Kartawidjaja.

Second Hatta Cabinet as Minister of Public Works and Minister of Transportation.

Republic of the United States of Indonesia Cabinet as Minister of Transportation, Power, and Public Works.In 1949, Laoh served as an advisor in the Indonesian delegation during negotiations with the Dutch that produced the Roem–van Roijen Agreement. In 1950s, Laoh started several business ventures including NV Birokarpi, N.V. Perintis, and N.V. Paka. Perintis and Paka were joint ventures with the government. The Port of Bitung was constructed by Birokarpi under the supervision of Laoh.

Indonesia Seven Summits Expedition

Indonesia Seven Summits Expedition is a team from Indonesia that reached all the Seven Summits (Carstensz Pyramid version, the other is Kosciuszko version) before Proclamation of Indonesian Independence date celebration on August 17, 2011. The other incomplete team with different coordination reached it before August 17, 2012 and the second attempt in May 2013 made the team complete. Now, Indonesia has 8 Seven Summiters.

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Museum Agung Bung Karno

Museum Agung Bung Karno is located in Denpasar, Bali. This four-story building houses collections related to Indonesia's first President Sukarno ranging from books, speeches and writings, to bicycles, tables, and beds which belonged to him. There are also paintings created during his lifetime and belongings of people close to him, like the sewing machine used by his wife Fatmawati to sew the original Indonesian flag hoisted at the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence in 1945.

The museum is run under the auspices of the Bung Karno Library Foundation and was inaugurated by the daughter of Sukarno, Megawati Sukarnoputri.

Nani Wartabone

Nani Wartabone (30 January 1907 – 3 January 1986) was a politician from Gorontalo who was declared a National Hero of Indonesia in 2003.

Wartabone became involved with social work as secretary of the Jong Gorontalo in Surabaya in 1923. Five years later, he became chairman of the Gorontalo branch of the Indonesian National Party (PNI). He declared Gorontalo's independence on 23 January 1942, three years before the proclamation of Indonesian independence on 17 August 1945. After independence, he was part of the forces which ended the Permesta revolt of several army officers in 1958.

Pegangsaan, Menteng

Pegangsaan is an administrative village in the Menteng district of Indonesia. It has a postal code of 10320. This administrative village is also known as the location of the house where the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence was read.

Rasuna Said

Hajjah Rangkayo Rasuna Said (14 September 1910 – 2 November 1965) was a well-known Minangkabau woman leader who was active in Indonesian nationalist politics. She was born in Maninjau, Agam Regency, close to the town of Bukittinggi in West Sumatra.

Rasuna Said became active in the Sarekat Rakyat (Peoples Union) organisation and later became a member of the Union of Indonesian Muslims (Persatuan Muslim Indonesia). She was imprisoned for a period for her activities by the Dutch in 1932 in Semarang in Central Java. After the proclamation of Indonesian independence in 1945 she became a member of the Sumatra Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Sumatra). In 1959 she was appointed a member of the Indonesian National Advisory Council (Dewan Pertimbangan Agung), a position she held until her death in Jakarta in 1965.

Like the well-known Indonesian female leader Raden Ayu Kartini, Rasuna Said fought for equality between men and women. She was declared a National Hero of Indonesia (Pahlawan Nasional) by president Soeharto in 1974. Her name is currently used as one of the main arteries of Jakarta, Jalan H.R. Rasuna Said, which runs south from the central district of Menteng towards the busy commercial areas of Kuningan and Mampang.

Rasuna Said is buried in the Kalibata Heroes Cemetery in South Jakarta.

Tadashi Maeda (admiral)

Rear Admiral Tadashi Maeda (前田 精, Maeda Tadashi, 3 March 1898 – 13 December 1977) was a high-ranking Imperial Japanese Navy officer during the Pacific War. Maeda played an important role in Indonesian independence; he met Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta at his house in Jakarta on 16 August 1945 and his house was used for drafting the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence. After leaving military service, Maeda worked in the oil industry.

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Taman Proklamasi (Proclamation Park) is a park complex located in Central Jakarta, Indonesia. The park is located at the former property of Sukarno at what was known as the house at Jalan Pegangsaan Timur 56. The house, now demolished, is where the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence was first read by Sukarno.

Umar Seno Aji

Umar Seno Aji (1915–1984) was the fifth Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Indonesia as well as the fourteenth Indonesian Minister of Law and Human Rights.Aji's appointment as minister of law in 1966 was initially viewed as a victory by supporters of the rule of law; this later led to disappointment when, after his appointment, he became an opponent of judicial review. While his predecessor as chief justice Subekti had been a champion of judicial independence, Aji aided in the subordination of the supreme court to the executive branch and his successor as minister of law, Mochtar Kusumaatmadja. His exertion of pressure on courts to avoid giving citizens too many rights in tort cases were one factor that led to the establishment of formal administrative courts in the country, though his politics of patronage are still credited with whittling away the judiciary's independence by the 1970s.In terms of jurisprudence, Aji often looked to the judiciaries of other nations for congruence with that of Indonesia. He asserted that the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence strongly resembled the United States Declaration of Independence, and that Indonesian courts enforce customary law in private disputes, a concept similar to that of common law and law of equity.

Prelude
Diplomatic efforts
Armed conflict
Key figures
Administrative entities

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