Proceedings is a 96-page monthly magazine published by the United States Naval Institute. Launched in 1874, it is one of the oldest continuously published magazines in the United States. Proceedings covers topics concerning global security and includes articles from military professionals and civilian experts, historical essays, book reviews, full-color photography, and reader commentary. Roughly a third are written by active-duty personnel, a third by retired military, and a third by civilians. Proceedings also frequently carries feature articles by Secretaries of Defense, Secretaries of the Navy, Chairmen of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and top leaders of the Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard.
January 2009 cover
|Company||United States Naval Institute|
|Based in||United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland|
Over the decades many notable names have contributed articles to Proceedings either early in their careers or when they reached the upper echelons of leadership, and in many cases, both.
Alfred Thayer Mahan ([məˈhæn]; September 27, 1840 – December 1, 1914) was a United States naval officer and historian, whom John Keegan called "the most important American strategist of the nineteenth century." His book The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660–1783 (1890) won immediate recognition, especially in Europe, and with its successor, The Influence of Sea Power Upon the French Revolution and Empire, 1793–1812 (1892), made him world-famous and perhaps the most influential American author of the nineteenth century.Anthony Gale
Anthony Gale was the fourth Commandant of the United States Marine Corps and the only one ever fired. Fewer records survive concerning him than any other commandant. He is the only commandant for whom the Marines neither know his burial location nor have a portrait or likeness.Bat*21
Bat*21 is a 1988 American war film directed by Peter Markle, and adapted from the book by William C. Anderson, novelist and retired United States Air Force colonel. Set during the Vietnam War, the film is a dramatization based upon the rescue of a U.S. signals intelligence expert shot down behind enemy lines in Vietnam. The film stars Gene Hackman and Danny Glover with Jerry Reed, David Marshall Grant, Clayton Rohner, Erich Anderson and Joe Dorsey in supporting roles.Battleship
A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of large caliber guns. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries the battleship was the most powerful type of warship, and a fleet of battleships was considered vital for any nation that desired to maintain command of the sea.
The term battleship came into formal use in the late 1880s to describe a type of ironclad warship, now referred to by historians as pre-dreadnought battleships. In 1906, the commissioning of HMS Dreadnought heralded a revolution in battleship design. Subsequent battleship designs, influenced by HMS Dreadnought, were referred to as "dreadnoughts", though the term eventually became obsolete as they became the only type of battleship in common use.
Battleships were a symbol of naval dominance and national might, and for decades the battleship was a major factor in both diplomacy and military strategy. A global arms race in battleship construction began in Europe in the 1890s and culminated at the decisive Battle of Tsushima in 1905, the outcome of which significantly influenced the design of HMS Dreadnought. The launch of Dreadnought in 1906 commenced a new naval arms race. Three major fleet actions between steel battleships took place: the decisive battles of the Yellow Sea (1904) and Tsushima (1905) during the Russo-Japanese War, and the inconclusive Battle of Jutland (1916) during the First World War. Jutland was the largest naval battle and the only full-scale clash of battleships in the war, and it was the last major battle fought primarily by battleships in world history.The Naval Treaties of the 1920s and 1930s limited the number of battleships, though technical innovation in battleship design continued. Both the Allied and Axis powers built battleships during World War II, though the increasing importance of the aircraft carrier meant that the battleship played a less important role than had been expected.
The value of the battleship has been questioned, even during their heyday. There were few of the decisive fleet battles that battleship proponents expected, and used to justify the vast resources spent on building battlefleets. Even in spite of their huge firepower and protection, battleships were increasingly vulnerable to much smaller and relatively inexpensive weapons: initially the torpedo and the naval mine, and later aircraft and the guided missile. The growing range of naval engagements led to the aircraft carrier replacing the battleship as the leading capital ship during World War II, with the last battleship to be launched being HMS Vanguard in 1944. Four battleships were retained by the United States Navy until the end of the Cold War for fire support purposes and were last used in combat during the Gulf War in 1991. The last battleships were stricken from the U.S. Naval Vessel Register in the 2000s.Brazil and weapons of mass destruction
In the 1970s and 80s, during the military regime, Brazil had a secret program intended to develop nuclear weapons. The program was dismantled in 1990, five years after the military regime ended, and Brazil is considered free of weapons of mass destruction.Brazil is one of many countries (and one of the last) to forswear nuclear weapons under the terms of the Non-Proliferation Treaty but possesses some of the key technologies needed to produce nuclear weapons.Chen Yeong-kang
Chen Yeong-kang (Chinese: 陳永康; pinyin: Chén Yǒngkāng) is an Admiral of the Republic of China (Taiwan). He was the 5th Commander of the Republic of China Navy (ROCN) from 1 August 2013 until 30 January 2015. On 17 March 2015, in an interview with Proceedings magazine of the United States Naval Institute, he stated that the ROCN had a "3A plan," meaning "affordable, applicable and accountable."Christopher Michel
Christopher P. Michel (born August 26, 1967) is an American investor, entrepreneur and photographer. He is the founder of Affinity Labs and Military.com and runs Nautilus Ventures, a seed venture fund.Crossing the T
Crossing the T or capping the T is a classic naval warfare tactic used from the late 19th to mid 20th centuries, in which a line of warships crosses in front of a line of enemy ships, allowing the crossing line to bring all their guns to bear while receiving fire from only the forward guns of the enemy.It became possible to bring all of a ship's main guns to bear only in the late 19th and the early 20th centuries, with the advent of steam-powered battleships with rotating gun turrets, which were able to move faster and turn more quickly than sailing ships, which had fixed guns facing sideways. The tactic became largely obsolete with the introduction of missiles and aircraft as long-range strikes are less dependent on the direction the ships are facing.Eric Wertheim
Eric Wertheim (born 1973) is an American naval expert, columnist and author who writes the monthly Combat Fleets of the World column for the Naval Institute's Proceedings Magazine. In 2002 Wertheim took over responsibility for compiling the Naval Institute Guide to Combat Fleets of the World, often referred to as the "nation's premier naval reference book."Fred Korth
Frederick Herman Korth (September 9, 1909 – September 14, 1998) served as the 56th U.S. Secretary of the Navy during 1962-63; he was also an Assistant Secretary of the Army in 1952-53.
Appointed as Navy Secretary by President John F. Kennedy on January 4, 1962, Korth resigned October 14, 1963 effective November 1, 1963. Various sources cite reasons for Secretary Korth's departure. He was president of the Continental National Bank of Fort Worth, Texas. Continental National Bank was one of a number of banks which participated in a line of credit for the TFX (Tactical Fighter Experimental), which later emerged as the more well-known F-111 Aardvark. When asked about this alleged conflict of interest at a press conference, President Kennedy responded, "...I have no evidence that Mr. Korth acted in any way improperly in the TFX matter....I have no evidence that Mr. Korth benefited improperly during his term of office in the Navy, and I have no evidence, and you have not, as I understand the press has not produced any, nor the McClellan Committee, which would indicate that in any way he acted improperly in the TFX. I have always believed that innuendoes should be justified before they are made, either by me and the Congress, or even in the press." A commentary in the May, 1985 edition of Proceedings magazine exonerates Korth for any improprieties relating to the awarding of TFX.
Korth was born in September 1909 in Yorktown, Texas and in later life lived in El Paso, Texas and Foxhall, Washington, D.C..
When he was not serving in the above public or private sector capacities, Fred Korth was a lawyer in private practice. One of his better known cases was a small one heard June 24, 1948 in the County of Tarrant, Texas, when his client, Edwin A. Ekdahl, was officially divorced from Marguerite Frances Claverie Ekdahl (also known as Marguerite Oswald, the mother of Lee Harvey Oswald). Following the end of his first marriage in 1964, he began a romantic relationship with heiress and socialite Marjorie Merriweather Post, daughter of breakfast-cereal magnate C. W. Post, twenty years his senior. He was a co-executor of Post's will. Her estate including her mansion on Palm Beach Island, Mar-a-Lago, purchased from the estate in 1980 by Donald Trump.
Korth died in September 1998 in El Paso, Texas and buried under a three century old Texas Live Oak tree on his ranch in Karnes County, Texas. His stepdaughter, Melissa Williams O'Rourke, is the mother of former U.S. Representative Beto O’Rourke.General Dynamics Electric Boat
General Dynamics Electric Boat (GDEB) is a subsidiary of General Dynamics Corporation. It has been the primary builder of submarines for the United States Navy for more than 100 years. The company's main facilities are a shipyard in Groton, Connecticut, a hull-fabrication and outfitting facility in Quonset Point, Rhode Island, and a design and engineering facility in New London, Connecticut.In the Shadow of Greatness
In the Shadow of Greatness is a 2012 book written by 33 members of the United States Naval Academy Class of 2002 and published by the United States Naval Institute. The authors describe how their lives were shaped by their experiences at the Academy, the September 11 attacks, and events following graduation.
Released in August 2012, In the Shadow of Greatness achieved Los Angeles Times Bestseller status that October. John Nagl reviewed the book in the September 2012 issue of the Naval Institute's Proceedings Magazine, writing "All of these stories give voice to courage, sacrifice, and the nobility of living in the service of others." Tom Brokaw provided this blurb: "This is a must read for all Americans - an up close and personal account of duty and sacrifice by graduates of the U.S. Naval Academy in Iraq and Afghanistan."The contributors describe the impact of September 11 on their professional lives, and the many years of repeated deployments on their personal lives. Combat infantry Marines tell of losing men in combat. Pilots tell of the stress of their missions. There are homages to the fallen, including Navy Lieutenant Richard F. Andersen, Marine Corps Capt. Matthew C. Freeman, Navy Lieutenant John J. Houston, Marine Corps Lt. Col. Kevin Shea, and Marine Corps 2nd Lieutenant Andrew Torres. The stories include relief assignments to Haiti, diplomatic missions, and cross-service training and deployments. Gary C. Ross discusses his same-sex marriage following the repeal of DADT; others tell of harrowing rescues at sea and in the crater of Mount St. Helens. Other topics include two-career couples and the long wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.
The foreword was written by David Gergen and the epilogue by Admiral Mike Mullen. General John Allen—Commandant of Midshipmen in 2002—wrote for the book, as did his predecessor, Admiral Sam Locklear.
The authors' proceeds go to veterans' organizations, including Luke's Wings, the Semper Fi Fund, The Mission Continues, Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans of America, The Travis Manion Foundation, and the Matthew Freeman Project.Japanese submarine I-168
The Japanese submarine I-168 (I-68, until 20 May 1942) was a Kaidai type of cruiser submarine active in World War II. A KD6 sub-class boat, I-168 was built for the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) in the early 1930s. At the Battle of Midway she sank the only American warships lost in the battle: the aircraft carrier USS Yorktown (CV-5) and the destroyer USS Hammann (DD-412). At that time she was commanded by Lieutenant Commander Yahachi Tanabe.Martin Xuereb
Brigadier Martin G. Xuereb (born 2 January 1968, Valletta, Malta) was the Commander of the Armed Forces of Malta, a position he assumed on 18 January 2010, succeeding Brigadier Carmel Vassallo.Michelle Gale De Oliveira
Michelle Suzanne Gale de Oliveira is an international speaker, social entrepreneur, and activist. She is founder and president of the Gender Progress Consortium, founder and trustee of the Gender Progress Foundation, and is the creator of the term "gender progress". She is a director of the Green Economics Institute, which is credited with the creation of the academic discipline of green economics). As an editor at Green Economics Institute Publishing, she has edited and collaborated on over 25 books, and is deputy editor of the International Journal of Green Economics, the world's first green economics journal. She is also a trustee of the Green Economics Institute Trust, and creator of the Hope Health Initiative, an international push to improve healthcare, education and economic development in the developing world. Gale de Oliveira speaks internationally on themes including Youth Leadership, Women's Empowerment & Gender Progress, Green Economics, Sustainability, Economic Development, Youth Engagement in Politics, Human Rights, and Democracy.Naval Aircraft Factory TDN
The Naval Aircraft Factory TDN was an early unmanned combat aerial vehicle - referred to at the time as an "assault drone" - developed by the United States Navy's Naval Aircraft Factory during the Second World War. Developed and tested during 1942 and 1943, the design proved moderately successful, but development of improved drones saw the TDN-1 relegated to second-line duties, and none were used in operational service.Neutrality Patrol
On September 3, 1939, the British and French declarations of war on Germany initiated the Battle of the Atlantic. The United States Navy Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) established a combined air and ship patrol of the United States Atlantic coast, including the Caribbean, on September 4. President Franklin D. Roosevelt declared the United States' neutrality on September 5, and declared the naval patrol a Neutrality Patrol.People's Liberation Army Navy
The Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN; Chinese: 中国人民解放军海军), also known as the PLA Navy, is the naval warfare branch of the People's Liberation Army, which is the armed wing of the Communist Party of China and, by default, the national armed forces of the People's Republic of China. The PLAN can trace its lineage to naval units fighting during the Chinese Civil War and was established in September 1950. Throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, the Soviet Union provided assistance to the PLAN in the form of naval advisers and export of equipment and technology. Until the late 1980s, the PLAN was largely a riverine and littoral force (brown-water navy). However, by the 1990s, following the fall of the Soviet Union and a shift towards a more forward-oriented foreign and security policy, the leaders of the Chinese military were freed from worrying over land border disputes, and instead turned their attention towards the seas. This led to the development of the People's Liberation Army Navy into a green-water navy by 2009. Before the 1990s the PLAN had traditionally played a subordinate role to the People's Liberation Army Ground Force.
In 2008, General Qian Lihua confirmed that China plans to operate a small fleet of aircraft carriers in the near future, but for the purpose of regional defence as opposed to "global reach". As of 2013 PLA officials have also outlined plans to operate in the first and second island chains. Chinese strategists term the development of the PLAN from a green-water navy into "a regional blue-water defensive and offensive navy."The People's Liberation Army Navy is composed of five branches; the Submarine Force, the Surface Force, the Coastal Defense Force, the Marine Corps and the Naval Air Force. With a personnel strength of 255,000 servicemen and women, including 10,000 marines and 26,000 naval air force personnel, it is the second largest navy in the world in terms of tonnage, only behind the United States Navy, and has the largest number of major combatants of any navy.United States Naval Academy
The United States Naval Academy (also known as USNA, Annapolis, or simply Navy) is a four-year coeducational federal service academy adjacent to Annapolis, Maryland. Established on 10 October 1845, under Secretary of the Navy George Bancroft, it is the second oldest of the United States' five service academies, and educates officers for commissioning primarily into the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps. The 338-acre (137 ha) campus is located on the former grounds of Fort Severn at the confluence of the Severn River and Chesapeake Bay in Anne Arundel County, 33 miles (53 km) east of Washington, D.C. and 26 miles (42 km) southeast of Baltimore. The entire campus (known to insiders as "the Yard") is a National Historic Landmark and home to many historic sites, buildings, and monuments. It replaced Philadelphia Naval Asylum, in Philadelphia, that served as the first United States Naval Academy from 1838 to 1845 when the Naval Academy formed in Annapolis.Candidates for admission generally must both apply directly to the academy and receive a nomination, usually from a Member of Congress. Students are officers-in-training and are referred to as midshipmen. Tuition for midshipmen is fully funded by the Navy in exchange for an active duty service obligation upon graduation. Approximately 1,200 "plebes" (an abbreviation of the Ancient Roman word plebeian) enter the Academy each summer for the rigorous Plebe Summer. About 1,000 midshipmen graduate. Graduates are usually commissioned as ensigns in the Navy or second lieutenants in the Marine Corps, but a small number can also be cross-commissioned as officers in other U.S. services, and the services of allied nations. The United States Naval Academy has some of the highest paid graduates in the country according to starting salary. The academic program grants a bachelor of science degree with a curriculum that grades midshipmen's performance upon a broad academic program, military leadership performance, and mandatory participation in competitive athletics. Midshipmen are required to adhere to the academy's Honor Concept.