The press was founded by Whitney Darrow, with the financial support of Charles Scribner, as a printing press to serve the Princeton community in 1905. Its distinctive building was constructed in 1911 on William Street in Princeton. Its first book was a new 1912 edition of John Witherspoon's Lectures on Moral Philosophy.
|Princeton University Press|
|Country of origin||United States|
|Headquarters location||Princeton, New Jersey|
|Distribution||Ingram Publisher Services (Americas, Asia, Australia)|
John Wiley & Sons (EMEA, India)
United Publishers Services (Japan)
Princeton University Press
|Location||41 William Street, Princeton, New Jersey|
|Architectural style||Collegiate Gothic|
|Part of||Princeton Historic District (#75001143)|
|Added to NRHP||27 June 1975|
Princeton University Press was founded in 1905 by a recent Princeton graduate, Whitney Darrow, with financial support from another Princetonian, Charles Scribner II. Darrow and Scribner purchased the equipment and assumed the operations of two already existing local publishers, that of the Princeton Alumni Weekly and the Princeton Press. The new press printed both local newspapers, university documents, The Daily Princetonian, and later added book publishing to its activities. Beginning as a small, for-profit printer, Princeton University Press was reincorporated as a nonprofit in 1910. Since 1911, the press has been headquartered in a purpose-built gothic-style building designed by Ernest Flagg. The design of press’s building, which was named the Scribner Building in 1965, was inspired by the Plantin-Moretus Museum, a printing museum in Antwerp, Belgium. Princeton University Press established a European office, in Woodstock, England, north of Oxford, in 1999, and opened an additional office, in Beijing, in early 2017.
Six books from Princeton University Press have won Pulitzer Prizes:
Multi-volume historical documents projects undertaken by the Press include:
The Papers of Woodrow Wilson has been called "one of the great editorial achievements in all history."
Princeton University Press's Bollingen Series had its beginnings in the Bollingen Foundation, a 1943 project of Paul Mellon's Old Dominion Foundation. From 1945, the foundation had independent status, publishing and providing fellowships and grants in several areas of study, including archaeology, poetry, and psychology. The Bollingen Series was given to the university in 1969.
The Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World is a large-format English language atlas of ancient Europe, Asia, and North Africa, edited by Richard J. A. Talbert. The time period depicted is roughly from archaic Greek civilization (pre-550 BC) through Late Antiquity (640 AD). The atlas was published by Princeton University Press in 2000. The book was the winner of the 2000 Association of American Publishers Award for Best Professional/Scholarly Multivolume Reference Work in the Humanities.Buddha footprint
The footprint of the Buddha is an imprint of Gautama Buddha's one or both feet. There are two forms: natural, as found in stone or rock, and those made artificially. Many of the "natural" ones are acknowledged not to be actual footprints of the Buddha, but replicas or representations of them, which can be considered cetiya (Buddhist relics) and also an early aniconic and symbolic representation of the Buddha.Carl Jung publications
Many of Jung's most important works have been collected, translated, and published in a 20-volume set by Princeton University Press, entitled The Collected Works of C. G. Jung.
This is a list of writings published by Carl Jung. Works arranged by original publication date if known:
Jung, C. G. (1902–1905). Psychiatric Studies. The Collected Works of C. G. Jung Vol. 1. 1953, ed. Michael Fordham, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, and Princeton, N.J.: Bollingen. This was the first of 18 volumes plus separate bibliography and index. Not including revisions the set was completed in 1967.
Jung, C. G. (1903) "On the Psychology and Pathology of So-Called Occult Phenomena." ("Zur Psychologie und Pathologie sogenannter occulter Phanomene.") His doctoral dissertation.
Jung, C. G. (1904–1907) Studies in Word Association. London: Routledge & K. Paul. (contained in Experimental Researches, Collected Works Vol. 2)
Jung, C. G. (1907). The Psychology of Dementia Praecox. (2nd ed. 1936) New York: Nervous and Mental Disease Publ. Co. (contained in The Psychogenesis of Mental Disease, Collected Works Vol. 3. This is the disease now known as schizophrenia)
Jung, C. G. (1907–1958). The Psychogenesis of Mental Disease. 1991 ed. London: Routledge. (Collected Works Vol. 3)
Jung, C. G. (1912). Psychology of the Unconscious : a study of the transformations and symbolisms of the libido, a contribution to the history of the evolution of thought. trans. Hinkle, B. M. (1916), London: Kegan Paul Trench Trubner. (revised in 1952 as Symbols of Transformation, Collected Works Vol.5 ISBN 0-691-01815-4)
Jung, C. G., & Long, C. E. (1917). Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology (2nd ed.). London: Balliere Tindall & Cox. (contained in Freud and Psychoanalysis, Collected Works Vol. 4)
Jung, C. G. (1917, 1928). Two Essays on Analytical Psychology (1966 revised 2nd ed. Collected Works Vol. 7). London: Routledge.
Jung, C. G., & Baynes, H. G. (1921). Psychological Types, or, The Psychology of Individuation. London: Kegan Paul Trench Trubner. (Collected Works Vol.6 ISBN 0-691-01813-8)
Jung, C. G., Baynes, H. G., & Baynes, C. F. (1928). Contributions to Analytical Psychology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Jung, C. G., & Shamdasani, S. (1932). The Psychology of Kundalini Yoga: notes of a seminar by C.G. Jung. 1996 ed. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Jung, C. G. (1933). Modern Man in Search of a Soul. London: Kegan Paul Trench Trubner, (1955 ed. Harvest Books ISBN 0-15-661206-2)
Jung, C. G. (1934–1954). The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious. (1981 2nd ed. Collected Works Vol.9 Part 1), Princeton, N.J.: Bollingen. ISBN 0-691-01833-2
Jung, C. G. (1938). Psychology and Religion The Terry Lectures. New Haven: Yale University Press. (contained in Psychology and Religion: West and East Collected Works Vol. 11 ISBN 0-691-09772-0).
Jung, C. G., & Dell, S. M. (1940). The Integration of the Personality. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Jung, C. G. (1944). Psychology and Alchemy (2nd ed. 1968 Collected Works Vol. 12 ISBN 0-691-01831-6). London: Routledge.
Jung, C. G. (1947). Essays on Contemporary Events. London: Kegan Paul.
Jung, C. G. (1947, revised 1954). On the Nature of the Psyche. 1988 ed. London: Ark Paperbacks. (contained in Collected Works Vol. 8)
Jung, C.G. (1949). Foreword, pp. xxi-xxxix (19 pages), to Wilhelm/Baynes translation of The I Ching or Book of Changes. Bollingen Edition XIX, Princeton University Press.(contained in Collected Works Vol. 11)
Jung, C. G. (1951). Aion: Researches into the Phenomenology of the Self (Collected Works Vol. 9 Part 2). Princeton, N.J.: Bollingen. ISBN 0-691-01826-X
Jung, C. G. (1952). Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle. 1973 2nd ed. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-01794-8 (contained in Collected Works Vol. 8)
Jung, C. G. (1952). Answer to Job. 1958 Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press (contained in Collected Works Vol. 11)
Jung, C. G. (1956). Mysterium Coniunctionis: An Inquiry into the Separation and Synthesis of Psychic Opposites in Alchemy. London: Routledge. (2nd ed. 1970 Collected Works Vol. 14 ISBN 0-691-01816-2) This was Jung's last book length work, completed when he was eighty.
Jung, C. G. (1957). The Undiscovered Self (Present and Future). 1959 ed. New York: American Library. 1990 ed. Bollingen ISBN 0-691-01894-4 (50 p. essay, also contained in collected Works Vol. 10)
Jung, C. G., & De Laszlo, V. S. (1958). Psyche and Symbol: A Selection from the Writings of C.G. Jung. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday.
Jung, C. G. (1959). Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies. London: Routledge & Paul, . 184 p. : illus. ; 19 cm.
Jung, C. G., & De Laszlo, V. S. (1959). Basic Writings. New York: Modern Library.
Jung, C. G., & Jaffe A. (1962). Memories, Dreams, Reflections. London: Collins. This is Jung's autobiography, recorded and edited by Aniela Jaffe, ISBN 0-679-72395-1
Jung, C. G., Evans, R. I., & Jones, E. (1964). Conversations with Carl Jung and Reactions from Ernest Jones. New York: Van Nostrand.
Jung, C. G., & Franz, M.-L. v. (1964). Man and His Symbols. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, ISBN 0-440-35183-9
Jung, C. G. (1966). The Practice of Psychotherapy: Essays on the Psychology of the Transference and other Subjects (Collected Works Vol. 16). Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Jung, C. G. (1967). The Development of Personality. 1991 ed. London: Routledge. Collected Works Vol. 17 ISBN 0-691-01838-3
Jung, C. G. (1968). Analytical Psychology: Its Theory and Practise (a.k.a. "The Tavistock Lectures")
Jung, C. G. (1970). Four Archetypes; Mother, Rebirth, Spirit, Trickster. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. (contained in Collected Works Vol. 9 part 1)
Jung, C. G. (1974). Dreams. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press (compilation from Collected Works Vols. 4, 8, 12, 16), ISBN 0-691-01792-1
(1974) The Freud/Jung Letters: The Correspondence between Sigmund Freud and C. G. Jung. Edited and with an introduction by William McGuire. Translated by R.F.C. Hull and Ralph Mannheim.
Jung, C. G., & Campbell, J. (1976). The Portable Jung. a compilation, New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-015070-6
Jung, C. G., Rothgeb, C. L., Clemens, S. M., & National Clearinghouse for Mental Health Information (U.S.). (1978). Abstracts of the Collected Works of C.G. Jung. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Printing Office.
Jung, C. G., & Antony Storr ed., (1983) The Essential Jung. a compilation, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-02455-3
Jung, C. G. (1986). Psychology and the East. London: Ark. (contained in Collected Works Vol. 11)
Jung, C. G. (1987). Dictionary of Analytical Psychology. London: Ark Paperbacks.
Jung, C. G. (1988). Psychology and Western Religion. London: Ark Paperbacks. (contained in Collected Works Vol. 11)
Jung, C. G., Wagner, S., Wagner, G., & Van der Post, L. (1990). The World Within C.G. Jung in his own words [videorecording]. New York, NY: Kino International : Dist. by Insight Media.
Jung, C. G., & Hull, R. F. C. (1991). Psychological Types (a revised ed.). London: Routlege.
Jung, C. G., & Chodorow, J. (1997). Jung on Active Imagination. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Jung, C. G., & Jarrett, J. L. (1998). Jung's Seminar on Nietzsche's Zarathustra (Abridged ed.). Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
Jung, C. G., & Pauli, Wolfgang, C. A. Meier (Editor) (2001). Atom and Archetype : The Pauli/Jung Letters, 1932-1958, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01207-5
Jung, C. G., & Victor White (2007). The Jung-White Letters. Philemon Series.
Jung, C. G. (2007). Children’s Dreams. Philemon Series.
Jung, C. G., & Sonu Shamdasani (Editor) (2009). The Red Book. Liber Novus, Philemon Series & W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 978-0-393-06567-1
Jung, C. G. (2013), The Question of Psychological Types, Philemon Series & Princeton University Press.
Jung, C. G. (2014), Dream Interpretation Ancient and Modern, Philemon Series & Princeton University Press.
Jung, C. G. (2015), The Jung & Neumann Correspondence, Philemon Series & Princeton University Press.
Jung, C. G. (2015), Notes from C. G. Jung's Lecture on Gérard de Nerval's "Aurélia", Philemon Series & Princeton University Press.
Jung, C. G. (2018), History of Modern Psychology: Lectures Delivered at the ETH Zurich, Volume 1, 1933-1934, Philemon Series & Princeton University Press.
Jung, C. G. (2018), The Art of C. G. Jung, W. W. Norton & The Foundation of the Works of C.G. Jung.
Jung, C. G. (2019), Dream Symbols of the Individuation Process. Notes of C. G. Jung's Seminars on Wolfgang Pauli's Dreams, Philemon Series & Princeton University Press.Elias M. Stein
Elias Menachem Stein (January 13, 1931 – December 23, 2018) was an American mathematician, and a leading figure in the field of harmonic analysis. He was professor of Mathematics at Princeton University from 1963 until his death in 2018.Experimental Researches
Experimental Researches is Volume 2 in The Collected Works of C. G. Jung, a series of books published by Princeton University Press in the U.S. and Routledge & Kegan Paul in the U.K. It was translated from German by R.F.C. Hull and edited by Gerhard Adler. The book includes Jung's word association studies in normal and abnormal psychology, two 1909 Clark University lectures on the association method, and three articles on psychophysical researches from American and English journals in 1907 and 1908.The word association studies described in this book were an important contribution to diagnostic psychology and psychiatry, and show the influence on Jung of Eugen Bleuler and Sigmund Freud.Extensive detailed abstracts of each chapter are available online.Iraqi Communist Party
The Iraqi Communist Party (Arabic: الحزب الشيوعي العراقي Al-Ḥizb ash-Shiyūʿī al-ʿIrāqī; Sorani Kurdish: حزبی شیوعی عێراق) is a communist party and the oldest active party in Iraq. Since its foundation in 1934, it has dominated the left in Iraqi politics. It played a prominent role in shaping the political history of Iraq between its foundation and the 1970s. The Party was involved in many of the most important national uprisings and demonstrations of the 1940s and 1950s. It suffered heavily under the Ba'ath Party and Saddam Hussein but remained an important element of the Iraqi opposition and was a vocal opponent of the United Nations sanctions imposed on Iraq after the Gulf War of 1991. It opposed the United States invasion of Iraq in 2003 but since then has participated in the new political institutions. It received little support in the Iraqi general elections of 2005. The party reportedly gained some seats in each province in which the 2013 Iraqi governorate elections were held. The party joined the newly established Sairoun Alliance in the 2018 parliamentary elections, who gained the highest number of votes and a total of 54 seats in the Iraqi parliament. A communist woman representing the alliance, Suhad al-Khateeb, was also elected in the elections to represent the city of Najaf, deemed to be one of the holiest religious and conservative cities in Iraq. Al-Khateeb, who is a teacher and an anti-poverty and women's rights activist, said upon her victory "the Communist party have a long history of honesty – we were not agents for foreign occupations. We want social justice, citizenship, and are against sectarianism, and this is also what Iraqis want."John Milnor
John Willard Milnor (born February 20, 1931) is an American mathematician known for his work in differential topology, K-theory and dynamical systems. Milnor is a distinguished professor at Stony Brook University and one of the four mathematicians to have won the Fields Medal, the Wolf Prize, and the Abel Prize (along with Pierre Deligne, Jean-Pierre Serre, and John G. Thompson).Mysterium Coniunctionis
Mysterium Coniunctionis, subtitled An Inquiry into the Separation and Synthesis of Psychic Opposites in Alchemy, is Volume 14 in The Collected Works of C. G. Jung, published in 1970 by Princeton University Press in the United States and by Routledge and Kegan Paul in the United Kingdom. Completed in his 81st year, it is Carl Jung's last major work on the synthesis of opposites in alchemy and psychology.
The book gives a final account of Jung's lengthy researches in alchemy. He empirically discovered that certain key problems of modern man were prefigured in what the alchemists called their "art" or "process". Edward F. Edinger poses an important question in the introduction to his book "The Mystery of The Conjunctio": "One might ask, why alchemy? ... The alchemists were fired with the beginnings of the modern spirit of inquiry, but yet, as investigators of the nature of matter they were still half asleep. So, in their zeal to investigate those newly opened vistas, they projected their fantasies and dream images into matter. in effect, they dreamed a vast collective dream using chemical operations and materials as imagery and subject matter for that dream. Alchemy is that great collective dream, and what makes it so important for us is that it's the dream of our ancestors. The alchemist were rooted in the Western psyche which we've inherited, so their imagery, their fantasy, their dream, is our fantasy and our dream.
That's what Jung demonstrates so magnificently in his major works on alchemy."Jung maintained that:
The world of alchemical symbols does not belong to the rubbish heap of the past, but stands in a very real and living relationship to our most recent discoveries concerning the psychology of the unconscious.
The Journal of Analytical Psychology said of this book:
What Jung has to convey is so truly original and so far ranging in its implications that I suspect this book will be a real challenge even to those most psychologically sophisticated. What he here presents in rich and documented detail can perhaps best be described as an anatomy of the objective psyche.
The work includes ten plates, a bibliography, an index, and an appendix of original Latin and Greek texts quoted.National syndicalism
National syndicalism is an adaptation of syndicalism to suit the social agenda of integral nationalism. National syndicalism developed in France, and then spread to Italy, Spain, and Portugal.On Bullshit
On Bullshit (2005), by philosopher Harry G. Frankfurt, is an essay that presents a theory of bullshit that defines the concept and analyzes the applications of bullshit in the context of communication. Frankfurt determines that bullshit is speech intended to persuade without regard for truth. The liar cares about the truth and attempts to hide it; the bullshitter doesn't care if what they say is true or false, but rather only cares whether their listener is persuaded.Practice of Psychotherapy
Practice of Psychotherapy is Volume 16 in The Collected Works of C. G. Jung, a series of books published by Princeton University Press in the U.S. and Routledge & Kegan Paul in the U.K. It contains essays on aspects of analytical therapy, specifically the transference, abreaction, and dream analysis. There is also an additional essay, "The Realities of Practical Psychotherapy", which was found among Jung's posthumous papers.The book brings together Jung's essays on general questions of analytic therapy and dream analysis. It also contains his profoundly interesting parallel between the transference phenomena and alchemical processes. The transference is illustrated and interpreted with a set of symbolic pictures, and the bond between psychotherapist and patient is shown to be a function of the kinship libido. Far from being pathological in its effects, kinship libido has an essential role to play in the work of individuation and in establishing an organic society based on the psychic connection of its members with one another and with their own roots.Detailed abstracts of each chapter are available online.Psychiatric Studies
Psychiatric Studies is Volume 1 in The Collected Works of C. G. Jung, a series of books published by Princeton University Press in the U.S. and Routledge & Kegan Paul in the U.K. It contains papers published in German between 1902 and 1905, translated by R.F.C. Hull and edited by Sir Herbert Read, Michael Fordham and Gerhard Adler. The papers focus on descriptive and experimental psychiatry from Jung's early days in medical practice. They show the influence on Jung of Eugen Bleuler and Pierre Janet.The book begins with Jung's doctoral dissertation On the Psychology and Pathology of So-Called Occult Phenomena, a case study of an adolescent girl who claimed to be a psychic medium. It also includes papers on cryptomnesia, Freudian slips in reading, simulated insanity, and other subjects, and discusses some conditions of inferiority and altered states of consciousness which were previously thought to be occult phenomena. Included are case studies of sleepwalkers and patients who suffered from hypomania.Extensive detailed abstracts of each chapter are available online.Psychogenesis of Mental Disease
Psychogenesis of Mental Disease is Volume 3 in The Collected Works of C. G. Jung, a series of books published by Princeton University Press in the U.S. and Routledge & Kegan Paul in the U.K. It was edited and translated from German by Sir Herbert Read, R.F.C. Hull and Gerhard Adler. The book shows the development of Jung's thoughts about the nature of mental illness, and established him as a pioneer and scientific contributor to psychiatry. It contains On the Psychology of Dementia Praecox (1907), which Abraham Brill described as "indispensable for every student of psychiatry". Also included are nine other papers in psychiatry, from The Content of the Psychoses, (1908), to two papers from 1956 and 1958, discussing Jung's conclusions after long experience in the psychotherapy of schizophrenia.The latter nine papers show Jung's original thinking about the origins of mental illness and give insight into the development of his later concepts such as the archetypes and the collective unconscious.Extensive detailed abstracts of each chapter are available online.Symbols of Transformation
Symbols of Transformation is Volume 5 in The Collected Works of C. G. Jung, a series of books published by Princeton University Press in the U.S. and Routledge & Kegan Paul in the U.K. It is a complete revision of Psychology of the Unconscious (1911–12), Carl Jung's first important statement of his independent position in psychology.Jung said that book: "laid down a programme to be followed for the next few decades of my life." It covered many and varied fields of study, including among others: psychiatry, psychoanalysis, ethnology and comparative religion. It became a standard work and was translated into French, Dutch and Italian as well as English. Its somewhat misleading title in English was The Psychology of the Unconscious. Jung later said "it was the explosion of all those psychic contents which could find no room, no breathing space, in the constricting atmosphere of Freudian psychology…. It was an attempt, only partially successful, to create a wider setting for medical psychology and to bring the whole of the psychic phenomena within its purview."Symbols of Transformation, appearing ten years later, involved no substantive changes in the text, but corrections were made, entries and citations were revised to conform with other publications, and some translations were substituted in quotations.The book contains material on directed thinking vs. associative thinking (dreaming), the Hieros gamos, and extensive analysis of the fantasies of a Miss Frank Miller, including the symbols of the hero, mother, and sacrifice. Extensive detailed abstracts of each chapter are available online.Synchronicity (book)
Synchronicity: An Acausal Connecting Principle, by C.G. Jung, is a book published by Princeton University Press in 1960. It was extracted from Structure & Dynamics of the Psyche, which is Volume 8 in The Collected Works of C. G. Jung. The book was also published in 1985 by Routledge.
To Jung, synchronicity is a meaningful coincidence in time, a psychic factor which is independent of space and time. This revolutionary concept of synchronicity both challenges and complements the physicist's classical view of causality. It also forces a basic reconsideration of the meaning of chance, probability, coincidence and the singular events in our lives.Jung was intrigued from early in his career with coincidences, especially those surprising juxtapositions that scientific rationality could not adequately explain. He discussed these ideas with Albert Einstein before World War I, but first used the term "synchronicity" in a 1930 lecture, in reference to the unusual psychological insights generated from consulting the I Ching. A long correspondence and friendship with the Nobel Prize-winning physicist Wolfgang Pauli inspired a final, mature statement of Jung's thinking on synchronicity, originally published in 1952 and reproduced in this book. Together with a wealth of historical and contemporary material, this essay describes an astrological experiment Jung conducted to test his theory. Synchronicity reveals the full extent of Jung's research into a wide range of psychic phenomena.On the front cover of the Police album of the same name, lead singer/bassist Sting can be seen reading a copy of the book.The Collected Works of C. G. Jung
The Collected Works of C. G. Jung is a book series containing the first collected edition, in English translation, of the major writings of Swiss psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung. The volumes were edited and translated from the original German by Gerhard Adler and R.F.C. Hull, occasionally with assistance from others. Most were not written by Jung as books, but are collections of papers, essays, lectures, letters, etc. written by Jung from 1902 until his death in 1961, and compiled by editors from 1945 onward. The series contains revised versions of works previously published, works not previously translated, and new translations of many of Jung's writings. Several of the volumes are extensively illustrated; each contains an index and most contain a bibliography. Prior to Jung's death he supervised the revisions of the text, some of which were extensive.
An enormous body of Jung's work still remains unpublished.Princeton University Press published these volumes in the United States as part of its Bollingen Series of books. Routledge & Kegan Paul published them independently in the United Kingdom. In general, the Princeton editions are not available for sale in The Commonwealth, except for Canada, and the Routledge editions are not available for sale in the U.S. There are many differences in publication dates between the Princeton and Routledge series, as well as some differences in edition numbers and the styling of titles; there are also various hardback and paperback versions, as well as some ebooks, available from both publishers, each with its own ISBN. This article shows dates and titles for hardback (cloth) volumes in the catalog of the Princeton University Press, which also includes paperback and ebook versions. Information about the Routledge series can be found in its own catalog.
A digital edition, complete except for the General Index in Volume 20, is also available. Both the individual volumes and the complete set are fully searchable.The Nature of Space and Time
The Nature of Space and Time is a book that documents a debate on physics and the philosophy of physics between the British theoretical physicists Roger Penrose and Stephen Hawking. The book was published by Princeton University Press in 1996. The event that is featured in the book took place in 1994 at the University of Cambridge's Isaac Newton Institute. The debate was modeled on the series of debates between Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr.Thucydides
Thucydides (; Greek: Θουκυδίδης Thoukydídēs [tʰuːkydídɛːs]; c. 460 – c. 400 BC) was an Athenian historian and general. His History of the Peloponnesian War recounts the fifth-century BC war between Sparta and Athens until the year 411 BC. Thucydides has been dubbed the father of "scientific history" by those who accept his claims to have applied strict standards of impartiality and evidence-gathering and analysis of cause and effect, without reference to intervention by the deities, as outlined in his introduction to his work.He also has been called the father of the school of political realism, which views the political behavior of individuals and the subsequent outcomes of relations between states as ultimately mediated by and constructed upon the emotions of fear and self-interest. His text is still studied at universities and military colleges worldwide. The Melian dialogue is regarded as a seminal work of international relations theory, while his version of Pericles' Funeral Oration is widely studied by political theorists, historians, and students of the classics.
More generally, Thucydides developed an understanding of human nature to explain behaviour in such crises as plagues, massacres, and civil war.