Princely state

A princely state, also called native state, feudatory state or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state[1] under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj. Though the history of the princely states of the subcontinent dates from at least the classical period of Indian history, the predominant usage of the term princely state specifically refers to a semi-sovereign principality on the Indian subcontinent during the British Raj that was not directly governed by the British, but rather by a local ruler, subject to a form of indirect rule on some matters. In actual fact, the imprecise doctrine of paramountcy allowed the government of British India to interfere in the internal affairs of princely states individually or collectively[2] and issue edicts that applied to all of India when it deemed it necessary.

At the time of the British withdrawal, 565 princely states were officially recognised in the Indian subcontinent,[3] apart from thousands of thakurs, taluqdars, zamindaris and jagirs. In 1947, princely states covered 40% of area of pre-Independent India and constituted 23% of its population.[4] The most important states had their own British Political Residencies: Hyderabad, Mysore and Travancore in the South followed by Jammu and Kashmir and Sikkim in the Himalayas, and Indore in Central India. The most prominent among those – roughly a quarter of the total – had the status of a salute state, one whose ruler was entitled to a set number of gun salutes on ceremonial occasions.

The princely states varied greatly in status, size, and wealth; the premier 21-gun salute states of Hyderabad, Jammu and Kashmir were each over 200,000 km2 (77,000 sq mi) in size. In 1941, Hyderabad had a population of over 16 million, while Jammu and Kashmir had a population of slightly over 4 million. At the other end of the scale, the non-salute principality of Lawa covered an area of 49 km2 (19 sq mi), with a population of just below 3,000. Some two hundred of the lesser states had an area of less than 25 km2 (10 sq mi).[5][6]

The era of the princely states effectively ended with Indian independence in 1947. By 1950, almost all of the principalities had acceded to either India or Pakistan.[7] The accession process was largely peaceful, except in the cases of Jammu and Kashmir (whose ruler opted for independence but decided to accede to India following an invasion by Pakistan-based forces),[8] Hyderabad (whose ruler opted for independence in 1947, followed a year later by the police action and annexation of the state by India), Junagadh (whose ruler acceded to Pakistan, but was annexed by India).[9] and Kalat (whose ruler declared independence in 1947, followed in 1948 by the state's annexation).[10][11][12]

As per the terms of accession, the erstwhile Indian princes received privy purses (government allowances), and initially retained their statuses, privileges, and autonomy in internal matters during a transitional period which lasted until 1956. During this time, the former princely states were merged into unions, each of which was headed by a former ruling prince with the title of Rajpramukh (ruling chief), equivalent to a state governor.[13] In 1956, the position of Rajpramukh was abolished and the federations dissolved, the former principalities becoming part of Indian states. The states which acceded to Pakistan retained their status until the promulgation of a new constitution in 1956, when most became part of the province of West Pakistan; a few of the former states retained their autonomy until 1969 when they were fully integrated into Pakistan. The Indian Government formally derecognised the princely families in 1971, followed by the Government of Pakistan in 1972.

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1947

History

Though principalities and chiefdoms existed on the Indian subcontinent from at least the Iron Age, the history of princely states on the Indian subcontinent dates to at least the 5th–6th centuries C.E., during the rise of the middle kingdoms of India following the collapse of the Gupta Empire.[14][15] Many of the future ruling clan groups – notably the Rajputs – began to emerge during this period; by the 13th–14th centuries, many of the Rajput clans had firmly established semi-independent principalities in the north-west, along with several in the north-east. The widespread expansion of Islam during this time brought many principalities into tributary relations with Islamic sultanates, notably with the Mughal Empire. In the south, however, the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire remained dominant until the mid-17th century; among its tributaries was the future Mysore Kingdom.

The Turco-Mongol Mughal Empire brought a majority of the existing Indian kingdoms and principalities under its suzerainty by the 17th century, beginning with its foundation in the early 16th century. The advent of Sikhism resulted in the Jat sikh creation of the Sikh Empire in the north by the early 18th century, by which time the Mughal Empire was in full decline. At the same time, the Marathas carved out their own states to form the Maratha Empire. Through the 18th century, former Mughal governors formed their own independent states. In the north-west, some of those – such as Tonk – allied themselves with various groups, including the Marathas and the Durrani Empire, itself formed in 1747 from a loose agglomeration of tribal chiefdoms that composed former Mughal territories. In the south, the principalities of Hyderabad and Arcot were fully established by the 1760s, though they nominally remained vassals of the Mughal Emperor.

British relationship with the princely states

India under the British Raj (the "Indian Empire") consisted of two types of territory: British India and the Native states or Princely states. In its Interpretation Act 1889, the British Parliament adopted the following definitions:

(4.) The expression "British India" shall mean all territories and places within Her Majesty's dominions which are for the time being governed by Her Majesty through the Governor-General of India or through any governor or other officer subordinate to the Governor-General of India.
(5.) The expression "India" shall mean British India together with any territories of any native prince or chief under the suzerainty of Her Majesty exercised through the Governor-General of India, or through any governor or other officer subordinate to the Governor-General of India.[16]

In general the term "British India" had been used (and is still used) also to refer to the regions under the rule of the East India Company in India from 1774 to 1858.[17][18]

The British Crown's suzerainty over 175 princely states, generally the largest and most important, was exercised in the name of the British Crown by the central government of British India under the Viceroy; the remaining approximately 400 states were influenced by Agents answerable to the provincial governments of British India under a Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, or Chief Commissioner.[19] A clear distinction between "dominion" and "suzerainty" was supplied by the jurisdiction of the courts of law: the law of British India rested upon the legislation enacted by the British Parliament, and the legislative powers those laws vested in the various governments of British India, both central and local; in contrast, the courts of the princely states existed under the authority of the respective rulers of those states.[19]

Princely status and titles

The Indian rulers bore various titles – including Chhatrapati (exclusively used by the 3 Bhonsle dynasty of the Marathas) ("emperor"), Maharaja or Raja ("king"), Sultan, Nawab, Emir, Raje, Nizam, Wadiyar (used only by the Maharajas of Mysore, meaning "lord"), Agniraj Maharaj for the rulers of Bhaddaiyan Raj, Chogyal, Nawab ("governor"), Nayak, Wāli, Inamdar,[20] Saranjamdar[21] and many others. Whatever the literal meaning and traditional prestige of the ruler's actual title, the British government translated them all as "prince," to avoid the implication that the native rulers could be "kings" with status equal to that of the British monarch.

British Residency in Kollam
An old image of the British Residency in the city of Quilon, Kerala

More prestigious Hindu rulers (mostly existing before the Mughal Empire, or having split from such old states) often used the title "Raja,"Raje" or a variant such as Rai, "Rana," "Rao," "Rawat" or Rawal. Also in this 'class' were several Thakurs or Thai ores and a few particular titles, such as Sardar,Chaudhry, Mankari (or Mānkari/Maankari), Deshmukh, Sar Desai, Raja Inamdar, Saranjamdar.

The most prestigious Hindu rulers usually had the prefix "maha" ("great", compare for example Grand Duke) in their titles, as in Maharaja, Maharana, Maharao, etc. The states of Travancore and Cochin had queens regnant styled Maharani, generally the female forms applied only to sisters, spouses and widows, who could however act as regents.

There were also compound titles, such as (Maha)rajadhiraj, Raj-i-rajgan, often relics from an elaborate system of hierarchical titles under the Mughal emperors. For example, the addition of the adjective Bahadur raised the status of the titleholder one level.

Furthermore, most dynasties used a variety of additional titles, such as Varma in South India. This should not be confused with various titles and suffixes not specific to princes but used by entire (sub)castes.

The Sikh princes concentrated at Punjab usually adopted Hindu type titles when attaining princely rank; at a lower level Sardar was used.

Muslim rulers almost all used the title "Nawab" (the Arabic honorific of naib, "deputy," used of the Mughal governors, who became de facto autonomous with the decline of the Mughal Empire), with the prominent exceptions of the Nizam of Hyderabad & Berar, the Wāli/Khan of Kalat and the Wāli of Swat. Other less usual titles included Darbar Sahib, Dewan, Jam, Mehtar (unique to Chitral) and Mir (from Emir).

Precedence and prestige

However, the actual importance of a princely state cannot be read from the title of its ruler, which was usually granted (or at least recognised) as a favour, often in recognition for loyalty and services rendered to the Mughal Empire. Although some titles were raised once or even repeatedly, there was no automatic updating when a state gained or lost real power. In fact, princely titles were even awarded to holders of domains (mainly jagirs) and even taluqdars and zamindars (tax collectors), which were not states at all. Various sources give significantly different numbers of states and domains of the various types. Even in general, the definition of titles and domains are clearly not well-established.

Group portrait of the Maharaja of Mysore and his brothers and sisters
An 1895 group photograph of the eleven-year-old Krishnaraja Wadiyar IV, ruler of the princely state of Mysore in South India, with his brothers and sisters. In 1799, his grandfather, then aged five, had been granted dominion of Mysore by the British and forced into a subsidiary alliance. The British later directly governed the state between 1831 and 1881.
Maharaja rewapalace govindgarh1870
The Govindgarh Palace of the Maharaja of Rewa. The palace which was built as a hunting lodge later became famous for the first white tigers that were found in the adjacent jungle and raised in the palace zoo.
Nawab junagadh1885
The Nawab of Junagadh Bahadur Khan III (seated centre in an ornate chair) shown in an 1885 photograph with state officials and family.
Maharani sikkim1900
Photograph (1900) of the Maharani of Sikkim. Sikkim was under the suzerainty of the Provincial government of Bengal; its ruler received a 15-gun salute.

In addition to their titles all princely rulers were eligible to be appointed to certain British orders of chivalry associated with India, the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India and the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire. Women could be appointed as "Knights" (instead of Dames) of these orders. Rulers entitled to 21-gun and 19-gun salutes were normally appointed to the highest rank, Knight Grand Commander of the Order of the Star of India.

Many Indian princes served in the British Army, the Indian Army, or in local guard or police forces, often rising to high ranks; some even served while on the throne. Many of these were appointed as an Aide de camp, either to the ruling prince of their own house (in the case of relatives of such rulers) or indeed to the British monarchs. Many saw active service, both on the subcontinent and on other fronts, during both World Wars.

Apart from those members of the princely houses who entered military service and who distinguished themselves, a good number of princes received honorary ranks as officers in the British and Indian Armed Forces. Those ranks were conferred based on several factors, including their heritage, lineage, gun-salute (or lack of one) as well as personal character or martial traditions. After the First and Second World Wars, the princely rulers of several of the major states, including Gwalior, Patiala, Nabha, Faridkort, Bikaner, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Jammu and Kashmir and Hyderabad, were given honorary general officer ranks as a result of their states' contributions to the war effort.

  • Lieutenant/Captain/Flight Lieutenant or Lieutenant-Commander/Major/Squadron Leader (for junior members of princely houses or for minor princes)
  • Commander/Lieutenant-Colonel/Wing Commander or Captain/Colonel/Group Captain (granted to princes of salute states, often to those entitled to 15-guns or more)
  • Commodore/Brigadier/Air Commodore (conferred upon princes of salute states entitled to gun salutes of 15-guns or more)
  • Major-General/Air Vice-Marshal (conferred upon princes of salute states entitled to 15-guns or more; conferred upon rulers of the major princely states, including Baroda, Kapurthala, Travancore, Bhopal and Mysore)
  • Lieutenant-General (conferred upon the rulers of the largest and most prominent princely houses after the First and Second World Wars for their states' contributions to the war effort.)
  • General (very rarely awarded; the Maharajas of Gwalior and Jammu & Kashmir were created honorary Generals in the British Army in 1877, the Maharaja of Bikaner was made one in 1937, and the Nizam of Hyderabad in 1941)[22]

It was also not unusual for members of princely houses to be appointed to various colonial offices, often far from their native state, or to enter the diplomatic corps.

Salute states

The gun salute system was used to set unambiguously the precedence of the major rulers in the area in which the British East India Company was active, or generally of the states and their dynasties. As heads of a state, certain princely rulers were entitled to be saluted by the firing of an odd number of guns between three and 21, with a greater number of guns indicating greater prestige. Generally, the number of guns remained the same for all successive rulers of a particular state, but individual princes were sometimes granted additional guns on a personal basis. Furthermore, rulers were sometimes granted additional gun salutes within their own territories only, constituting a semi-promotion. The states of all these rulers (about 120) were known as salute states.

After Indian Independence, the Maharana of Udaipur displaced the Nizam of Hyderabad as the most senior prince in India, because Hyderabad State had not acceded to the new Dominion of India, and the style Highness was extended to all rulers entitled to 9-gun salutes. When the princely states had been integrated into the Indian Union their rulers were promised continued privileges and an income (known as the Privy Purse) for their upkeep. Subsequently, when the Indian government abolished the Privy Purse in 1971, the whole princely order ceased to be recognised under Indian law, although many families continue to retain their social prestige informally; some descendants of the rulers are still prominent in regional or national politics, diplomacy, business and high society.

At the time of Indian independence, only five rulers – the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Maharaja of Mysore, the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir state, the Maharaja Gaekwad of Baroda and the Maharaja Scindia of Gwalior – were entitled to a 21-gun salute. Five more – the Nawab of Bhopal, the Maharaja Holkar of Indore, the Maharana of Udaipur, the Maharaja of Kolhapur , the Maharaja of Patiala and the Maharaja of Travancore – were entitled to 19-gun salutes. The most senior princely ruler was the Nizam of Hyderabad, who was entitled to the unique style Exalted Highness and 21-gun salute.[23][24] Other princely rulers entitled to salutes of 11 guns (soon 9 guns too) or more were entitled to the style Highness. No special style was used by rulers entitled to lesser gun salutes.

As paramount ruler, and successor to the Mughals, the British King-Emperor of India, for whom the style of Majesty was reserved, was entitled to an 'imperial' 101-gun salute—in the European tradition also the number of guns fired to announce the birth of an heir (male) to the throne.

Non-salute states

There was no strict correlation between the levels of the titles and the classes of gun salutes, the real measure of precedence, but merely a growing percentage of higher titles in classes with more guns. As a rule the majority of gun-salute princes had at least nine, with numbers below that usually the prerogative of Arab Sheikhs of the Aden protectorate, also under British protection.

There were many so-called non-salute states of lower prestige. Since the total of salute states was 117 and there were more than 500 princely states, most rulers were not entitled to any gun salute. Not all of these were minor rulers – Surguja State, for example, was both larger and more populous than Karauli State, but the Maharaja of Karauli was entitled to a 17-gun salute and the Maharaja of Surguja was not entitled to any gun salute at all.

A number of princes, in the broadest sense of the term, were not even acknowledged as such. On the other hand, the dynasties of certain defunct states were allowed to keep their princely status – they were known as political pensioners, such as the Nawab of Oudh. There were also certain estates of British India which were rendered as political saranjams, having equal princely status.[25] Though none of these princes were awarded gun salutes, princely titles in this category were recognised as a form of vassals of salute states, and were not even in direct relation with the paramount power.

Doctrine of lapse

A controversial aspect of East India Company rule was the doctrine of lapse, a policy under which lands whose feudal ruler died (or otherwise became unfit to rule) without a male biological heir (as opposed to an adopted son) would become directly controlled by the Company and an adopted son would not become the ruler of the princely state. This policy went counter to Indian tradition where, unlike Europe, it was far more the accepted norm for a ruler to appoint his own heir.

The doctrine of lapse was pursued most vigorously by the Governor-General Sir James Ramsay, 10th Earl (later 1st Marquess) of Dalhousie. Dalhousie annexed seven states, including Awadh (Oudh), whose Nawabs he had accused of misrule, and the Maratha states of Nagpur, Jhansi, Satara, Sambalpur, and Thanjavur. Resentment over the annexation of these states turned to indignation when the heirlooms of the Maharajas of Nagpur were auctioned off in Calcutta. Dalhousie's actions contributed to the rising discontent amongst the upper castes which played a large part in the outbreak of the Indian mutiny of 1857. The last Mughal Badshah (emperor), whom many of the mutineers saw as a figurehead to rally around, was deposed following its suppression.

In response to the unpopularity of the doctrine, it was discontinued with the end of Company rule and the British Parliament's assumption of direct power over India.

Imperial governance

Group at Residency including the Maharaja of Kolhapur
Photograph (1894) of the 19-year-old Shahaji II Bhonsle Maharajah of Kolhapur visiting the British resident and his staff at the Residency

By treaty, the British controlled the external affairs of the princely states absolutely. As the states were not British possessions, they retained control over their own internal affairs, subject to a degree of British influence which in many states was substantial.

By the beginning of the 20th century, relations between the British and the four largest states – Hyderabad, Mysore, Jammu and Kashmir, and Baroda – were directly under the control of the Governor-General of India, in the person of a British Resident. Two agencies, for Rajputana and Central India, oversaw twenty and 148 princely states respectively. The remaining princely states had their own British political officers, or Agents, who answered to the administrators of India's provinces. The Agents of five princely states were then under the authority of Madras, 354 under Bombay, 26 of Bengal, two under Assam, 34 under Punjab, fifteen under Central Provinces and Berar and two under United Provinces.

Chamber of Princes 17-03-1941 detail
Chamber of Princes meeting in March 1941

The Chamber of Princes (Narender Mandal or Narendra Mandal) was an institution established in 1920 by a Royal Proclamation of the King-Emperor to provide a forum in which the rulers could voice their needs and aspirations to the government. It survived until the end of the British Raj in 1947.[26]

By the early 1930s, most of the princely states whose Agencies were under the authority of India's provinces were organised into new Agencies, answerable directly to the Governor-general, on the model of the Central India and Rajputana agencies: the Eastern States Agency, Punjab States Agency, Baluchistan Agency, Deccan States Agency, Madras States Agency and the Northwest Frontier States Agency. The Baroda Residency was combined with the princely states of northern Bombay Presidency into the Baroda, Western India and Gujarat States Agency. Gwalior was separated from the Central India Agency and given its own Resident, and the states of Rampur and Benares, formerly with Agents under the authority of the United Provinces, were placed under the Gwalior Residency in 1936. The princely states of Sandur and Banganapalle in Mysore Presidency were transferred to the agency of the Mysore Resident in 1939.

Principal princely states in 1947

The native states in 1947 included five large states that were in "direct political relations" with the Government of India. For the complete list of princely states in 1947, see List of princely states of India.

In direct relations with the Central Government

Five large Princely states in direct political relations with the Central Government in India[27][28][29][30]
Name of Princely state Area in square miles Population in 1941 Approximate revenue of the state (in hundred thousand Rupees) Title, ethnicity, and religion of ruler Gun-Salute for ruler Designation of local political officer
 Baroda State 13,866 3,343,477 (chiefly Hindu) 323.26 Maharaja, Maratha, Hindu 21 Resident at Baroda
 Hyderabad State 82,698 16,338,534 (mostly Hindu with a sizeable Muslim minority) 1582.43 Nizam, Turkic, Sunni Muslim 21 Resident in Hyderabad
 Jammu and Kashmir 84,471 4,021,616 including Gilgit, Baltistan (Skardu), Ladakh, and Punch (mostly Muslim, with sizeable Hindu and Buddhist populations) 463.95 Maharaja, Dogra, Hindu 21 Resident in Jammu & Kashmir
 Kingdom of Mysore 29,458 7,328,896 1001.38 Maharaja, Kannadiga, Hindu 21 Resident in Mysore
 Gwalior State 26,397 4,006,159 (chiefly Hindu) 356.75 Maharaja, Maratha, Hindu 21 Resident at Gwalior
Total 236,890 35,038,682 3727.77
Central India Agency, Gwalior Residency, Baluchistan Agency, Rajputana Agency, Eastern States Agency
Sikkim, as a Protectorate of the British Government[39]
Name of Princely state Area in square miles Population in 1941 Approximate revenue of the state (in hundred thousand Rupees) Title, ethnicity, and religion of ruler Gun-Salute for ruler Designation of local political officer
Sikkim 2,818 121,520 (chiefly Buddhist and Hindu) 5 Maharaja, Tibetan, Buddhist 15 Political Officer, Sikkim
Other states under provincial governments

Burma

Burma (52 states)
52 States in Burma: all except Kantarawadi, one of the Karenni States, were included in British India until 1937[46]
Name of Princely state Area in square miles Population in 1901 Approximate revenue of the state (in hundred thousand Rupees) Title, ethnicity, and religion of ruler Gun-Salute for ruler Designation of local political officer
Hsipaw (Thibaw) 5,086 105,000 (Buddhist) 3 Sawbwa, Shan, Buddhist 9 Superintendent, Northern Shan States
Kengtung 12,000 190,000 (Buddhist) 1 Sawbwa, Shan, Buddhist 9 Superintendent Southern Shan States
Yawnghwe 865 95,339 (Buddhist) 2.13 Sawbwa, Shan, Buddhist 9 Superintendent Southern Shan States
Mongnai 2,717 44,000 (Buddhist) 0.5 Sawbwa, Shan, Buddhist Superintendent Southern Shan States
5 Karenni States 3,130 45,795 (Buddhist and Animist) 0,035 Sawbwa, Red Karen, Buddhist Superintendent Southern Shan States
44 Other States 42,198 792,152 (Buddhist and Animist) 8.5
Total 67,011 1,177,987 13.5

State military forces

See article: Indian State Forces

The armies of the Native States were bound by many restrictions that were imposed by subsidiary alliances. They existed mainly for ceremonial use and for internal policing, although certain units designated as Imperial Service Troops, were available for service alongside the regular Indian Army upon request by the British government.[47]

According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1907, p. 85,

Since a chief can neither attack his neighbour nor fall out with a foreign nation, it follows that he needs no military establishment which is not required either for police purposes or personal display, or for cooperation with the Imperial Government. The treaty made with Gwalior in 1844, and the instrument of transfer given to Mysore in 1881, alike base the restriction of the forces of the State upon the broad ground of protection. The former explained in detail that unnecessary armies were embarrassing to the State itself and the cause of disquietude to others: a few months later a striking proof of this was afforded by the army of the Sikh kingdom of Lahore. The British Government has undertaken to protect the dominions of the Native princes from invasion and even from rebellion within: its army is organised for the defence not merely of British India, but of all the possessions under the suzerainty of the King-Emperor.[48]

In addition, other restrictions were imposed:

The treaties with most of the larger States are clear on this point. Posts in the interior must not be fortified, factories for the production of guns and ammunition must not be constructed, nor may the subject of other States be enlisted in the local forces. ... They must allow the forces that defend them to obtain local supplies, to occupy cantonments or positions, and to arrest deserters; and in addition to these services they must recognise the Imperial control of the railways, telegraphs, and postal communications as essential not only to the common welfare but to the common defence.[49]

The Imperial Service Troops were routinely inspected by British army officers and generally had the same equipment as soldiers in the Indian Army.[50] Although their numbers were relatively small, the Imperial Service Troops were employed in China and British Somaliland in the first decade of the 20th century, and later saw action in the First World War and Second World War .[50]

Political integration of princely states in 1947 and after

India

At the time of Indian independence in August 1947, India was divided into two sets of territories, the first being the territories of "British India," which were under the direct control of the India Office in London and the Governor-General of India, and the second being the "Princely states," the territories over which the Crown had suzerainty, but which were under the control of their hereditary rulers. In addition, there were several colonial enclaves controlled by France and Portugal. The integration of these territories into Dominion of India, that had been created by the Indian Independence Act 1947 by the British parliament, was a declared objective of the Indian National Congress, which the Government of India pursued over the years 1947 to 1949. Through a combination of tactics, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and V. P. Menon in the months immediately preceding and following the independence convinced the rulers of almost all of the hundreds of princely states to accede to India. In a speech in January 1948, Vallabhbhai Patel said:

As you are all aware, on the lapse of Paramountcy every Indian State became a separate independent entity and our first task of consolidating about 550 States was on the basis of accession to the Indian Dominion on three subjects. Barring Hyderabad and Junagadh all the states which are contiguous to India acceded to Indian Dominion. Subsequently, Kashmir also came in... Some Rulers who were quick to read the writing on the wall, gave responsible government to their people; Cochin being the most illustrious example. In Travancore, there was a short struggle, but there, too, the Ruler soon recognised the aspiration of his people and agreed to introduce a constitution in which all powers would be transferred to the people and he would function as a constitutional Ruler.[51]

Although this process successfully integrated the vast majority of princely states into India, it was not as successful in relation to a few states, notably the former princely state of Kashmir, whose Maharaja delayed signing the instrument of accession into India until his territories were under the threat of invasion by Pakistan, the state of Hyderabad, whose ruler decided to remain independent and was subsequently defeated by the Operation Polo invasion.

Having secured their accession, Sardar Patel and V. P. Menon then proceeded, in a step-by-step process, to secure and extend the central government's authority over these states and to transform their administrations until, by 1956, there was little difference between the territories that had formerly been part of British India and those that had been princely states. Simultaneously, the Government of India, through a combination of diplomatic and military means, acquired control over the remaining European colonial enclaves, such as Goa, which were also integrated into India.

As the final step, in 1971, the 26th amendment[52] to the Constitution of India withdrew official recognition of all official symbols of princely India, including titles and privileges, and abolished the remuneration of the princes by privy purses. As a result, even titular heads of the former princely states ceased to exist.[53]

Pakistan

During the period of the British Raj, there were four princely states in Balochistan: Makran, Kharan, Las Bela and Kalat. The first three acceded to Pakistan.[54][55][56][57] However, the ruler of the fourth princely state, the Khan of Kalat Ahmad Yar Khan, declared Kalat's independence as this was one of the options given to all princely states.[58] The state remained independent until it was acceded on 27 March 1948. The signing of the Instrument of Accession by Ahmad Yar Khan, led his brother, Prince Abdul Karim, to revolt against his brother's decision in July 1948, causing an ongoing and still unresolved insurgency.[59]

Bahawalpur from the Punjab Agency joined Pakistan on 5 October 1947. The Princely states of the North-West Frontier States Agencies. included the Dir Swat and Chitral Agency and the Deputy Commissioner of Hazara acting as the Political Agent for Amb and Phulra. These states joined Pakistan on independence from the British.

See also

References

  1. ^ Ramusack 2004, pp. 85 Quote: "The British did not create the Indian princes. Before and during the European penetration of India, indigenous rulers achieved dominance through the military protection they provided to dependents and their skill in acquiring revenues to maintain their military and administrative organisations. Major Indian rulers exercised varying degrees and types of sovereign powers before they entered treaty relations with the British. What changed during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries is that the British increasingly restricted the sovereignty of Indian rulers. The Company set boundaries; it extracted resources in the form of military personnel, subsidies or tribute payments, and the purchase of commercial goods at favourable prices, and limited opportunities for other alliances. From the 1810s onwards as the British expanded and consolidated their power, their centralised military despotism dramatically reduced the political options of Indian rulers." (p. 85)
  2. ^ For instance, having noticed that many rulers of the larger states, such as Kapurthala and Baroda, were in the habit of making frequent trips to Europe, to the detriment of their subjects and treasury, Viceroy Curzon issued a circular in 1900 reminding the princes that they had to devote their best energies to the administration of their state and welfare of their subjects. In the future they were asked to obtain prior permission from the Supreme Government before going abroad. Anju Suri, "Curzon and British Paramountcy in the Princely States: Some Significant Aspects", Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, Vol. 63 (2002), p. 535. Published by: Indian History Congress
  3. ^ "Indian Princely States before 1947 A-J".
  4. ^ Datar, Arvind P. (18 November 2013). "Who betrayed Sardar Patel?". The Hindu.
  5. ^ Markovits, Claude (2004). A history of modern India, 1480–1950. Anthem Press. pp. 386–409. ISBN 9781843310044.
  6. ^ The India Office and Burma Office List: 1945. Harrison & Sons, Ltd. 1945. pp. 33–37.
  7. ^ Ravi Kumar Pillai of Kandamath in the Journal of the Royal Society for Asian Affairs, pages 316–319 https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03068374.2016.1171621
  8. ^ Bajwa, Kuldip Singh (2003). Jammu and Kashmir War, 1947–1948: Political and Military Perspectiv. New Delhi: Hari-Anand Publications Limited. ISBN 9788124109236.
  9. ^ Aparna Pande (16 March 2011). Explaining Pakistan's Foreign Policy: Escaping India. Taylor & Francis. pp. 31–. ISBN 978-1-136-81893-6.
  10. ^ Jalal, Ayesha (2014), The Struggle for Pakistan: A Muslim Homeland and Global Politics, Harvard University Press, p. 72, ISBN 978-0-674-74499-8: "Equally notorious was his high-handed treatment of the state of Kalat, whose ruler was made to accede to Pakistan on threat of punitive military action."
  11. ^ Samad, Yunas (2014). "Understanding the insurgency in Balochistan". Commonwealth & Comparative Politics. 52 (2): 293–320. doi:10.1080/14662043.2014.894280.: "When Mir Ahmed Yar Khan dithered over acceding the Baloch-Brauhi confederacy to Pakistan in 1947 the centre’s response was to initiate processes that would coerce the state joining Pakistan. By recognising the feudatory states of Las Bela, Kharan and the district of Mekran as independent states, which promptly merged with Pakistan, the State of Kalat became land locked and reduced to a fraction of its size. Thus Ahmed Yar Khan was forced to sign the instrument of accession on 27 March 1948, which immediately led to the brother of the Khan, Prince Abdul Karim raising the banner of revolt in July 1948, starting the first of the Baloch insurgencies."
  12. ^ Harrison, Selig S. (1981), In Afghanistan's Shadow: Baluch Nationalism and Soviet Temptations, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, p. 24, ISBN 978-0-87003-029-1: "Pakistani leaders summarily rejected this declaration, touching off a nine-month diplomatic tug of war that came to a climax in the forcible annexation of Kalat.... it is clear that Baluch leaders, including the Khan, were bitterly opposed to what happened."
  13. ^ Wilhelm von Pochhammer, India's road to nationhood: a political history of the subcontinent (1981) ch 57
  14. ^ Agarwal, Ashvini (1989). Rise and Fall of the Imperial Guptas, Delhi:Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0592-5, pp.264–9
  15. ^ Grousset, Rene (1970). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-8135-1304-1.
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  18. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. II 1908, pp. 463, 470 Quote1: "Before passing on to the political history of British India, which properly begins with the Anglo-French Wars in the Carnatic, ... (p. 463)" Quote2: "The political history of the British in India begins in the eighteenth century with the French Wars in the Carnatic. (p.471)"
  19. ^ a b Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1907, p. 60
  20. ^ Great Britain. Indian Statutory Commission; Viscount John Allsebrook Simon Simon (1930). Report of the Indian Statutory Commission ... H.M. Stationery Office. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
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  29. ^ "Jammu and Kashmir," Indian States and Agencies, The Statesman's Year Book 1947, pg 171, Macmillan & Co.
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  49. ^ Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1907, pp. 85–86
  50. ^ a b Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV 1907, p. 87
  51. ^ R. P. Bhargava (1992) The Chamber of Princes, p. 313
  52. ^ "The Constitution (26 Amendment) Act, 1971", indiacode.nic.in, Government of India, 1971, archived from the original on 6 December 2011, retrieved 9 November 2011
  53. ^ 1. Ramusack, Barbara N. (2004). The Indian princes and their states. Cambridge University Press. p. 278. ISBN 978-0-521-26727-4. Retrieved 6 November 2011., "Through a constitutional amendment passed in 1971, Indira Gandhi stripped the princes of the titles, privy purses and regal privileges which her father's government had granted." (p 278). 2. Naipaul, V. S. (8 April 2003), India: A Wounded Civilisation, Random House Digital, Inc., pp. 37–, ISBN 978-1-4000-3075-0, retrieved 6 November 2011 Quote: "The princes of India – their number and variety reflecting to a large extent the chaos that had come to the country with the break up of the Mughal empire – had lost real power in the British time. Through generations of idle servitude they had grown to specialise only in style. A bogus, extinguishable glamour: in 1947, with Independence, they had lost their state, and Mrs. Gandhi in 1971 had, without much public outcry, abolished their privy purses and titles." (pp 37–38). 3. Schmidt, Karl J. (1995), An atlas and survey of South Asian history, M.E. Sharpe, p. 78, ISBN 978-1-56324-334-9, retrieved 6 November 2011 Quote: "Although the Indian states were alternately requested or forced into union with either India or Pakistan, the real death of princely India came when the Twenty-sixth Amendment Act (1971) abolished the princes' titles, privileges, and privy purses." (page 78). 4. Breckenridge, Carol Appadurai (1995), Consuming modernity: public culture in a South Asian world, U of Minnesota Press, pp. 84–, ISBN 978-0-8166-2306-8, retrieved 6 November 2011 Quote: "The third stage in the political evolution of the princes from rulers to citizens occurred in 1971, when the constitution ceased to recognise them as princes and their privy purses, titles, and special privileges were abolished." (page 84). 5. Guha, Ramachandra (5 August 2008), India After Gandhi: The History of the World's Largest Democracy, HarperCollins, pp. 441–, ISBN 978-0-06-095858-9, retrieved 6 November 2011 Quote: "Her success at the polls emboldened Mrs. Gandhi to act decisively against the princes. Through 1971, the two sides tried and failed to find a settlement. The princes were willing to forgo their privy purses, but hoped at least to save their titles. But with her overwhelming majority in Parliament, the prime minister had no need to compromise. On 2 December she introduced a bill to amend the constitution and abolish all princely privileges. It was passed in the Lok Sabha by 381 votes to six, and in the Rajya Sabha by 167 votes to seven. In her own speech, the prime minister invited 'the princes to join the elite of the modern age, the elite which earns respect by its talent, energy and contribution to human progress, all of which can only be done when we work together as equals without regarding anybody as of special status.' " (page 441). 6. Cheesman, David (1997). Landlord power and rural indebtedness in colonial Sind, 1865–1901. London: Routledge. pp. 10–. ISBN 978-0-7007-0470-5. Retrieved 6 November 2011. Quote: "The Indian princes survived the British Raj by only a few years. The Indian republic stripped them of their powers and then their titles." (page 10). 7. Merriam-Webster, Inc (1997), Merriam-Webster's geographical dictionary, Merriam-Webster, pp. 520–, ISBN 978-0-87779-546-9, retrieved 6 November 2011 Quote: "Various (formerly) semi-independent areas in India ruled by native princes .... Under British rule ... administered by residents assisted by political agents. Titles and remaining privileges of princes abolished by Indian government 1971." (page 520). 8. Ward, Philip (September 1989), Northern India, Rajasthan, Agra, Delhi: a travel guide, Pelican Publishing, pp. 91–, ISBN 978-0-88289-753-0, retrieved 6 November 2011 Quote: "A monarchy is only as good as the reigning monarch: thus it is with the princely states. Once they seemed immutable, invincible. In 1971 they were "derecognised," their privileges, privy purses and titles all abolished at a stroke" (page 91)
  54. ^ Pervaiz I Cheema; Manuel Riemer (22 August 1990). Pakistan's Defence Policy 1947–58. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 60–. ISBN 978-1-349-20942-2.
  55. ^ Farhan Hanif Siddiqi (2012). The Politics of Ethnicity in Pakistan: The Baloch, Sindhi and Mohajir Ethnic Movements. Routledge. pp. 71–. ISBN 978-0-415-68614-3.
  56. ^ T.V. Paul (February 2014). The Warrior State: Pakistan in the Contemporary World. OUP USA. pp. 133–. ISBN 978-0-19-932223-7.
  57. ^ Bangash, Y. K. (2015), "Constructing the state: Constitutional integration of the princely states of Pakistan", in Roger D. Long; Gurharpal Singh; Yunas Samad; Ian Talbot (eds.), State and Nation-Building in Pakistan: Beyond Islam and Security, Routledge, pp. 82–, ISBN 978-1-317-44820-4
  58. ^ Nicholas Schmidle (2 March 2010). To Live or to Perish Forever: Two Tumultuous Years in Pakistan. Henry Holt and Company. pp. 86–. ISBN 978-1-4299-8590-1.
  59. ^ Syed Farooq Hasnat (26 May 2011). Global Security Watch—Pakistan. ABC-CLIO. pp. 94–. ISBN 978-0-313-34698-9.

Bibliography

  • Bhagavan, Manu. "Princely States and the Hindu Imaginary: Exploring the Cartography of Hindu Nationalism in Colonial India" Journal of Asian Studies, (Aug 2008) 67#3 pp 881–915 in JSTOR
  • Bhagavan, Manu. Sovereign Spheres: Princes, Education and Empire in Colonial India (2003)
  • Copland, Ian (2002), Princes of India in the Endgame of Empire, 1917–1947, (Cambridge Studies in Indian History & Society). Cambridge and London: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 316, ISBN 978-0-521-89436-4.
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  • Harrington, Jack (2010), Sir John Malcolm and the Creation of British India, Chs. 4 & 5., New York: Palgrave Macmillan., ISBN 978-0-230-10885-1
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Gazetteers

  • Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. II (1908), The Indian Empire, Historical, Published under the authority of His Majesty's Secretary of State for India in Council, Oxford at the Clarendon Press. Pp. xxxv, 1 map, 573. online
  • Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. III (1907), The Indian Empire, Economic (Chapter X: Famine, pp. 475–502, Published under the authority of His Majesty's Secretary of State for India in Council, Oxford at the Clarendon Press. Pp. xxxvi, 1 map, 520. online
  • Imperial Gazetteer of India vol. IV (1907), The Indian Empire, Administrative, Published under the authority of His Majesty's Secretary of State for India in Council, Oxford at the Clarendon Press. Pp. xxx, 1 map, 552. online

External links

Bahawalpur (princely state)

Bahawalpur (Urdu: بہاولپُور ‎),

was a princely state of British India and later, Pakistan, that existed from 1802 to 1955. It was a part of Punjab States Agency. The state covered an area of 45,911 km² (17,494 sq mi) and had a population of 1,341,209 in 1941. The capital of the state was the town of Bahawalpur.

Bahawalpur state was founded in 1802 by Nawab Mohammad Bahawal Khan Abbasi after the breakup of the Durrani Empire. His successor was Nawab Mohammad Bahawal Khan Abbasi III. On 22 February 1833, Abbasi III entered into subsidiary alliance with the British by which Bahawalpur was admitted as a princely state of British India. When India became independent of British rule in 1947 and partitioned into two states, India and Pakistan, Bahawalpur joined the Dominion of Pakistan. Bahawalpur remained an autonomous entity till 14 October 1955 when it was merged with the province of West Pakistan.

Chitral (princely state)

Chitral (or Chitrāl) (Urdu: چترال) was a princely state in alliance with British India until 1947, then a princely state of Pakistan until 1969. The area of the state now forms the Chitral District of the Malakand Division, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Cutch State

Cutch, also spelled Kutch or Kachchh, was a relatively large Indian princely state during the British Raj. Its territories covered the present day Kutch region of Gujarat north of the Gulf of Kutch. Bordered by Sindh in the north, Cutch State was one of the few princely states with a coastline.

The state had an area of 17,616 square miles (45,630 km2) and a population estimated at 488,022 in 1901. During the British Raj, the state was part of the Cutch Agency and later the Western India States Agency within the Bombay Presidency.

The rulers maintained an army of 354 cavalry, 1,412 infantry and 164 guns.

Cutch's flag was a red rectangular with images of a white elephant and Bhujia Fort in the centre and the word BHOOJ inscribed above the fort in white. The motto: Courage and Confidence was written below in a white ribbon.

Danta State

The Danta State or Princely State of Danta was a princely state in India belonging to the Mahi Kantha Agency of the Bombay Presidency during the era of the British Raj. Its capital was in Danta, Banaskantha, now in Gujarat.

Datha princely state

Datha is a town and former non-salute Rajput princely state on Saurashtra peninsula in Gujarat, western India.

The village lies on the Bagad river, in Kathiawar.

Idar State

Idar State, also known as Edar, was a princely state that was located in present-day Gujarat state of India. During the British Raj era, it was a part of the Mahi Kantha Agency, within the Gujarat Division of Bombay Presidency.

Jammu and Kashmir (princely state)

Jammu and Kashmir was, from 1846 until 1952, a princely state of the British Empire in India and ruled by a Jamwal Rajput Dogra Dynasty. The state was created in 1846 from the territories previously under Sikh Empire after the First Anglo-Sikh War. The East India Company annexed the Kashmir Valley, Jammu, Ladakh, and Gilgit-Baltistan from the Sikhs, and then transferred it to Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu in return for an indemnity payment of 7,500,000 Nanakshahee Rupees.

At the time of the British withdrawal from India, Maharaja Hari Singh, the ruler of the state, preferred to become independent and remain neutral between the successor dominions of India and Pakistan. However, an uprising in the western districts of the State followed by an attack by raiders from the neighbouring Northwest Frontier Province, supported by Pakistan, put an end to his plans for independence. On 26 October 1947, the Maharaja signed the Instrument of Accession joining the Dominion of India in return for military aid. The western and northern districts presently known as Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan passed to the control of Pakistan, while the remaining territory became the Indian state Jammu and Kashmir.

Khairpur (princely state)

The State of Khairpur (Sindhi: خيرپور رياست‎، Urdu: ریاست خیرپور‎), also transliterated as Khairpur or Khayrpur, was a princely state of British India on the Indus River in modern-day Sindh, Pakistan, with its capital city at Khairpur. The state was counted amongst the Rajputana states (now Rajasthan in India) to the east. It was later a Princely state of Pakistan from 1947 until its end in 1955. after that it was merged as a substitute under one unit into west Pakistan.

Khanate of Kalat

The Khanate of Kalat (Balochi: خانات ءِ قلات‎) was a princely state that existed from 1666 to 1955 in the centre of the modern-day province of Balochistan, Pakistan. Prior to that they were subjects of Mughal emperor Akbar. Ahmedzai Baloch and Brahui Khan ruled the state independently until 1839, when it became a self-governing state in a subsidiary alliance with British India. After the signature of the Treaty of Mastung by the Khan of Kalat and the Baloch Sardars in 1876, Kalat became part of the Baluchistan Agency. It was briefly independent from 12 August 1947 till 27 March 1948, later the Khan acceded his state to the new Dominion of Pakistan. It remained a princely state of Pakistan until 1955, when it was incorporated into the country.

Kingdom of Mysore

The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom in southern India, traditionally believed to have been founded in 1399 in the vicinity of the modern city of Mysore. The kingdom, which was ruled by the Wodeyar family, initially served as a vassal state of the Vijayanagara Empire. With the decline of the Vijayanagara Empire (c. 1565), the kingdom became independent. The 17th century saw a steady expansion of its territory and during the rule of Narasaraja Wodeyar I and Chikka Devaraja Wodeyar, the kingdom annexed large expanses of what is now southern Karnataka and parts of Tamil Nadu to become a powerful state in the southern Deccan.

The kingdom reached the height of its economic and military power and dominion in the latter half of the 18th century under the de facto ruler Haider Ali and his son Tipu Sultan. During this time, it came into conflict with the Marathas, the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Kingdom of Travancore and the British, which culminated in the four Anglo-Mysore Wars. Success in the first Anglo-Mysore war and a stalemate in the second was followed by defeat in the third and fourth. Following Tipu's death in the fourth war of 1799, large parts of his kingdom were annexed by the British, which signalled the end of a period of Mysorean hegemony over southern Deccan. The British restored the Wodeyars to their throne by way of a subsidiary alliance and the diminished Mysore was transformed into a princely state. The Wodeyars continued to rule the state until Indian independence in 1947, when Mysore acceded to the Union of India.

Even as a princely state, Mysore came to be counted among the more developed and urbanised regions of India. This period (1799–1947) also saw Mysore emerge as one of the important centres of art and culture in India. The Mysore kings were not only accomplished exponents of the fine arts and men of letters, they were enthusiastic patrons as well, and their legacies continue to influence music and art even today.

Kuba State

Kuba State was a non-salute princely state on Saurashtra peninsula in Gujarat, western India.

List of princely states of British India (by region)

Before the Partition of India in 1947, 584 Princely States, also called Native States, existed in India, which were not fully and formally part of British India, the parts of the Indian subcontinent which had not been conquered or annexed by the British but under indirect rule, subject to subsidiary alliances.

Things moved quickly after the partition of British India in 1947. By the end of 1949, all of the states had chosen to accede to one of the newly independent states of India or Pakistan or else had been conquered and annexed.

Patna (princely state)

Patna (Odia: ପଟନା), or Patnagarh, was a princely state in the Central Provinces of India during the British Raj. It had its capital at Balangir (Bolangir). Its area was 6,503 km2 (2,511 sq mi).

Porbandar State

Porbandar State was a princely state during the British Raj ruled by Jethwa dynasty. It was one of the few princely states with a coastline.

The capital of state was the harbour town of Porbandar. Some other important towns of state were Bhanvad, Chhaya, Ranpar, and Shrinagar. Earlier Shrinagar served as the capital of Jethwas, then Ghumli served as the capital, but was lost to the Jadejas, however, architectural heritage built by them still stands at Ghumli. During the British Raj, the state covered an area of 1,663 square kilometres (642 sq mi), encompassing 106 villages and a population, in 1921, of over 100,000 people. It enjoyed a revenue of Rs. 21,00,000/-.

Pudukkottai State

Pudukkottai was a kingdom and later a princely state in British India, which existed from 1680 until 1948.

The Kingdom of Pudukkottai was founded in about 1680 as a feudatory of Ramnad and grew with subsequent additions from Tanjore, Sivaganga and Ramnad. One of the staunch allies of the British East India Company in the Carnatic, Anglo-Mysore and Polygar wars, the kingdom was brought under the Company's protection in 1800 as per the system of Subsidiary Alliance. The state was placed under the control of the Madras Presidency from 1800 until 1 October 1923, when the Madras States Agency was abolished, and until 1948 it was under the political control of the Government of India.

Pudukkottai State covered a total area of 1,178 square miles (3,050 km2) and had a population of 438,648 in 1941. It extended over the whole of the present-day Pudukkottai district of Tamil Nadu (with the exception of Aranthangi taluk which was then a part of Tanjore district). The town of Pudukkottai was its capital. The ruler of Pudukkottai was entitled to a 17-gun salute.

Rewa (princely state)

Rewa State, also known as Rewah, was a princely state of India, surrounding its eponymous capital, the town of Rewa.With an area of about 34,000 km2 (13,000 sq mi), Rewa was the largest princely state in the Bagelkhand Agency and the second largest in Central India Agency. The British political agent for Bagelkhand resided at Satna, on the East Indian railway. The Bagelkhand Agency was dissolved in 1933 and Rewa was placed under the authority of the Indore Residency.

Tripura (princely state)

Tripura State, also known as Hill Tipperah, was a princely state in India during the period of the British Raj and for some two years after the departure of the British. Its rulers belonged to the Manikya dynasty and until August 1947 the state was in a subsidiary alliance, from which it was released by the Indian Independence Act 1947. The state acceded to the newly-independent Indian Union on 13 August 1947, and subsequently merged into the Indian Union in October 1949.The princely state was located in the present-day Indian state of Tripura. The state included one town, Agartala, as well as a total of 1,463 villages. It had an area of 10,660 km² and a population of 513,000 inhabitants in 1941.

Vala State

Vala State or Vallabhipura (Gujarati: વલ્લભીપુર, Hindi वाला) was a non-salute princely state in India during the British Raj until 1948. The centre was the city of Vallabhi. The last ruler of the state signed the state's accession to the Indian Union on 15 February 1948.

Vijaynagar State

Vijaynagar State, known as Pol State before 1934, was a princely state under the Mahi Kantha Agency, Bombay Presidency in NE Gujarat during the British Raj. The capital of the state was in Vijaynagar taluka, Sabarkantha district. The state's last ruler signed the accession to the Indian Union on 10 June 1948.

Please expand to view the tables for the Agencies under the Central government
88 Princely states forming the Central India Agency[31][32]
Name of Princely state Area in square miles Population in 1941 Approximate revenue of the state (in hundred thousand Rupees) Title, ethnicity, and religion of ruler Gun-Salute for ruler Designation of local political officer
Indore State 9,341 1,513,966 (mainly Hindu) 304.9 Maharaja, Maratha, Hindu 19 (plus 2 local) Resident at Indore
Bhopal 6,924 785,322 (mostly Hindu) 119.82 Nawab(m)/Begum(f), Afghan, Muslim 19 (plus 2 local) Political Agent in Bhopal
Rewah 13,000 1,820,445 (chiefly Hindu) 65 Maharaja, Baghel Rajput, Hindu 17 Political agent in Baghelkhand
85 smaller and minor states (1941) 22,995 (1901) 2.74 million (Chiefly Hindu, 1901) 129 (1901)
Total 77,395 (1901) 8.51 million (1901) 421 (1901)
42 Princely states forming the Eastern States Agency[31][33]
Name of Princely state Area in square miles Population in 1941 Approximate revenue of the state (in hundred thousand Rupees) Title, ethnicity, and religion of ruler Gun-Salute for ruler Designation of local political officer
Cooch Behar 1,318 639,898 (chiefly Hindu and Muslim) 91 Maharaja, Kshattriya, Brahmo 13 Resident for the Eastern States
Tripura State 4,116 513,010 (chiefly Hindu) 54 Maharaja, Kshattriya, Hindu 13 Resident for the Eastern States
Mayurbhanj State 4,243 990,977 (chiefly Hindu) 49 Maharaja, Kshattriya, Hindu 9 Resident for the Eastern States
39 smaller and minor states (1941) 56,253 6,641,991 241.31
Total 65,930 8,785,876 435.31
Gwalior Residency (2 states)
Two states under the suzerainty of the Resident at Gwalior, Gwalior having direct relations with the central government.[27][34]
Name of Princely state Area in square miles Population in 1941 Approximate revenue of the state (in hundred thousand Rupees) Title, ethnicity, and religion of ruler Gun-Salute for ruler Designation of local political officer
Rampur 893 464,919 (chiefly Hindu and Muslim, in 1931) 51 Nawab, Pathan, Muslim 15 Political Agent at Rampur
Benares State 875 391,165 (chiefly Hindu, 1931) 19 Maharaja, Bhumihar, Hindu 13 (plus 2 local) Political Agent at Benares
Total 1,768 856,084 (1941, approx.) 70
23 Princely states forming the Rajputana Agency, with the Resident for Rajputana at Abu[35][36]
Name of Princely state Area in square miles Population in 1941 Approximate revenue of the state (in hundred thousand Rupees) Title, ethnicity, and religion of ruler Gun-Salute for ruler Designation of local political officer
Udaipur (Mewar) 13,170 1,926,698 (chiefly Hindu and Bhil) 107 Maharana, Sisodia Rajput, Hindu 19 (plus 2 personal) Political Agent for the Mewar and Southern Rajputana States
Jaipur 15,610 3,040,876 (chiefly Hindu) 188.6 Maharaja, Kachwaha Rajput, Hindu 17 (plus 2 personal) Political Agent at Jaipur
Jodhpur (Marwar) 36,120 2,555,904 (chiefly Hindu) 208.65 Maharaja, Rathor Rajput, Hindu 17 Political Agent for the Western States of Rajputana
Bikaner 23,181 1,292,938 (chiefly Hindu) 185.5 Maharaja, Rathor Rajput, Hindu 17 Political agent for the Western States of Rajputana
17 salute states, 1 chiefship, 1 zamindari 42,374 3.64 million (chiefly Hindu, 1901) 155 (1901)
Total 128,918 (1901) 9.84 million (1901) 320 (1901)
3 Princely states forming the Baluchistan Agency[37][38]
Name of Princely state Area in square miles Population in 1941 Approximate revenue of the state (in hundred thousand Rupees) Title, ethnicity, and religion of ruler Gun-Salute for ruler Designation of local political officer
Kalat 73,278 250,211 (chiefly Sunni Muslim) 21.3 Khan or Wali, Brahui, Sunni Muslim 19 Political Agent in Kalat
Las Bela 7,132 68,972 (chiefly Sunni Muslim) 6.1 Jam, Kureshi Arab, Sunni Muslim Political Agent in Kalat
Kharan 14,210 33,763 (chiefly Sunni Muslim) 2 Nawab, Sunni Muslim Political Agent in Kalat
Total 94,620 352,946 29.4
Please expand to view the tables for other states under Provincial Governments
Madras (5 States)
5 States under the suzerainty of the Provincial Government of Madras[37]
Name of Princely state Area in square miles Population in 1901 Approximate revenue of the state (in hundred thousand) Rupees Title, ethnicity, and religion of ruler Gun-Salute for ruler Designation of local political officer
Travancore 7,091 2,952,157 (chiefly Hindu and Christian) 100 Maharaja, Kshatriya-Samanthan, Hindu 21 (including two guns personal to the then ruler) Resident in Travancore and Cochin
Cochin 1,362 812,025 (chiefly Hindu and Christian) 27 Raja, Samanta-Kshatriya, Hindu 17 Resident in Travancore and Cochin
Padukkottai 1,100 380,440 (chiefly Hindu) 11 Raja, Kallar, Hindu 11 Collector of Trichinopoly (ex officio Political Agent)
2 minor states (Banganapalle and Sandur) 416 43,464 3
Total 9,969 4,188,086 141
Bombay (354 States)
354 states under the suzerainty of the Provincial Government of Bombay[40]
Name of Princely state Area in square miles Population in 1901 Approximate revenue of the state (in hundred thousand Rupees) Title, ethnicity, and religion of ruler Gun-Salute for ruler Designation of local political officer
Kolhapur 2,855 910,011 (chiefly Hindus) 48 Maharaja, Kshatriya, Hindu 19 Political Agent for Kolhapur
Cutch 7,616 488,022 (chiefly Hindu) 20 Maharao, Jadeja Rajput, Hindu 17 Political Agent in Cutch
Junagarh 3,284 395,428 (chiefly Hindu) 27 Nawab, Pathan, Muslim 11 Agent to the Governor in Kathiawar
Navanagar 3,791 336,779 (chiefly Hindu) 31 Jam Sahib, Jadeja Rajput, Hindu 11 Agent to the Governor in Kathiawar
349 other states 42,165 4,579,095 281
Total 65,761 6,908,648 420
Central Provinces (15 States)
15 States under the suzerainty of the Provincial Government of the Central Provinces[41]
Name of Princely state Area in square miles Population in 1901 Approximate revenue of the state (in hundred thousand Rupees) Title, ethnicity, and religion of ruler Gun-Salute for ruler Designation of local political officer
Kalahandi 3,745 284,465 (chiefly Hindu) 4 Raja, Rajput, Hindu 9 Political Agent for the Chhattisgarh Feudatories
Bastar 13,062 306,501 (chiefly Animist) 3 Raja, Kshatriya, Hindu Political Agent for the Chhattisgarh Feudatories
13 other states 12,628 1,339,353 (chiefly Hindu) 16 11
Total 29,435 1,996,383 21
Punjab (45 States)
45 states under the suzerainty of the Provincial Government of the Punjab[42][43]
Name of Princely state Area in square miles Population in 1941 Approximate revenue of the State (in hundred thousand Rupees) Title, ethnicity, and religion of ruler Gun-Salute for ruler Designation of local political officer
Bahawalpur 16,434 1,341,209 (chiefly Muslim) 335 Nawab, Daudputra, Muslim 17 Political Agent for Phulkian States and Bahawalpur
Patiala 5,942 1,936,259 (chiefly Hindu and Sikh) 302.6 Maharaja, Sidhu Jat, Sikh 17 (and 2 personal) Political Agent for Phulkian States and Bahawalpur
Nabha 947 340,044 (chiefly Hindu and Sikh) 38.7 Maharaja, Sidhu Jat, Sikh 13 (and 2 local) Political Agent for Phulkian States and Bahawalpur
Jind 1,299 361,812 (chiefly Hindu and Sikh) 37.4 Maharaja, Sidhu Jat, Sikh 13 (and 2 personal) Political Agent for Phulkian States and Bahawalpur
Kapurthala 645 378,380 (chiefly Muslim and Hindu) 40.5 Maharaja, Ahluwalia Kolal, Sikh 13 (and 2 personal) Commissioner of the Jullundur Division (ex officio Political Agent)
Faridkot 638 199,283 (Sikh, Hindu, and Muslim) 22.7 Raja, Barar Jat, Sikh 11 Commissioner of the Jullundur Division (ex officio Political Agent)
Tehri (Garhwal) 4,500 397,369 (chiefly Hindu) 26.9 Maharaja, Rajput Hindu 11 Commissioner of Kumaun (ex officio Political Agent)
Khairpur 6,050 305,387 (chiefly Muslim) 15 (plus 2 local) Mir, Talpur Baloch, Muslim 37.8 Political Agent for Khairpur
25 other states 12,661 (in 1901) 1,087,614 (in 1901) 30 (in 1901)
Total 36,532 (in 1901) 4,424,398 (in 1901) 155 (in 1901)
Assam (26 states)
26 States under the suzerainty of the Provincial Government of Assam[44][45]
Name of Princely state Area in square miles Population in 1941 Approximate revenue of the state (in hundred thousand Rupees) Title, ethnicity, and religion of ruler Gun-Salute for ruler Designation of local political officer
Manipur 8,638 512,069 (chiefly Hindu and Animist) 19 Raja, Kshatriya, Hindu 11 Political Agent in Manipur
25 Khasi States 3,778 213,586 (Khasi and Christian) ~1 (1941, approx.) Deputy Commissioner, Khasi and Jaintia Hills
Total 12,416 725,655 20 (1941; approx.)
Gun salute Princely states during the British Raj
21-gun salute
19-gun salute
17-gun salute
15-gun salute
13-gun salute
11-gun salute
9-gun salute

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