Prince of Wales

Prince of Wales (Welsh: Tywysog Cymru, Welsh pronunciation: [/təˈwəsog ˈkəmrɨ/]) was a title granted to native Welsh princes before the 12th century; the term replaced the use of the word king. One of the last Welsh princes, Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, was killed in battle in 1282 by Edward I, King of England, whose son Edward (born in Caernarfon Castle in 1284) was invested as the first English Prince of Wales in 1301.

Since the 14th century, the title has been a dynastic title granted to the heir apparent to the English or British monarch, but the failure to be granted the title does not affect the rights to royal succession. The title is granted to the heir apparent as a personal honour or dignity, and is not heritable, merging with the Crown on accession to the throne. The title Earl of Chester is always given in conjunction with that of Prince of Wales. The Prince of Wales usually has other titles and honours.

The current and longest-serving Prince of Wales is Prince Charles, the eldest son of Elizabeth II, who is Queen of the United Kingdom and 15 other independent Commonwealth realms as well as Head of the 53-member Commonwealth of Nations. The wife of the Prince of Wales is entitled to the title Princess of Wales. Prince Charles's first wife, Diana, used that title, but his second wife, Camilla, uses only the title Duchess of Cornwall (or of Rothesay when in Scotland[1]) because the other title has become so popularly associated with Diana.

Prince of Wales
Tywysog Cymru
HRH The Prince Charles, Prince of Wales
Incumbent
Charles

since 26 July 1958
StyleHis Royal Highness
Sir
ResidenceClarence House
AppointerMonarch of the United Kingdom
Term lengthLife tenure or until accession as Sovereign
Inaugural holderLlywelyn the Great
Websitewww.princeofwales.gov.uk

Roles and responsibilities

The Prince of Wales is the heir apparent of the monarch of the United Kingdom. No formal public role or responsibility has been legislated by Parliament or otherwise delegated to him by law or custom, either as heir apparent or as Prince of Wales.

The current prince now often assists the queen in the performance of her duties, for example, representing the queen when welcoming dignitaries to London and attending state dinners during state visits. He has also represented the queen and the United Kingdom overseas at state and ceremonial occasions such as state funerals.[2]

The queen also has given the Prince of Wales the authority to issue royal warrants.

History

Coat of Arms of Charles, Prince of Wales
The full armorial achievement of Charles, Prince of Wales (since 1958)

Native Welsh usage

For most of the post-Roman period, Wales was divided into several smaller royal factions. Before the Norman conquest of England, the most powerful Welsh ruler at any given time was generally known as King of the Britons. In the 12th and 13th centuries, this title evolved into Prince of Wales (see Brut y Tywysogion). In Latin, the new title was Princeps Walliae, and in Welsh it was Tywysog Cymru. The literal translation of Tywysog is "leader" (compare the cognate Irish word taoiseach; the verb tywys means "to lead").

Only a handful of native princes had their claim to the overlordship of Wales recognised by the English Crown, however Wales had many Princes during self rule. The first known to have used such a title was Owain Gwynedd, adopting the title Prince of the Welsh around 1165 after earlier using rex Waliae ("King of Wales").

Rhys ap Gruffydd held the kingdom of Deheubarth in south Wales from 1155 to 1197. He usually used the title "Proprietary Prince of Deheubarth" or "Prince of South Wales", but two documents have been discovered in which he uses the title "Prince of Wales" or "Prince of the Welsh". Rhys was one of the most successful and powerful Welsh princes and, after the death of Owain Gwynedd of Gwynedd in 1170, he became the dominant power in Wales. He is commonly known as The Lord Rhys, in Welsh Yr Arglwydd Rhys.

Llywelyn the Great, grandson of Owain Gwynedd, is not known to have used the title "Prince of Wales" as such, although his use, from around 1230, of the style "Prince of Aberffraw, Lord of Snowdon" was tantamount to a proclamation of authority over most of Wales, and he did use the title "Prince of North Wales" as did his predecessor Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd.

In 1240, the title was theoretically inherited by his son Dafydd ap Llywelyn, though he is not known to have used it. Instead he styled himself as "Prince of Wales" around 1244, the first Welsh prince to do so. In 1246, his nephew Llywelyn ap Gruffudd succeeded to the throne of Gwynedd, and used the style as early as 1258. In 1267, with the signing of the Treaty of Montgomery, he was recognised by both King Henry III of England and the representative of the Papacy as Prince of Wales. In 1282, Llywelyn was killed during Edward I of England's invasion of Wales and although his brother Dafydd ap Gruffudd succeeded to the Welsh princeship, issuing documents as prince, his principality was not recognised by the English Crown.

Three Welshmen, however, claimed the title of Prince of Wales after 1283.

The first was Madog ap Llywelyn, a member of the House of Gwynedd, who led a nationwide revolt in 1294-5, defeating English forces in battle near Denbigh and seizing Caernarfon Castle. His revolt was suppressed, however, after the Battle of Maes Moydog in March 1295, and the prince was imprisoned in London.

In the 1370s, Owain Lawgoch ("Red Hand"), an English-born descendant of one of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's brothers, claimed the title of Prince of Wales, but was assassinated in France in 1378 before he could return to Wales to claim his inheritance.

Owain Glyndŵr was proclaimed Prince of Wales by his supporters on 16 September 1400, and held parliaments at Harlech Castle and elsewhere during his revolt, which encompassed all of Wales. It was not until 1409 that his revolt in quest of Welsh independence was suppressed by Henry IV.

As title of heir apparent

The tradition of conferring the title "Prince of Wales" on the heir apparent of the monarch is usually considered to have begun in 1301, when King Edward I of England invested his son Edward of Caernarfon with the title at a Parliament held in Lincoln. According to legend, the king had promised the Welsh that he would name "a prince born in Wales, who did not speak a word of English" and then produced his infant son, who had been born at Caernarfon, to their surprise. However, the story may well be apocryphal, as it can only be traced to the 16th century, and, in the time of Edward I, the English aristocracy spoke Norman French, not English (some versions of the legend include lack of knowledge in both languages as a requirement, and one reported version has the very specific phrase "born on Welsh soil and speaking no other language").

William Camden wrote in his 1607 work Britannia that originally the title "Prince of Wales" was not conferred automatically upon the eldest living son of the King of England because Edward II (who had been the first English Prince of Wales) neglected to invest his eldest son, the future Edward III, with that title. It was Edward III who revived the practice of naming the eldest son Prince of Wales, which was then maintained by his successors:

But King Edward the Second conferred not upon his sonne Edward the title of Prince of Wales, but onely the name of Earle of Chester and of Flint, so farre as ever I could learne out of the Records, and by that title summoned him to Parliament, being then nine yeres old. King Edward the Third first created his eldest sonne Edward surnamed the Blacke Prince, the Mirour of Chivalrie (being then Duke of Cornwall and Earle of Chester), Prince of Wales by solemne investure, with a cap of estate and Coronet set on his head, a gold ring put upon his finger, and a silver vierge delivered into his hand, with the assent of Parliament.[3]

Nevertheless, according to conventional wisdom, since 1301 the Prince of Wales has usually been the eldest living son (if and only if he is also the heir apparent) of the King or Queen Regnant of England (subsequently of Great Britain, 1707, and of the United Kingdom, 1801). That he is also the heir apparent is important. Following the death of Prince Arthur, the Prince of Wales, Henry VII invested his second son, the future Henry VIII, with the title—although only after it was clear that Arthur's wife, Catherine of Aragon, was not pregnant; when Frederick, Prince of Wales died while his father reigned, George II created Frederick's son George (the king's grandson and new heir apparent) Prince of Wales. The title is not automatic and is not heritable; it merges into the Crown when a prince accedes to the throne, or lapses on his death leaving the sovereign free to re-grant it to the new heir apparent (such as the late prince's son or brother). Prince Charles was created Prince of Wales on 26 July 1958,[4] some six years after he became heir apparent, and had to wait another 11 years for his investiture, on 1 July 1969.[5]

The title Prince of Wales is nowadays always conferred along with the Earldom of Chester. The convention began in 1399; all previous English Princes of Wales also received the earldom, but separately from the title of Prince. Indeed, before 1272 a hereditary and not necessarily royal Earldom of Chester had already been created several times, eventually merging in the Crown each time. The earldom was recreated, merging in the Crown in 1307 and again in 1327. Its creations since have been associated with the creations of the Prince of Wales.

On 31 October 1460,[6] Richard of York was briefly created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester, Duke of Cornwall and Lord Protector of England by an Act of Parliament following the Act of Accord, as part of his arrangement to succeed Henry VI as king instead of Henry's own son.[7] However Richard was killed in battle soon afterwards.

Heraldic insignia and investiture

Insignia

Prince of Wales's feathers Badge
The "Prince of Wales's Feathers". This heraldic badge of the heir apparent is derived from the ostrich feathers borne by Edward, the Black Prince. The German motto "Ich dien" means "I serve".

As heir apparent to the reigning sovereign, the Prince of Wales bears the Royal Arms differenced by a white label of three points. To represent Wales he bears the Coat of Arms of the Principality of Wales, crowned with the heir apparent's crown, on an inescutcheon-en-surtout. This was first used by the future King Edward VIII in 1910, and followed by the current Prince of Wales, Prince Charles.[8]

He has a badge of three ostrich feathers (which can be seen on the reverse of the previous design for decimal British two pence coins dated up to 2008); it dates back to the Black Prince and is his as the English heir even before he is made Prince of Wales.

In addition to these symbols used most frequently, he has a special standard for use in Wales itself. Moreover, as Duke of Rothesay he has a special coat of arms for use in Scotland (and a corresponding standard); as Duke of Cornwall the like for use in the Duchy of Cornwall. Representations of all three may be found at List of British flags.

Investiture

Cofia 1282, a protest against the investiture (1537984)4
Many Welsh nationalists were opposed to the investiture of Prince Charles at Caernarfon Castle. A large protest was organised in the town in the months before the Investiture.

Princes of Wales may be invested, but investiture is not necessary to be created Prince of Wales. Peers were also invested, but investitures for peers ceased in 1621, during a time when peerages were being created so frequently that the investiture ceremony became cumbersome and was replaced with Introduction. Most investitures for Princes of Wales were held in front of Parliament.

After falling into abeyance, the 20th century saw the practice of investing the Prince of Wales reintroduced. In 1911, the future Edward VIII underwent an investiture ceremony in Caernarfon Castle in Wales at the instigation of the Welsh politician David Lloyd George. Queen Elizabeth II's heir, the present Prince of Wales, was also invested there and underwent a similar ceremony in 1969.

In the ceremony (in its most recent form), during the reading of the letters patent creating the dignity, the Honours of the Principality of Wales are delivered to the prince.

The coronet of the heir apparent bears four crosses pattée alternating with four fleurs-de-lis, surmounted by two half-arches (the Sovereign's crowns are of the same design, but use four half-arches). A gold rod is also used in the insignia; gold rods were formally used in the investitures of dukes, but survive now in the investitures of Princes of Wales only. Also part of the insignia are a ring, a sword and a robe.

Other titles

Since 1301 the title Earl of Chester has generally been granted to heirs apparent to the English throne, and from the late 14th century it has been given only in conjunction with that of Prince of Wales. Both titles must be created for each individual and are not automatically acquired. The Earldom of Chester was one of the most powerful earldoms in medieval England extending principally over the counties of Cheshire and Flintshire.

A Prince of Wales also holds a number of additional titles. As heir apparent to the English/British throne he is—if the eldest living son of the monarch—Duke of Cornwall. As heir apparent to the Scottish throne he is Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles, and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland.

Individual princes have also held additional titles, which were theirs prior to becoming Prince of Wales. Before ascending the throne Henry VIII, Charles I and George V were each Duke of York. Prior to his father inheriting the English throne in 1603, the future Charles I was created Duke of Albany and Earl of Ross in Scotland. Both Prince Frederick (eldest son of George II) and his son Prince George (later George III) were Duke of Edinburgh.

Heir apparent versus heir presumptive

The title Prince of Wales is given only to the heir apparent—somebody who cannot be displaced in the succession to the throne by any future birth. The succession had followed male-preference primogeniture, which meant that the heir apparent was the eldest son of the reigning monarch or, if he was deceased, his eldest son and so on, or if the monarch's eldest son had died without issue, the monarch's second eldest son, etc. As such, a daughter of the sovereign who was next in line to the throne was never the heir apparent because she would be displaced in the succession by any future legitimate son of the sovereign.

Along with the other Commonwealth realms, the United Kingdom in 2011 committed to the Perth Agreement, which proposed changes to the laws governing succession, including altering the primogeniture to absolute cognatic.[9] The Succession to the Crown Act 2013 was introduced to the British parliament on 12 December 2012, published the next day, and received Royal Assent on 25 April 2013.[10] It was brought into force on 26 March 2015,[11] at the same time as the other realms implemented the Perth Agreement in their own laws.[12] No woman has yet held the title Princess of Wales in her own right.

Since the title of Prince of Wales is not automatic, there have been times when it was held by no one. There was no heir apparent during the reign of King George VI, who had no sons. Princess Elizabeth was heiress presumptive and was hence not titled Princess of Wales. There was also no Prince of Wales for the first several years of the reign of Elizabeth II. Prince Charles was not named Prince of Wales until 1958, when he was nine years old.

The title of Princess of Wales has always been held by the Prince's wife in her capacity as spouse of the heir apparent and therefore future queen consort. The current Princess of Wales is Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, who automatically assumed the title upon her legal marriage to Prince Charles. Camilla however has chosen not to be publicly known by the title due to its association with her predecessor, Diana.

List of Princes of Wales

Prince of Wales as Welsh title

Also, Prince of Gwynedd and of Aberffraw, Lord of Snowdon
Person Name Heir of Birth Became Prince of Wales Ceased to be Prince of Wales Death
Dafydd ap Llywelyn son of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth c. April 1212 11 April 1240; first documented use in 1244 25 February 1246
Llywelyn the Last at Cardiff City Hall Llywelyn ap Gruffudd N/A
son of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn
c. 1223 Succeeded Dafydd in 1246 as prince of Gwynedd; used title "prince of Wales" from 1258; recognised by Henry III 29 September 1267 11 December 1282
killed in battle
Dafydd ap Gruffydd brother of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd c. 1238 11 December 1282 3 October 1283
executed at Shrewsbury

Prince of Wales as title of English or British heir apparent

Person Name Heir of Birth Became heir-apparent Created Prince of Wales Ceased to be Prince of Wales Death
Edward I and II Edward of Carnarvon Edward I 25 April 1284 19 August 1284 7 February 1301[13] 7 July 1307
acceded to throne as Edward II
21 September 1327
Plantagenet, Edward, The Black Prince, Iconic Image Edward of Woodstock, the Black Prince Edward III 15 June 1330 12 May 1343[13] 8 June 1376
deceased
RichardIIWestminsterHead Richard of Bordeaux 6 January 1367 8 June 1376 20 November 1376[13] 22 June 1377
acceded to throne as Richard II
14 February 1400
Henry5 Henry of Monmouth Henry IV 16 September 1386 30 September 1399 15 October 1399[13] 21 March 1413
acceded to throne as Henry V
31 August 1422
Edward.4.plantagenet Edward of Westminster Henry VI 13 October 1453 15 March 1454[13] 11 April 1471
father deposed
4 May 1471
deceased
Richard of York Talbot Shrewsbury Book.jpeg Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York 21 September 1411 25 October 1460 31 October 1460 30 December 1460
deceased
King-edward-v Edward of York Edward IV 4 November 1470 11 April 1471 26 June 1471[13] 9 April 1483
acceded to throne as Edward V
1483?
Rous Roll - Edward, Prince of Wales Edward of Middleham Richard III 1473 26 June 1483 24 August 1483[13] 31 March or
9 April 1484
deceased
Arthur Prince of Wales c 1500 Arthur Tudor Henry VII 20 September 1486 29 November 1489[13] 2 April 1502
deceased
HenryVIII 1509 Henry Tudor 28 June 1491 2 April 1502 18 February 1504[13] 21 April 1509
acceded to throne as Henry VIII
28 January 1547
Edouard VI Tudor Edward Tudor Henry VIII 12 October 1537 [13] 28 January 1547
acceded to throne as Edward VI
6 July 1553
Henry Prince of Wales after Isaac Oliver Henry Frederick Stuart James I 19 February 1594 24 March 1603 4 June 1610[13] 6 November 1612
deceased
Charles I (Prince of Wales) Charles Stuart 19 November 1600 6 November 1612 4 November 1616[13] 27 March 1625
acceded to throne as Charles I
30 January 1649
King Charles II by Adriaen Hanneman Charles Stuart Charles I 29 May 1630 declared c. 1638–1641[13] 30 January 1649
title abolished;
later (1660) acceded to throne as Charles II
6 February 1685
Prince James Francis Edward Stuart by Alexis Simon Belle James Francis Edward Stuart James II 10 June 1688 c. 4 July 1688[13] 11 December 1688
father deposed
1 January 1766
Kneller - George II when Prince of Wales George Augustus George I 10 November 1683 1 August 1714 27 September 1714[13] 11 June 1727
acceded to throne as George II
25 October 1760
Frederick Lewis, Prince of Wales by Philip Mercier Frederick Louis George II 1 February 1707 11 June 1727 8 January 1729[13] 31 March 1751
deceased
George, Prince of Wales, later George III, 1754 by Liotard George William Frederick 4 June 1738 31 March 1751 20 April 1751[13][14] 25 October 1760
acceded to throne as George III
29 January 1820
George IV bust1 George Augustus Frederick George III 12 August 1762 19 August 1762[13] 29 January 1820
acceded to throne as George IV
26 June 1830
Prince of Wales00 Albert Edward Victoria 9 November 1841 8 December 1841[13] 22 January 1901
acceded to throne as Edward VII
6 May 1910
George V of the United Kingdom01 George Frederick Ernest Albert Edward VII 3 June 1865 22 January 1901 9 November 1901[15] 6 May 1910
acceded to throne as George V
20 January 1936
HRH The Prince of Wales No 4 (HS85-10-36416) Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David George V 23 June 1894 6 May 1910 23 June 1910[13] 20 January 1936
acceded to throne as Edward VIII;
later (1937) Duke of Windsor
28 May 1972
Charles Prince of Wales Charles Philip Arthur George Elizabeth II 14 November 1948 6 February 1952 26 July 1958 Incumbent

The longest-serving Prince of Wales is the title's current holder, Queen Elizabeth II's son Charles. He is also the longest-serving heir apparent in British history.[16]

See also

References

  1. ^ Macdonald, Ken (18 January 2017). "Duchess of Rothesay opens Rowett research building in Aberdeen". BBC News.
  2. ^ "The Prince of Wales - Royal Duties". Clarence House. Retrieved 10 August 2015.
  3. ^ Glamorganshire. Philological.bham.ac.uk. Retrieved on 2012-07-15.
  4. ^ "No. 41460". The London Gazette. 29 July 1958. p. 4733.
  5. ^ "The Prince of Wales — Investiture". Princeofwales.gov.uk. Retrieved 12 October 2008.
  6. ^ Cokayne, and others, The Complete Peerage, volume XII/2, page 908.
  7. ^ John Silvester Davies (1856). An English chronicle of the reigns of Richard II, Henry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI written before the year 1471: with an appendix, containing the 18th and 19th years of Richard II and the Parliament at Bury St. Edmund's, 25th Henry VI and supplementary a. Printed for the Camden Society. p. 109. Retrieved 26 July 2013.
  8. ^ Prince of Wales. britishflags.net. Retrieved on 15 July 2012.
  9. ^ Laura Smith-Spark (28 October 2011). "Girls given equal rights to British throne under law changes". CNN. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
  10. ^ Succession to the Crown Act. Parliament of the United Kingdom.
  11. ^ Succession to the Crown Act 2013 (Commencement) Order 2015 at legislation.org.uk (retrieved 30 March 2015)
  12. ^ Statement by Nick Clegg MP, UK parliament website, 26 March 2015 (retrieved on same date).
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t l Previous Princes. Prince of Wales official website. Retrieved on 15 July 2013.
  14. ^ "The London Gazette - From Tuesday April 16, to Saturday April 26, 1751" (PDF). The London Gazette (9050). 16 April 1751. p. 1. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  15. ^ "No. 27375". The London Gazette. 9 November 1901. p. 7289.
  16. ^ Bryan, Nicola (9 September 2017). "Prince Charles is longest-serving Prince of Wales". BBC.com. Retrieved 11 September 2017.

External links

Arthur, Prince of Wales

Arthur Tudor (19/20 September 1486 – 2 April 1502) was Prince of Wales, Earl of Chester and Duke of Cornwall. As the eldest son and heir apparent of Henry VII of England, Arthur was viewed by contemporaries as the great hope of the newly established House of Tudor. His mother, Elizabeth of York, was the daughter of Edward IV, and his birth cemented the union between the House of Tudor and the House of York.

Plans for Arthur's marriage began before his third birthday; he was installed as Prince of Wales two years later. At the age of eleven, he was formally betrothed to Catherine of Aragon, a daughter of the powerful Catholic Monarchs in Spain, in an effort to forge an Anglo-Spanish alliance against France. Arthur was well educated and, contrary to some modern belief, was in good health for the majority of his life. Soon after his marriage to Catherine in 1501, the couple took up residence at Ludlow Castle in Shropshire, where Arthur died six months later of an unknown ailment. Catherine later firmly stated that the marriage had not been consummated.

One year after Arthur's death, Henry VII renewed his efforts of sealing a marital alliance with Spain by arranging for Catherine to marry Arthur's younger brother Henry, who had by then become Prince of Wales. Arthur's untimely death paved the way for Henry's accession as Henry VIII in 1509. The question as to the potential consummation of Arthur and Catherine's marriage was much later (and in a completely different political context) exploited by Henry and his court to cast doubt on the validity of Catherine's union with Henry, eventually leading to the separation between the Church of England and the Roman Catholic Church.

British royal family

The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations. There is no strict legal or formal definition of who is or is not a member of the British royal family.

Those who at the time are entitled to the style His or Her Royal Highness (HRH), and any styled His or Her Majesty (HM), are normally considered members, including those so styled before the beginning of the current monarch's reign. By this criterion, a list of the current royal family will usually include the monarch, the children and male-line grandchildren of the monarch and previous monarchs, the children of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales, and all of their current or widowed spouses.

Some members of the royal family have official residences named as the places from which announcements are made in the Court Circular about official engagements they have carried out. The state duties and staff of some members of the royal family are funded from a parliamentary annuity, the amount of which is fully refunded by the Queen to the Treasury.Since 1917, when King George V changed the name of the royal house from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, members of the royal family have belonged, either by birth or by marriage, to the House of Windsor. Senior titled members of the royal family do not usually use a surname, although since 1960 Mountbatten-Windsor, incorporating Prince Philip's adopted surname of Mountbatten, has been prescribed as a surname for Elizabeth II's direct descendants who do not have royal styles and titles, and it has sometimes been used when required for those who do have such titles. The royal family are regarded as British cultural icons, with young adults from abroad naming the family among a group of people that they most associated with UK culture.

Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall

Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, (born Camilla Rosemary Shand, later Parker Bowles; 17 July 1947), is a member of the British royal family. She is the second wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, heir apparent to the British throne. Instead of using the title Princess of Wales, she uses the title Duchess of Cornwall, her husband's secondary designation. In Scotland, she is known as the Duchess of Rothesay.

Camilla is the eldest child of Major Bruce Shand and his wife Rosalind Cubitt, the daughter of Roland Cubitt, 3rd Baron Ashcombe. She was raised in East Sussex and South Kensington in England, and was educated in England, Switzerland and France. In 1973, Camilla married British Army officer Andrew Parker Bowles, with whom she has two children. They divorced in 1995.

Camilla was in a relationship with the Prince of Wales before and during their previous marriages. The relationship became highly publicised in the media and attracted worldwide scrutiny. In 2005, it culminated in a civil marriage at Windsor Guildhall, which was followed by a televised Anglican blessing at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

As Duchess of Cornwall, Camilla assists the Prince of Wales on his official duties. She is also the patron, president and a member of numerous charities and organisations. Since 1994, she has taken action on osteoporosis, earning honours and awards. She has also raised awareness in areas including rape and sexual abuse, literacy, animal welfare and poverty.

Charles, Prince of Wales

Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is the heir apparent to the British throne as the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II. He has been Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay since 1952, and is the oldest and longest-serving heir apparent in British history. He is also the longest-serving Prince of Wales, having held that title since 1958.Charles was born at Buckingham Palace as the first grandchild of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. He was educated at Cheam and Gordonstoun schools, which his father, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, had attended as a child, as well as the Timbertop campus of Geelong Grammar School in Victoria, Australia. After earning a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Cambridge, Charles served in the Royal Air Force and Royal Navy from 1971 to 1976. In 1981, he married Lady Diana Spencer and they had two sons: Prince William (b. 1982)—later to become Duke of Cambridge—and Prince Harry (b. 1984)—later to become Duke of Sussex. In 1996, the couple divorced following well-publicised extramarital affairs by both parties. Diana was killed in a car crash in Paris the following year. In 2005, Charles married long-time partner Camilla Parker Bowles.

As Prince of Wales, Charles undertakes official duties on behalf of the Queen and the Commonwealth realms. Charles founded The Prince's Trust in 1976, sponsors The Prince's Charities, and is a patron, president and a member of over 400 other charities and organisations. As an environmentalist, he raises awareness of organic farming and climate change which has earned him awards and recognition from environmental groups. His support for alternative medicine, including homeopathy, has been criticised by some in the medical community and his views on the role of architecture in society and the conservation of historic buildings have received considerable attention from British architects and design critics. Since 1993, Charles has worked on the creation of Poundbury, an experimental new town based on his preferences. He is also an author and co-author of a number of books.

Eastern Conference (NHL)

The Eastern Conference (French: Conférence de l'Est) is one of two conferences in the National Hockey League (NHL) used to divide teams. Its counterpart is the Western Conference.

Previously known as the Prince of Wales Conference (or Wales Conference for short), it was created in 1974 when the NHL realigned its teams into two conferences and four divisions. Because the new conferences and divisions had little to do with North American geography, geographical references were removed.

Edward VII

Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910.

The eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Edward was related to royalty throughout Europe. He was heir apparent to the British throne and held the title of Prince of Wales for longer than any of his predecessors. He was heir presumptive to the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha until he renounced his right to the duchy before his marriage. During the long reign of his mother, he was largely excluded from political power, and came to personify the fashionable, leisured elite. He travelled throughout Britain performing ceremonial public duties, and represented Britain on visits abroad. His tours of North America in 1860 and the Indian subcontinent in 1875 were popular successes, but despite public approval his reputation as a playboy prince soured his relationship with his mother.

As king, Edward played a role in the modernisation of the British Home Fleet and the reorganisation of the British Army after the Second Boer War. He reinstituted traditional ceremonies as public displays and broadened the range of people with whom royalty socialised. He fostered good relations between Britain and other European countries, especially France, for which he was popularly called "Peacemaker", but his relationship with his nephew, the German Emperor Wilhelm II, was poor. The Edwardian era, which covered Edward's reign and was named after him, coincided with the start of a new century and heralded significant changes in technology and society, including steam turbine propulsion and the rise of socialism. He died in 1910 in the midst of a constitutional crisis that was resolved the following year by the Parliament Act 1911, which restricted the power of the unelected House of Lords.

Edward of Westminster, Prince of Wales

Edward of Westminster (13 October 1453 – 4 May 1471), also known as Edward of Lancaster, was the only son of King Henry VI of England and Margaret of Anjou. He was killed aged seventeen at the Battle of Tewkesbury, making him the only heir apparent to the English throne to die in battle.

Edward the Black Prince

Edward of Woodstock, known to history as the Black Prince (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376), was the eldest son of King Edward III of England, and thus the heir to the English throne. He died before his father and so his son, Richard II, succeeded to the throne instead. Edward nevertheless still earned distinction as one of the most successful English commanders during the Hundred Years' War, being regarded by his contemporaries as a model of chivalry and one of the greatest knights of his age.Edward was created Duke of Cornwall in 1337. He was guardian of the kingdom in his father's absence in 1338, 1340, and 1342. He was created Prince of Wales in 1343 and knighted by his father at La Hogne in 1346.

In 1346 Prince Edward commanded the vanguard at the Battle of Crécy, his father intentionally leaving him to win the battle. He took part in Edward III's 1349 Calais expedition. In 1355 he was appointed the king's lieutenant in Gascony, and ordered to lead an army into Aquitaine on a chevauchée, during which he pillaged Avignonet and Castelnaudary, sacked Carcassonne, and plundered Narbonne. The next year (1356) on another chevauchée he ravaged Auvergne, Limousin, and Berry but failed to take Bourges. He offered terms of peace to King John II of France, who had outflanked him near Poitiers, but refused to surrender himself as the price of their acceptance. This led to the Battle of Poitiers where his army routed the French and took King John prisoner.

The year after Poitiers, the Black Prince returned to England. In 1360 he negotiated the treaty of Bretigny. He was created Prince of Aquitaine and Gascony in 1362, but his suzerainty was not recognised by the lord of Albret or other Gascon nobles. He was directed by his father to forbid the marauding raids of the English and Gascon free companies in 1364. He entered into an agreement with don Pedro of Castile and Charles II of Navarre, by which Pedro covenanted to mortgage Castro de Urdiales and the province of Biscay to him as security for a loan; in 1366 a passage was thus secured through Navarre. In 1367 he received a letter of defiance from Henry of Trastámara, Don Pedro's half-brother and rival. The same year, after an obstinate conflict, he defeated Henry at the Battle of Nájera. However, after a wait of several months, during which he failed to obtain either the province of Biscay or liquidation of the debt from Don Pedro, he returned to Aquitaine. Prince Edward persuaded the estates of Aquitaine to allow him a hearth tax of ten sous for five years in 1368, thereby alienating the lord of Albret and other nobles. Drawn into open war with Charles V of France in 1369, he took Limoges, where in 1370 he gave orders for an indiscriminate massacre in revenge for the voluntary surrender of that town to the French by its bishop, who had been his private friend.

The Black Prince returned to England in 1371 and the next year resigned the principality of Aquitaine and Gascony. He led the commons in their attack upon the Lancastrian administration in 1376. He died in 1376 of dysentery and was buried in Canterbury Cathedral, where his surcoat, helmet, shield, and gauntlets are still preserved.

Frederick, Prince of Wales

Frederick, Prince of Wales, KG (Frederick Lewis; 1 February 1707 – 31 March 1751), was heir apparent to the British throne from 1727 until his death from a lung injury at the age of 44. He was the eldest but estranged son of King George II and Caroline of Ansbach, and the father of King George III.

Under the Act of Settlement passed by the English Parliament in 1701, Frederick was fourth in the line of succession to the British throne at birth, after his great-grandmother, paternal grandfather and father. He moved to Great Britain following the accession of his father, and was created Prince of Wales. He predeceased his father, however, and upon the latter's death on 25 October 1760, the throne passed to Prince Frederick's eldest son, George III.

HMS Prince of Wales (53)

HMS Prince of Wales was a King George V-class battleship of the Royal Navy, built at the Cammell Laird shipyard in Birkenhead, England. She was involved in several key actions of the Second World War, including the May 1941 Battle of the Denmark Strait against the German battleship Bismarck, operations escorting convoys in the Mediterranean, and her final action and sinking in the Pacific in December 1941.

Prince of Wales had an extensive battle history, first seeing action in August 1940 while still being outfitted in her drydock, being attacked and damaged by German aircraft. Her brief but storied career ended 10 December 1941, when Prince of Wales and battlecruiser HMS Repulse became the first capital ships to be sunk solely by air power on the open sea, a harbinger of the diminishing role this class of ships was subsequently to play in naval warfare. The wreck lies upside down in 223 feet (68 m) of water, near Kuantan, in the South China Sea.

Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales

Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales (19 February 1594 – 6 November 1612) was the elder son of James VI and I, King of England and Scotland, and his wife, Anne of Denmark. His name derives from his grandfathers: Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, and Frederick II of Denmark. Prince Henry was widely seen as a bright and promising heir to his father's thrones. However, at the age of 18, he predeceased his father when he died of typhoid fever. His younger brother Charles succeeded him as heir apparent to the English, Irish and Scottish thrones.

James Francis Edward Stuart

James Francis Edward Stuart (10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766), nicknamed The Old Pretender, was the son of King James II and VII of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his second wife, Mary of Modena. He was Prince of Wales from July 1688 until, just months after his birth, his Catholic father was deposed and exiled in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. James II's Protestant elder daughter, Mary II, and her husband, William III, became co-monarchs and the Bill of Rights 1689 and Act of Settlement 1701 excluded Catholics from the English then, subsequently, British throne.

James Francis Edward was raised in Continental Europe. After his father's death in 1701, he claimed the English, Scottish and Irish crown as James III of England and Ireland and James VIII of Scotland, with the support of his Jacobite followers and his cousin Louis XIV of France. Fourteen years later, he unsuccessfully attempted to gain the throne in Britain during the Jacobite rising of 1715.

Following his death in 1766, his elder son, Charles Edward Stuart, continued to claim the British crown as part of the Jacobite Succession.

National Register of Historic Places listings in Prince of Wales–Hyder Census Area, Alaska

This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Prince of Wales–Hyder Census Area, Alaska.

This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Prince of Wales–Hyder Census Area, Alaska, United States. The locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a Google map.There are 5 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the census area.

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted August 9, 2019.

Prince William, Duke of Cambridge

Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, (William Arthur Philip Louis; born 21 June 1982) is a member of the British royal family. He is the elder son of Charles, Prince of Wales, and Diana, Princess of Wales. Since birth, he has been second in the line to succeed his grandmother Elizabeth II, who is queen of the United Kingdom and 15 other Commonwealth realms.

William was educated at four schools in the United Kingdom and studied for a degree at the University of St. Andrews. During a gap year, he spent time in Chile, Belize, and Africa. In December 2006, he completed 44 weeks of training as an officer cadet and was commissioned in the Blues and Royals regiment. In April 2008, William completed pilot training at Royal Air Force College Cranwell, then underwent helicopter flight training and became a full-time pilot with the RAF Search and Rescue Force in early 2009. His service with the British Armed Forces ended in September 2013. He then trained for a civil pilot's licence and spent over two years working as a pilot for the East Anglian Air Ambulance.

In 2011, Prince William was made Duke of Cambridge and married Catherine Middleton. The couple have three children: Prince George, Princess Charlotte, and Prince Louis.

Prince of Wales Glacier

Prince of Wales Glacier (82°44′S 160°10′E) is a glacier in the Queen Elizabeth Range, flowing generally north for about 10 nautical miles (18 km) between Hochstein and Kohmyr Ridges into Hamilton Glacier. Named by the northern party of the New Zealand Geological Survey Antarctic Expedition (NZGSAE) (1961–62) for Charles, Prince of Wales, eldest son of Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom.

This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Geological Survey document "Prince of Wales Glacier" (content from the Geographic Names Information System).

Prince of Wales Island (Nunavut)

One of the larger members of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Prince of Wales Island (French: Île du Prince-de-Galles) is an Arctic island in Nunavut, Canada, lying between Victoria Island and Somerset Island and south of the Queen Elizabeth Islands.

For administrative purposes it is divided between Qikiqtaaluk and Kitikmeot regions. There are no permanent settlements.

Prince of Wales Theatre

The Prince of Wales Theatre is a West End theatre in Coventry Street, near Leicester Square in London. It was established in 1884 and rebuilt in 1937, and extensively refurbished in 2004 by Sir Cameron Mackintosh, its current owner. The theatre should not be confused with the former Scala Theatre in London that was known as the Prince of Wales Royal Theatre or Prince of Wales's Theatre from 1865 until its demolition in 1903.

Prince of Wales–Hyder Census Area, Alaska

Prince of Wales–Hyder Census Area is a census area located in the U.S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 census, the population was 5,559. It is part of the unorganized borough and therefore has no borough seat. Its largest communities are Craig and Metlakatla. It was formerly part of the Census Bureau's Prince of Wales–Outer Ketchikan Census Area, but the name was changed in 2008 after most of the Outer Ketchikan (except the parts near the community of Hyder, and Annette Island) was lost to annexation by the Ketchikan Gateway Borough.

Princess of Wales

Princess of Wales (Welsh: Tywysoges Cymru) is a British courtesy title held by the wife of the Prince of Wales, who is, since the 14th century, the heir apparent of the English or British monarch. The first acknowledged title holder was Eleanor de Montfort, wife of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd. It has subsequently been used by wives of post-conquest princes of Wales.

The title is currently held by Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall (the former Camilla Parker Bowles), second wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, since their marriage on 9 April 2005. She does not, however, use the title, because of its association with the previous holder, Diana, Princess of Wales, who died in 1997. Instead, she uses the title of Duchess of Cornwall, the feminine form of her husband's highest-ranking subsidiary title.

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