Prince of Orange

Prince of Orange (or Princess of Orange if the holder is female) is a title originally associated with the sovereign Principality of Orange, in what is now southern France. Under the Treaty of Utrecht[3] of 1713, Frederick William I of Prussia ceded the Principality of Orange to King Louis XIV of France (while retaining the title as part of his dynastic titulature). After William III of England died without children, a dispute arose between Johan Willem Friso and Frederick I of Prussia, which was settled in the Treaty of Partition (1732);[4] consequently, Friso's son, William IV had to share use of the title "Prince of Orange" (which had accumulated prestige in the Netherlands and throughout the Protestant world) with Frederick William I of Prussia.[5] The title is traditionally borne by the heir apparent of the Dutch monarch. The title descends via absolute primogeniture since 1983, meaning that its holder can be either Prince or Princess of Orange.

The Dutch royal dynasty, the House of Orange-Nassau, is not the only family to claim the dynastical title. Rival claims to the title have been made by German emperors and kings of the House of Hohenzollern and by the head of the French noble family of Mailly. The current users of the title are Princess Catharina-Amalia of the Netherlands (Orange-Nassau), Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia (Hohenzollern), and Guy, Marquis de Mailly-Nesle (Mailly).

Coat of Arms of the Prince of Orange (1815-1884)
Coat of Arms of the Prince of Orange (1815–1884)
Blason Raymond IV des Baux
Coat of Arms of the counts of Orange of the first house of Orange.[1]
Blason ville fr Orange (Vaucluse)
Coat of Arms of the city/town of Orange in the Vaucluse. They were granted to the city by the princes of Orange of the house of des Baux in the last quarter of the 12th century.[2]

History

County of Orange

Nason, Pieter (attributed to) - Four generations Princes of Orange - William I, Maurice and Frederick Henry, William II and William III - 1662-1666
Composite portrait of four generations of Princes of Orange – William I (in role 1554–1584), Maurice (1618–1625) and Frederick Henry (1625–1647), William II (1647–1650), William III (1650–1702) – Willem van Honthorst, 1662

The title originally referred to Orange in the Vaucluse department in the Rhone valley of southern France, which was a property of the House of Orange, then of the House of Baux and the House of Châlon-Arlay before passing in 1544 to the House of Orange-Nassau.

The Principality originated as the County of Orange, a fief in the Holy Roman Empire, in the Empire's constituent Kingdom of Burgundy. It was awarded to William of Gellone (born 755), a grandson of Charles Martel and therefore a cousin of Charlemagne, around the year 800 for his services in the wars against the Moors and in the reconquest of southern France and the Spanish March. His Occitan name is Guilhem; however, as a Frankish lord, he probably knew himself by the old Germanic version of Wilhelm. William also ruled as count of Toulouse, duke of Aquitaine, and marquis of Septimania.

The horn that came to symbolize Orange when heraldry came in vogue much later in the 12th century represented a pun on William of Gellone's name in French, from the character his deeds inspired in the chanson de geste, the Chanson de Guillaume: "Guillaume au Court-nez" (William the Short-Nosed) or its homophone "Guillaume au Cornet" (William the Horn).[6] The chanson appears to incorporate material relating to William of Gellone's battle at the Orbieu or Orbiel river near Carcassonne in 793 as well as to his seizure of the town of Orange.[7]

Principality of Orange

As the kingdom of Burgundy fragmented in the early Middle Ages, the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa elevated the lordship of Orange to a principality in 1163 to shore up his supporters in Burgundy against the Pope and the King of France. As the Empire's boundaries retreated from those of the principality, the prince acceded to the sovereign rights that the Emperor formerly exercised.[6]:7 As William the Silent wrote in his marriage proposal to the uncle of his second wife, the Elector August of Saxony, he held Orange as "my own free property", not as a fief of any suzerain; neither the Pope, nor the Kings of Spain or France.[8][9] That historical position of honor and reputation would later drive William the Silent forward, as much as it also fueled the opposition of his great grandson William III to Louis XIV, when that king invaded and occupied Orange.

The last descendant of the original princes, René of Châlon, left the principality to his cousin William the Silent, who was not a descendant of the original Orange family but the heir to the principality of Orange by testament, however in violation against the inheritance pattern enacted by the last will of Marie des Baux, the Princess of Orange through kinship to whom Prince René derived his own right thereto.

Oranje1547
Map of the principality of Orange in the 16th century.

In 1673, Louis XIV of France annexed all territory of the principality to France and to the royal domain, as part of the war actions against the stadtholder William III of Orange — who later became King William III of Great Britain. Orange ceased to exist as a sovereign realm, de facto.

In 1673, Louis XIV bestowed the titular princedom on Louis Charles de Mailly, Marquis de Nesle, whose wife was a direct descendant, and heiress-general by primogeniture, of the original princes of Orange.[10]

After the marquis (who died in 1713), the next holder was Louis of Mailly-Nesle, marquis de Nesle (1689–1764). Although no longer descended from Louis-Charles, a branch of the Mailly family still claim the title today.

In 1714 Louis XIV bestowed the usufruct of the principality on his kinsman, Louis Armand of Bourbon, Prince de Conti. After his death in 1727 the principality was deemed merged in the Crown by 1731.[11]

Abolition of the principality, continuation of the title

Because William III died without legitimate children, the principality was regarded as having been inherited by his closest cognate relative on the basis of the testament of Frederic-Henry, Frederick I of Prussia, who ceded the principality — at least the lands, but not the formal title — to France in 1713.[12] France supported his claim. In this way, the territory of the principality lost its feudal and secular privileges and became a part of France. The Treaty of Utrecht allowed the King of Prussia to erect part of the duchy of Gelderland (the cities of Geldern, Straelen and Wachtendonk with their bailiwicks, Krickenbeck, Viersen, the land of Kessel, the lordships of Afferden, Arcen-Velden-Lomm, Walbeck-Twisteden, Raay and Klein-Kevelaer, Well, Bergen and Middelaar) into a new Principality of Orange.[13] The kings of Prussia and the German emperors styled themselves Princes of Orange till 1918.

Orange Principality Map
A detailed map of the principality in the first half of the 17th century reproduced from the famous 1627 Atlas of Willem Janszoon Blaeu. The area of the principality was approximately 12 miles long by 9 miles wide, or 108 sq. miles.[14]

An agnatic relative of William III, John William Friso of Nassau, who was also cognatically descended from William the Silent, was designated the heir to the princes of Orange in the Netherlands by the last will of William III. Several of his descendants became stadtholders. They claim the principality of Orange on the basis of agnatic inheritance, similar to that of William the Silent, who had inherited Orange from his cousin René of Châlon. They did however have a claim, albeit distant, to the principality itself due to John William Friso's descent from Louise de Coligny, who was a descendant of the original Princes of Orange. (Louise's great grandmother, Anne Pot, Countess of St. Pol, was a descendant of Tiburge d'Orange, who married into the des Baux family) [15][16][17][18]

They could also claim descent from the del Balzo, an Italian branch of the des Baux family, via the marriage of Princess Anne to William IV, Prince of Orange. Anne was the eldest daughter of George II of Great Britain, who was a descendant of Elizabeth Woodville, wife of Edward IV of England. Elizabeth Woodwille's grandmother was Margherita del Balzo, another descendant of Tiburge d'Orange.[19][20][21]

They also claimed on the basis of the testament of Philip William, Maurice and William III. Finally, they claimed on the basis that Orange was an independent state whose sovereign had the right to assign his succession according to his will. France never recognized any of this, nor allowed the Orange-Nassaus or the Hohenzollerns to obtain anything of the principality itself. The Oranje-Nassaus nevertheless assumed the title and also erected several of their lordships into a new principality of Orange.[22] [23] [24] From that derivation of the title comes the tradition of the house of Nassau-Dietz, the later stadtholders of the Netherlands, and the present-day royal family of the Netherlands, of holding this title. They maintain the tradition of William the Silent and the house of Orange-Nassau.

There are two other [25] claimants to this title:

Bearers of the title

As Counts of Orange

House of Orange

No Name Picture Birth Became Count(ess) of Orange Ceased to be Count(ess) Death Other titles Spouse
1. Pons de Mevouillon Blismodis
2. Pons II de Mevouillon Richilde
3. Laugier de Nice Odile de Provence
3. Rambaud de Nice Accelena d’Apt
4. Bertrand-Rambaud d'Orange 1. Adélaïde de Cavenez
Gerberge
5. Raimbaut II ?
6. Tiburge d'Orange 1. Giraud Adhémar de Monteil
2. Guillaume d'Aumelas
7. Raimbaut III of Orange Lord of Aumelas None

As sovereign prince of Orange

Until 1340, it was customary for all sons of the prince of Orange to inherit the title. Only the direct line of descent to Raimond V is shown here.

House of Baux

The house of Baux succeeded to the principality of Orange when Bertrand of Baux married the heiress of the last native count of Orange, Tiburge, daughter of William of Orange, Omelaz, and Montpellier. Their son was William I of Baux-Orange. Bertrand was the son of Raymond of Baux and Stephanie of Gevaudan. Stephanie was the younger daughter of Gerberga, the heiress of the counts of Provence.[6] For a genealogical table, see the reference cited:[26]

No Name Picture Birth Created Prince of Orange Ceased to be Prince of Orange Death Other titles while Prince of Orange Princess
of
Orange
1. Prince Bertrand I Sceau baux-orange 1110/1115 1173
After the death of his brother-in-law, Raimbaut, Count of Orange, the County of Orange was elevated to a principality in 1163 by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I.
April/October 1180 Lord of Baux Tibors de Sarenom

Bertrand I used as Prince of Orange the coat of arms of the House of Baux: a 16-pointed white star placed on a field of gules. Later on, the Princes of Orange quartered the legendary bugle-horn as a heraldic figure into their coat of arms.

House of Baux-Orange

No Name Arms Birth Became Prince of Orange Ceased to be Prince of Orange Death Other titles while Prince of Orange Princess
of
Orange
2. Prince William I Blason Baux-Orange 1155 31 October 1180 bef. 30 July 1218 Co-Prince (with brothers); Lord of Baux 1. Ermengarde of Mévouillon
2. Alix
3. Prince William II Blason Baux-Orange 31 October 1180 bef. 1 November 1239 Co-Prince (with his brother); Lord of Baux Précieuse
4. Prince William III Blason Baux-Orange aft. 1 November 1239 1257 Co-Prince (with his uncle); Lord of Baux Giburg
5. Prince Raymond I Blason Baux-Orange bef. 30 July 1218 1282 Co-Prince (with his brother and nephew) Lord of Baux Malberjone of Aix
6. Prince Bertrand II Blason Baux-Orange 1282 aft. 21 July 1314 Lord of Baux Eleanore of Geneva
7. Prince Raymond II Blason Baux-Orange aft. 21 July 1314 1340, aft. 9 September Lord of Baux and Condorcet Anne of Viennois
8. Prince Raymond III Blason Baux-Orange aft. 9 September 1340 10 February 1393 Lord of Baux 1. Constance of Trian
2. Jeanne of Geneva
9. Princess Mary Blason Baux-Orange 10 February 1393 October 1417 Lady of Arlay, Cuiseaux, and Vitteaux Prince John I

House of Châlon-Arlay (also House of Ivrea of Anscarid dynasty)

The lords of Chalons and Arlay were a cadet branch of the ruling house of the county of Burgundy, the Anscarids or House of Ivrea. They married the heiress of Baux-Orange.

No Name Picture Arms Birth Became Prince of Orange Ceased to be Prince of Orange Death Other titles while Prince of Orange Princess
of
Orange
10. Prince John I none Blason famille fr Chalon Orange 10 February 1393 October 1417 2 September 1418 Lord of Arlay, Cuiseaux and Vitteaux Princess Mary
11. Prince Louis I none Blason famille fr Chalon Orange 1390 October 1417 3 December 1463 Lord of Arlay, Arguel, Orbe, and Echelens 1. Jeanne of Montbéliard
2. Eleanor d'Armagnac
3. Blanche of Gamaches
12. Prince William II none Blason famille fr Chalon Orange 3 December 1463 27 September 1475 Lord of Arlay and Arguel Catherine of Brittany
13. Prince John II none Blason famille fr Chalon Orange 1443 27 September 1475 15 April 1502 Count of Tonnerre; Lord of Arlay, Arguel and Montfaucon; Admiral of Guyenne 1. Jeanne de Bourbon
2. Philiberte of Luxembourg
14. Prince Philibert Philbert Prince of Orange Blason FR Philibert de Chalon 18 March 1502 15 April 1502 3 August 1530 Viceroy of Naples; Prince of Melfi; Duke of Gravina; Count of Tonnerre, Charny, Penthièvre; Viscount of Besançon; Lord of Arlay, Nozeroy, Rougemont, Orgelet and Montfaucon, Lieutenant-General in the Imperial army. no wife

House of Châlon-Orange

Rene inherited the principality of Orange from his uncle Philbert on the condition that he bear the name and arms of the house of Châlon-Orange. Therefore, he is usually counted as one of the Châlon-Orange and history knows him as Rene of Châlon, rather than "of Nassau".[6]

No Name Picture Arms Birth Became Prince of Orange Ceased to be Prince of Orange Death Other titles while Prince of Orange Princess
of
Orange
15. Prince René Rene van Chalon Blason René de Nassau-Dillenbourg, Prince de Châlon-Orange 5 February 1519 3 August 1530 15 July 1544 Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht and Guelders; Count of Nassau, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Breda, Diest, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Lord of Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Anna of Lorraine

House of Orange-Nassau (first incarnation)

William of Nassau inherited the principality of Orange from his cousin René. Although William descended from no previous Prince of Orange, as René had no children or siblings, he exercised his right as sovereign prince to will Orange to his first cousin on his father's side, who actually had no Orange blood. This began the Dutch Royal House of Orange-Nassau.

No Name Picture Arms Birth Became Prince of Orange Ceased to be Prince of Orange Death Other titles while Prince of Orange Princess
of
Orange
16. Prince William I WilliamOfOrange1580 Willem van Oranje wapen.:[1][27][28] 24 April 1533 15 July 1544 10 July 1584 Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht and Friesland; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Katzenelnbogen, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Breda, Lands of Cuijk, City of Grave, Diest, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Lord of Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Willemstad, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. 1. Anna van Egmont
2. Anna of Saxony
3. Charlotte de Bourbon
4. Louise de Coligny
17. Prince Philip William Workshop of Michiel Jansz. van Mierevelt 003 Blason Nassau-Orange[29] 19 December 1554 10 July 1584 20 February 1618 Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Buren, Leerdam, Katzenelnbogen, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Eindhoven, City of Grave, IJsselstein, Diest, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Lord of Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Willemstad, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Éléonore de Bourbon
18. Prince Maurice Workshop of Michiel Jansz. van Mierevelt 004 Arms Maurice of Nassau prince of Orange[30][31][32] 14 November 1567 20 February 1618 23 April 1625 Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, Overijssel and Groningen; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Buren, Leerdam, Katzenelnbogen, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Bentheim-Lingen, Moers, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Lord of Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Willemstad, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. no wife
19. Prince Frederick Henry After Gerard van Honthorst 002 Willem van Oranje wapen[1] 29 January 1584 23 April 1625 14 March 1647 Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Buren, Leerdam, Katzenelnbogen, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Bentheim-Lingen, Moers, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Lord of Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Willemstad, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Amalia of Solms-Braunfels
20. Prince William II After Gerard van Honthorst 003 Willem van Oranje wapen[1] 27 May 1626 14 March 1647 6 November 1650 Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders and Overijssel; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Buren, Leerdam, Katzenelnbogen, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Bentheim-Lingen, Moers, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Lord of Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Turnhout, Willemstad, Zevenbergen, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Mary, Princess Royal
21. William III King William III Willem van Oranje wapen[1] 14 November 1650 14 November 1650 8 March 1702 King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, Buren, Leerdam, Katzenelnbogen, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Bentheim-Lingen, Moers, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Lord of Baarn, Bredevoort, Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, 't Loo, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Soest, Ter Eem, Turnhout, Willemstad, Zevenbergen, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Queen Mary II of England

Title without territory

House of Orange-Nassau (second incarnation)

The 2nd house of Orange-Nassau (see House of Orange-Nassau family tree) were cousins on their father and mother's side of the 1st house.

No Name Picture Arms Heir of Birth Became Prince of Orange Ceased to be Prince of Orange Death Other titles while Prince of Orange Princess
of
Orange
22. Prince John William Friso JohanWillemFriso Arms of Johan Willem Friso as Prince of Orange[33] William III 4 August 1687 8 March 1702 14 July 1711 Stadtholder of Friesland and Groningen; Fürst of Nassau-DietzFürst of Orange-Nassau; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Buren, Leerdam, Katzenelnbogen, Spiegelberg, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Beilstein, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Hereditary Lord of Ameland; Lord of Baarn, Bredevoort, Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Liesveld, 't Loo, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Soest, Ter Eem, Turnhout, Willemstad, Zevenbergen, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Landgravine Marie Louise of Hesse-Kassel
23. Prince William IV Guillaume IV d'Orange-Nassau Blason Nassau-Orange Prince John William Friso 1 September 1711 22 October 1751 General Stadtholder of the United Provinces; Fürst of Orange-Nassau; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Buren, Culemborg, Leerdam, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Hereditary Lord of Ameland; Lord of Baarn, Bredevoort, Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Liesveld, 't Loo, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Soest, Ter Eem, Turnhout, Willemstad, Zevenbergen, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Anne, Princess Royal
24. Prince William V WillemV Blason Nassau-Orange Prince William IV 8 March 1748 22 October 1751 9 April 1806 General Stadtholder of the United Provinces; Fürst of Orange-Nassau; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Buren, Culemborg, Leerdam, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Hereditary Lord of Ameland; Lord of Baarn, Bredevoort, Borculo, Dasburg, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Lichtenvoorde, Liesveld, 't Loo, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Soest, Ter Eem, Turnhout, Willemstad, Zevenbergen, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Princess Wilhelmine of Prussia
25. Prince William VI
later William I
Willemi Arms of Sovereign Prince William I of Orange Prince William V 24 August 1772 9 April 1806 16 March 1815
title dropped when invested as first King of the Netherlands
7 October 1840 Fürst of Orange-Nassau; Marquis of Veere and Vlissingen; Count of Buren, Culemborg, Leerdam, and Vianden; Viscount of Antwerp; Baron of Aggeris, Breda, Cranendonck, Lands of Cuijk, Daesburg, Eindhoven, City of Grave, Lek, IJsselstein, Diest, Grimbergen, Herstal, Warneton, Arlay, and Nozeroy; Hereditary Lord of Ameland; Lord of Baarn, Bredevoort, Borculo, Geertruidenberg, Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, Klundert, Lichtenvoorde, Liesveld, 't Loo, Montfort, Naaldwijk, Niervaart, Polanen, Steenbergen, Sint-Maartensdijk, Soest, Ter Eem, Turnhout, Willemstad, Zevenbergen, Bütgenbach, Sankt Vith, and Besançon. Wilhelmine of Prussia
No Name Picture Arms Heir of Birth Became Heir to the Crown Created Prince(ss) of Orange Ceased to be Prince(ss) of Orange Death Other titles while Prince(ss) of Orange Spouse
26. Prince William
later William II
YoungwilliamII Arms of the Prince of Orange (1815-1884)[34][35] William I 6 December 1792 16 March 1815
father's accession as King
7 October 1840
became King
17 March 1849 Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau Grand Duchess Anna Pavlovna of Russia
27. Prince William
later William III
William III Arms of the Prince of Orange (1815-1884)[34][35] William II 19 February 1817 7 October 1840
father's accession as King
17 March 1849
became King
23 November 1890 Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau Princess Sophie of Württemberg
28. Prince William Willem Nicolaas Alexander Frederik Karel Hendrik, kroonprins van Oranje, 1865 Arms of the Prince of Orange (1815-1884)[34][35] William III 4 September 1840 17 March 1849
father's accession as King
11 June 1879 Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau None
29. Prince Alexander Alexander, Prince of Orange, Prince of the Netherlands Arms of the Prince of Orange (1815-1884)[34][35] 25 August 1851 11 June 1879
brother's death
21 June 1884 Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau None
30. Prince Willem-Alexander later Willem-Alexander
[36]
De Prins van Oranje, oktober 2006 Arms of the children of Beatrix of the Netherlands Beatrix 27 April 1967 30 April 1980
mother's accession as Queen regnant
30 April 2013
became King
Prince of the Netherlands, Prince of Orange-Nassau, Jonkheer van Amsberg Princess Máxima of the Netherlands
31. Princess Catharina-Amalia
[37]
Wassenaar, najaar 2014, de Prinses van Oranje Arms of the children of Wilhelm-Alexander of the Netherlands Willem-Alexander 7 December 2003 30 April 2013
father's accession as King
Incumbent Princess of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau

House of Hohenzollern

  • Frederick I of Prussia (1702–1713), a senior descendant in female line from William the Silent, who ceded his claims to the lands of Orange to France in 1713, and his descendants, but kept his right to use the title in its German form: currently Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia, "Prinz von Oranien" (1976–)

House of Mailly

  • Louis de Mailly, Marquis de Nesle et de Mailly, appointed by the French king, and his descendants, descended through another line of the house of Chalons-Arlay, currently Guy, Marquis de Nesle et de Mailly, Prince d'Orange.

House of Bourbon

Princes of Orange of the House of Orange-Nassau

Historical background

William the Silent (Willem I) was the first stadtholder of the Dutch Republic and the most significant representative of the House of Orange in the Netherlands. He was count of a portion of the German territory of Nassau and heir to some of his father's fiefs in Holland. William obtained more extensive lands in the Netherlands (the lordship of Breda and several other dependencies) as an inheritance from his cousin René of Châlon, Prince of Orange, when William was only 11 years old. After William's assassination in 1584, the title passed to his son Philip William (who had been held hostage in Spain until 1596), and after his death in 1618, to his second son Maurice, and finally to his youngest son, Frederick Henry.

The title of Prince of Orange became associated with the stadtholder of the Netherlands.

William III (Willem III) was also King of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his legacy is commemorated annually by the Protestant Orange Order. William's mother, Mary, was the daughter of King Charles I of England and therefore a princess of England as well as Princess of Orange by marriage.

William III and Mary II had no legitimate children. After William's death in 1702, his heir in the Netherlands was John William Friso of Nassau-Diez, who assumed the title, King William having bequeathed it to him by testament. The other contender was the King in Prussia, who based his claim to the title on the will of Frederick Henry, William III's grandfather. Eventually, a compromise was reached by which both families were entitled to bear the title of Prince of Orange. By then, it was no more than a title because the principality had been annexed by Louis XIV of France.

Friso's line held it as their principal title during the 18th century. The French army expelled them from the Netherlands in 1795, but on their return, the Prince of Orange became the first sovereign of the Netherlands in 1813.

After the establishment of the current Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815, the title was partly reconstitutionalized by legislation and granted to the eldest son of King William I of the Netherlands, Prince William, who later became William II of the Netherlands. Since 1983, the heir to the Dutch throne, whether male or female, bears the title Prince or Princess of Orange.[38] The first-born child of the heir to the Dutch throne bears the title Hereditary Prince(ss) of Orange.[39] When her father Willem-Alexander became King of the Netherlands following the abdication of Queen Beatrix, Princess Catharina-Amalia became the Princess of Orange.

Style

The Prince(ss) of Orange is styled His/Her Royal Highness the Prince(ss) of Orange (Dutch: Zijne/Hare Koninklijke Hoogheid de Prins(es) van Oranje).

During the 15th, 16th and 17th Centuries, the Prince(ss) of Orange was styled His/Her Highness the Prince(ss) of Orange (Dutch: Zijne/Hare Hoogheid de Prins(es) van Oranje), except for William III, who rated the "Royal/Koninklijke".

Arms

The princes of Orange in the 16th and 17th century used the following sets of arms. On becoming Prince of Orange, William placed the Châlon-Arlay arms in the center ("as an inescutcheon") of his father's arms. He used these arms until 1582 when he purchased the marquisate of Veere and Vlissingen. He then used the arms attributed to Frederick Henry, etc. with the arms of the marquisate in the top center, and the arms of the county of Buren in the bottom center.[27] Their growing complexity shows how arms are used to reflect the growing political position and royal aspirations of the house of Orange-Nassau.

Blason René de Nassau-Dillenbourg, Prince de Châlon-Orange

Coat of arms of René of Châlon as Prince of Orange.[1]

Blason Nassau-Orange

Coat of arms of William the Silent as Prince of Orange until 1582 and his eldest son Philip William[40]

Maurits Nassau wapen klein

The coat of arms used by Maurice showing the county of Moers (top left center and bottom right center) and his mother's arms of Saxony (center) [1][31][32]

Blason Nassau-Orange (Cadets)

The coat of arms used by William the Silent after 1582, Frederick Henry, William II, and William III as Prince of Orange[40]

Blason Nassau-Orange (Cadets) Alternate

An alternate coat of arms sometimes used by Frederick Henry, William II, and William III as Prince of Orange showing the county of Moers in the top center rather than Veere.[41]

When William VI of Orange returned to the Netherlands in 1813 and was proclaimed Sovereign Prince of the Netherlands, he quartered the former Arms of the Dutch Republic (1st and 4th quarter) with the "Châlon-Orange" arms (2nd and 3rd quarter), which had come to symbolize Orange. As an in escutcheon he placed his ancestral arms of Nassau. When he became King in 1815, he combined the Dutch Republic Lion with the billets of the Nassau arms and added a royal crown to form the Coat of arms of the Netherlands. In the 19th century, the Dutch Crown prince, who holds the title "Prince of Orange" ("Prins van Oranje"), and his son, who holds the title "Hereditary Prince of Orange" ("Erfprins van Oranje") had their own pre-defined arms. The House of Orange, now the Royal House of the Netherlands, and their descendants the House of Orange-Nassau, kept this title for their family. Wilhelmina further decreed that in perpetuity her descendants should be styled "princes and princesses of Orange-Nassau" and that the name of the house would be "Orange-Nassau" (in Dutch "Oranje-Nassau"). Since then, individual members of the House of Orange-Nassau are also given their own arms by the reigning monarch, similar to the United Kingdom. This is usually the royal arms, quartered with the arms of the principality of Orange, and an in escutcheon of their paternal arms.[42]

Arms of Sovereign Prince William I of Orange

Arms of William VI as sovereign prince of the Netherlands.[43]

Arms of the Prince of Orange (1815-1884)

Arms of the Dutch Crown prince, the prince of Orange in the 19th Century.[44][45]

Arms of the eldest son of the Prince of Orange (1815-1884)

Arms of the son of the Dutch Crown Prince in the 19th Century, who also held the title of Hereditary Prince of Orange.[46][47]

Arms of Juliana of the Netherlands

Juliana of the Netherlands & Oranje-Nassau Personal Arms

Arms of Beatrix of the Netherlands

Beatrix of the Netherlands & Oranje-Nassau Personal Arms

Arms of the children of Beatrix of the Netherlands

William Alexander of the Netherlands and Oranje-Nassau Personal Arms

Arms of the children of Margriet of the Netherlands

Sons of Princess Margriet of the Netherlands, Pieter van Vollenhoven [48]

As a former territory of the Holy Roman Empire, the princes of Orange used an independent prince's crown. Sometimes, only the coronet part was used (see, here and here). After the establishment of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, they used the Dutch Royal Crowns:

Princely Hat

Princely Hat

Princely crown

Princely Crown

Royal Crown of the Netherlands (Heraldic)

Crown for a Prince or Princess of the Netherlands

Coronet of a Grandchild of the Dutch Monarch (Heraldic)

Crown of a Prince or Princess of Orange-Nassau (Heraldic)

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (1861). Armorial général, contenant la description des armoiries des familles nobles et patriciennes de l'Europe: précédé d'un dictionnaire des termes du blason. G.B. van Goor. p. 746.
  2. ^ "Histoire de la ville d'Orange". Retrieved May 5, 2011.
  3. ^ Harkness, D (April 1924). "The Opposition to the 8th and 9th Articles of the Commercial Treaty of Utrecht". The Scottish Historical Review. 21 (83): 219–226. JSTOR 25519665.
  4. ^ "Treaty between Prussia and Orange-Nassau, Berlin, 1732". Heraldica.org (in French). Retrieved 16 June 2015.
  5. ^ Peele, Ada (2013). "Part 1: "De verdeling van de nalatenschap van Willem III"". Een uitzonderlijke erfgenaam: De verdeling van de nalatenschap van Koning-Stadhouder Willem II en een consequentie daarvan: Pruisisch heerlijk gezag in Hooge en Lage Zwaluwe, 1702–1754 (1st ed.). Uitgeverij Verloren B.V. ISBN 978-9-087-04393-3.
  6. ^ a b c d Grew, Marion Ethel (1947). The House of Orange. 36 Essex Street, Strand, London W.C.2: Methuen & Co. Ltd. pp. 2–3.
  7. ^ Geneviève Hasenohr and Michel Zink, ed. (1992). Dictionnaire des lettres françaises: Le Moyen Age. Collection La Pochothèque. Paris: Fayard. ISBN 2-253-05662-6.
  8. ^ Rowen, Herbert H. (1988). The princes of Orange: the stadholders in the Dutch Republic. Cambridge University Press. p. 11. ISBN 0-8063-4811-9.
  9. ^ William I to Elector August I of Saxony, 16 April 1564 (1835–1915). van Prinsterer, F.Groen; et al. (eds.). Archives ou correspondance inedite de la Maison d'Orange-Nassau. series 1. vol. 1. Leiden and Utrecht. p. 232.
  10. ^ Pontbriant, A. de. Histoire de la principauté d'Orange ; suivie de lettres inédites des princes d'Orange, des rois de France, du Cte de Grignan, etc., etc. Seguin frères (in French). Avignon: Bibliothèque nationale de France. p. 262. ark:/12148/bpt6k298581f. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
  11. ^ Pontbriant, A. de. Histoire de la principauté d'Orange ; suivie de lettres inédites des princes d'Orange, des rois de France, du Cte de Grignan, etc., etc. Seguin frères (in French). Avignon: Bibliothèque nationale de France. p. 262 & following, 273 & following. ark:/12148/bpt6k298581f. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
  12. ^ Vast, , Henri (1847–1921). Éditeur scientifique. "Traité de paix d'Utrecht entre Louis XIV et Frédéric-Guillaume, roi de Prusse". Les grands traités du règne de Louis XIV ([Reprod.]) publ. par Henri Vast (in French). IDC (Leiden). p. 125 (article X.). Retrieved 16 May 2011.
  13. ^ Vast, , Henri (1847–1921). Éditeur scientifique. "Traité de paix d'Utrecht entre Louis XIV et Frédéric-Guillaume, roi de Prusse" [Peace treaty of Utrecht between Louis XIV and Frédéric-Guillaume, King of Prussia]. Les grands traités du règne de Louis XIV ([Reprod.]) publ. par Henri Vast (in French). IDC (Leiden). p. 126 (article X.). Retrieved 16 May 2011.
  14. ^ George Ripley; Charles A. Dana (1873). "Principality of Orange". The New American Cyclopædia. 16 volumes complete. D. Appleton and Company.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  15. ^ "Pedigree Chart for Louise de Coligny: Genealogics". www.genealogics.org.
  16. ^ "Pedigree Chart for Anne Pot, Comtesse de St.Pol : Genealogics". www.genealogics.org.
  17. ^ "Pedigree Chart for Jean II de Villiers de L'Isle-Adam, Seigneur de L'Isle-Adam : Genealogics". www.genealogics.org.
  18. ^ "Pedigree Chart for Marguerite de Beaumont, Dame de Martigné-Ferchaut : Genealogics". www.genealogics.org.
  19. ^ "Pedigree Chart for Elizabeth Widville (Woodville-Wydville): Genealogics". www.genealogics.org.
  20. ^ "Pedigree Chart for Francesco del Balzo, 1.Duca d'Andria : Genealogics". www.genealogics.org.
  21. ^ "Pedigree Chart for Guillaume de Baux, Seigneur de Berre et d'Istres : Genealogics". www.genealogics.org.
  22. ^ Velde, François. "Treaty between Prussia and Orange-Nassau, Berlin, 1732". Preussens Staatsvertraege aus der Regierungzzeit König Friedrich Wilhelms I. (in French). 33 CTS 487. p. 404. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
  23. ^ Dumont, Jean, Baron de Carlscroon ( continued after Dumonts death by J. Rousset). "Treaty between Prussia and Orange-Nassau, Berlin, 1732". Corps universel diplomatique du droit des gens, contenant un recueil des traités de paix, d'alliance, &c., faits en Europe, depuis Charlemagne jusqu'à present, Supplement (in French). Amsterdam. II, part II: 335. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
  24. ^ Blok, Petrus Johannes (1970). The History of the People of the Netherlands. 5, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. New York, NY: AMS Press. p. 60.
  25. ^ Pontbriant, A. de. Histoire de la principauté d'Orange ; suivie de lettres inédites des princes d'Orange, des rois de France, du Cte de Grignan, etc., etc. Seguin frères (in French). Avignon: Bibliothèque nationale de France. p. 262 & following. ark:/12148/bpt6k298581f. Retrieved 19 May 2011.
  26. ^ Ross, Kelley L. Ph.D. "Princes of Orange, 1171–1584 AD". Retrieved 27 April 2011.
  27. ^ a b Rowen, Herbert H. (1988). The princes of Orange: the stadholders in the Dutch Republic. Cambridge University Press. p. 29. ISBN 0-8063-4811-9.
  28. ^ "The Official Website of the Dutch Royal House in English, see tour of Noordeinde Palace, Royal Archives, Front Entrance Hall". Archived from the original on 18 March 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
  29. ^ Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (1861). Armorial général, contenant la description des armoiries des familles nobles et patriciennes de l'Europe: précédé d'un dictionnaire des termes du blason. G.B. van Goor. p. 746. Philip William used his father's original arms
  30. ^ Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (1861). Armorial général, contenant la description des armoiries des familles nobles et patriciennes de l'Europe: précédé d'un dictionnaire des termes du blason. G.B. van Goor. p. 746. a la exception de celebre prince Maurice qui portai les armes ...
  31. ^ a b Haley, K(enneth) H(arold) D(obson) (1972). The Dutch in the Seventeenth Century. Thames and Hudson. p. 78. ISBN 0-15-518473-3.
  32. ^ a b Anonymous. "Wapenbord van Prins Maurits met het devies van de Engelse orde van de Kouseband". Exhibit of a painted woodcut of Maurice's Arms encircled by the Order of the Garter in the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 26 April 2011.
  33. ^ ""Coat of Arms as depicted on the "Familiegraf van de Oranje-Nassau's in de Grote of Jacobijnerkerk te Leeuwarden"". Familiegraf van de Oranje-Nassau's in de Grote of Jacobijnerkerk te Leeuwarden. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
  34. ^ a b c d Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (1875). Handboek der Wapenkunde. Netherlands: Theod. Bom. pp. 347–348. De PRINS VAN ORANJE Gevierendeeld: 1 en 4 het koninklijke wapen; 2 en 3 nogmaals gevierendeeld van rood met een gouden schuinbalk, en van goud met een blaauwen, rood-gesnoerden en beslagen jagthoorn, benevens een hartschildje op het snijpunt, beladen met vijf gouden vakken grenzende aan vier blaauewe. Overigens geheel als het koninklijke wapen.
  35. ^ a b c d Junius, J.H. (1894). Heraldiek. Netherlands: Frederik Muller. p. 151. In Nederland voert de PRINS VAN ORANJE het koninklijk wapen gekwartileerd met dat van ORANJE-CHALONS.
  36. ^ Website Dutch Royal House on Willem-Alexander Archived 2010-11-24 at the Wayback Machine
  37. ^ Website Dutch Royal House on Catharina-Amalia Archived 2013-03-05 at the Wayback Machine
  38. ^ "De Prins van Oranje". Rijksvoorlichtingsdienst (RVD). 23 August 2012. Archived from the original on 23 August 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2012. Sinds de inhuldiging van de Koningin op 30 april 1980 heeft Prins Willem-Alexander de titel Prins van Oranje. Deze titel is voorbehouden aan de troonopvolger van de Koning(in)." In english: "Since the inauguration of the Queen on 30 April 1980, Prince Willem-Alexander the title of Prince of Orange. This title is reserved to the heir to the throne of the King (Queen).
  39. ^ "Prinses Catharina-Amalia". Rijksvoorlichtingsdienst (RVD). 23 August 2012. Archived from the original on 5 March 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2012. Prinses Catharina-Amalia is de tweede in de lijn van troonopvolging. Als haar vader Koning wordt, krijgt zij als vermoedelijke troonopvolger de titel 'Prinses van Oranje'." In English: "Princess Catharina-Amalia is the second in line of succession to the throne. When her father is King, she becomes, as heir apparent, 'Princess of Orange'.
  40. ^ a b Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (2003). Armorial general. vol.2. Genealogical Publishing Co. p. 297. ISBN 0-8063-4811-9.
  41. ^ Post, Pieter (1651). "Coat of Arms as depicted in "Begraeffenisse van syne hoogheyt Frederick Hendrick"". engraving, in the collection of. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
  42. ^ "Wapens van leden van het Koninklijk Huis". Coats of Arms of the Dutch Royal Family, Website of the Dutch Monarchy, the Hague. Rijksvoorlichtingsdienst (RVD), the Hague, the Netherlands. Archived from the original on 23 January 2013. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
  43. ^ Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (2003). Armorial general. vol.2. Genealogical Publishing Co. p. 297. ISBN 0-8063-4811-9. Retrieved 26 May 2015. Ecartelé : au 1. d'azur, semé de billettes d'or au lion d'or, armé et lampassé de gueules, brochant sur le tout (Maison de Nassau) ; II, d'or, au léopard lionné de gueules, arméc ouronné et lampassé d'azur (Katzenelnbogen) ; III, de gueules à la fasce d'argent (Vianden) ; IV, de gueules à deux lions passant l'un sur l'autre ; sur-le-tout écartelé, aux I et IV de gueules, à la bande d'or (Châlon), et aux II et III d'or, au cor de chasse d'azur, virolé et lié de gueules (Orange) ; sur-le-tout-du-tout de cinq points d'or équipolés à quatre d'azur (Genève) ; un écusson de sable à la fasce d'argent brochant en chef (Marquis de Flessingue et Veere); un écusson de gueules à la fasce bretessée et contre-bretessée d'argent brochant en pointe (Buren)
  44. ^ Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (1875). Handboek der Wapenkunde. the Netherlands: Theod. Bom. pp. 347–348. De PRINS VAN ORANJE Gevierendeeld: 1 en 4 het koninklijke wapen; 2 en 3 nogmaals gevierendeeld van rood met een gouden schuinbalk, en van goud met een blaauwen, rood-gesnoerden en beslagen jagthoorn, benevens een hartschildje op het snijpunt, beladen met vijf gouden vakken grenzende aan vier blaauewe. Overigens geheel als het koninklijke wapen.
  45. ^ Junius, J.H. (1894). Heraldiek. the Netherlands: Frederik Muller. p. 151. In Nederland voert de PRINS VAN ORANJE het koninklijk wapen gekwartileerd met dat van ORANJE-CHALONS.
  46. ^ Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (1875). Handboek der Wapenkunde. the Netherlands: Theod. Bom. p. 348. De ERFPRINS VAN ORANJE, casu quo: Gelijk de Prins van Oranje, met een rooden barensteel over de beide eerste kwartieren heen.
  47. ^ Junius, J.H. (1894). Heraldiek. the Netherlands: Frederik Muller. p. 151. ...behalve de erfprins die 's vaders wapen met een barensteel breekt. Bij ons vorstenhuis is die barenstell altijk van keel.
  48. ^ Klaas. "Maurits van Vollenhoven". Article on Maurits van Vollenhoven, 18-09-2008 10:28. klaas.punt.nl. Retrieved 4 April 2013.

Literature

  • Herbert H. Rowen, The princes of Orange: the stadholders in the Dutch Republic. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.
  • John Lothrop Motley, "History of the United Netherlands from the Death of William the Silent to the Synod of Dort". London: John Murray, 1860.
  • John Lothrop Motley, "The Life and Death of John of Barenvelt". New York & London: Harper and Brothers Publishing, 1900.
  • Petrus Johannes Blok, "History of the people of the Netherlands". New York: G. P. Putnam's sons, 1898.
  • Reina van Ditzhuyzen, Het Huis van Oranje: prinsen, stadhouders, koningen en koninginnen. Haarlem : De Haan, [1979].

External links

Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange

Frederick Henry, or Frederik Hendrik in Dutch (29 January 1584 – 14 March 1647), was the sovereign Prince of Orange and stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel from 1625 to 1647. He was the grandfather of William III of England.

As the leading soldier in the Dutch wars against Spain, his main achievement was the successful Siege of 's-Hertogenbosch in 1629. It was the main Spanish base and a well-fortified city protected by an experienced Spanish garrison and by formidable water defenses. His strategy was the successful neutralization of the threat of inundation of the area around 's-Hertogenbosch and his capture of the Spanish storehouse at Wesel.

HMS Prince of Orange (1734)

HMS Prince of Orange was a 70-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, built to the 1719 Establishment at Deptford Dockyard, and launched on 5 September 1734.In 1748, Prince of Orange was cut down to a 60-gun ship, a role in which it remained until being converted into a sheer hulk in 1772. After nearly 40 years service in this capacity, it was finally sold out of the navy in 1810.

The Prince of Orange was part of the British Fleet at the capture of Louisbourg in 1758.

David Ramsay, fur trader, revolutionary War soldier, and Indian-killer was a crew member of Prince of Orange at both the battle of Louisbourg and battle of Quebec.

House of Orange-Nassau

The House of Orange-Nassau (Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau, pronounced [ˈɦœys fɑn oːˌrɑɲə ˈnɑsʌu]), a branch of the European House of Nassau, has played a central role in the politics and government of the Netherlands and Europe especially since William the Silent organized the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule, which after the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) led to an independent Dutch state.

Several members of the house served during this war and after as stadtholder ("governor"; Dutch: stadhouder) during the Dutch Republic. However, in 1815, after a long period as a republic, the Netherlands became a monarchy under the House of Orange-Nassau.

The dynasty was established as a result of the marriage of Henry III of Nassau-Breda from Germany and Claudia of Châlon-Orange from French Burgundy in 1515. Their son René inherited in 1530 the independent and sovereign Principality of Orange from his mother's brother, Philibert of Châlon. As the first Nassau to be the Prince of Orange, René could have used "Orange-Nassau" as his new family name. However, his uncle, in his will, had stipulated that René should continue the use of the name Châlon-Orange. History knows him therefore as René of Châlon. After the death of René in 1544, his cousin William of Nassau-Dillenburg inherited all of his lands. This "William I of Orange", in English better known as William the Silent, became the founder of the House of Orange-Nassau.

John William Friso, Prince of Orange

John William Friso, Prince of Orange-Nassau (Dutch: Johan Willem Friso van Oranje-Nassau; 14 August 1687 – 14 July 1711) became the titular Prince of Orange in 1702. He was stadtholder of Friesland until his death by drowning in the Hollands Diep in 1711. Friso and his wife, Marie Louise, are the most recent common ancestors of all European monarchs occupying the throne today.

Maurice, Prince of Orange

Maurice of Orange (Dutch: Maurits van Oranje) (14 November 1567 – 23 April 1625) was stadtholder of all the provinces of the Dutch Republic except for Friesland from 1585 at earliest until his death in 1625. Before he became Prince of Orange upon the death of his eldest half-brother Philip William in 1618, he was known as Maurice of Nassau.

Maurice spent his youth in Dillenburg in Nassau, and studied in Heidelberg and Leiden. He succeeded his father William the Silent as stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland in 1585, and became stadtholder of Utrecht, Guelders and Overijssel in 1590, and of Groningen in 1620. As Captain-General and Admiral of the Union, Maurice organised the Dutch rebellion against Spain into a coherent, successful revolt and won fame as a military strategist. Under his leadership and in cooperation with the Land's Advocate of Holland Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, the Dutch States Army achieved many victories and drove the Spaniards out of the north and east of the Republic. Maurice set out to revive and revise the classical doctrines of Vegetius and pioneered the new European forms of armament and drill. During the Twelve Years' Truce, a religious dispute broke out in the Republic, and a conflict erupted between Maurice and Van Oldenbarnevelt, which ended with the latter's decapitation. After the Truce, Maurice failed to achieve more military victories. He died without legitimate children in The Hague in 1625, and was succeeded by his younger half-brother Frederick Henry.

Philibert of Chalon

Philibert de Chalon (18 March 1502 – 3 August 1530) was the last Prince of Orange from the House of Chalon.

Philip William, Prince of Orange

Philip William, Prince of Orange (19 December 1554 in Buren, Gelderland – 20 February 1618) was the eldest son of William the Silent by his first wife Anna van Egmont. He became Prince of Orange in 1584 and Knight of the Golden Fleece in 1599.

Sophia Dorothea of Hanover

Sophia Dorothea of Hanover (26 March [O.S. 16 March] 1687 – 28 June 1757) was a Queen consort in Prussia as spouse of Frederick William I. She was the sister of George II, King of Great Britain and the mother of Frederick II, King of Prussia.

Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands

Willem-Alexander (Dutch: [ˈʋɪləm aːlɛkˈsɑndər]; born Willem-Alexander Claus George Ferdinand, 27 April 1967) is the King of the Netherlands, having ascended the throne following his mother's abdication in 2013.

Willem-Alexander was born in Utrecht as the oldest child of Princess Beatrix and diplomat Claus van Amsberg. He became Prince of Orange as heir apparent upon his mother's accession as queen on 30 April 1980, and succeeded her following her abdication on 30 April 2013. He went to public primary and secondary schools, served in the Royal Netherlands Navy, and studied history at Leiden University. He married Máxima Zorreguieta Cerruti in 2002 and they have three daughters: Catharina-Amalia, Princess of Orange (born 2003), Princess Alexia (born 2005), and Princess Ariane (born 2007).

Willem-Alexander is interested in sports and international water management issues. Until his accession to the throne, he was a member of the International Olympic Committee (1998–2013), chairman of the Advisory Committee on Water to the Dutch Minister of Infrastructure and the Environment (2004–2013), and chairman of the Secretary-General of the United Nations' Advisory Board on Water and Sanitation (2006–2013).

William, Prince of Orange

William, Prince of Orange (Willem Nicolaas Alexander Frederik Karel Hendrik; 4 September 1840 – 11 June 1879), was heir apparent to the Dutch throne as the eldest son of King William III from 17 March 1849 until his death.

William II, Prince of Orange

William II (27 May 1626 – 6 November 1650) was sovereign Prince of Orange and stadtholder of the United Provinces of the Netherlands from 14 March 1647 until his death three years later. His only child, William III, reigned as King of England, Ireland, and Scotland.

William III of England

William III (Dutch: Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II. He is sometimes informally known in Northern Ireland and Scotland as "King Billy".William inherited the principality of Orange from his father, William II, who died a week before William's birth. His mother, Mary, was the daughter of King Charles I of England. In 1677, William married his fifteen-year-old first cousin, Mary, the daughter of his maternal uncle James, Duke of York.

A Protestant, William participated in several wars against the powerful Catholic King of France, Louis XIV, in coalition with Protestant and Catholic powers in Europe. Many Protestants heralded him as a champion of their faith. In 1685, William's Catholic uncle and father-in-law, James, became king of England, Scotland and Ireland. James's reign was unpopular with the Protestant majority in Britain. William, supported by a group of influential British political and religious leaders, invaded England in what became known as the Glorious Revolution. On 5 November 1688, he landed at the southern English port of Brixham. James was deposed and William and his wife became joint sovereigns in his place. William and Mary reigned together until Mary's death on 28 December 1694, after which William ruled as sole monarch.

William's reputation as a staunch Protestant enabled him to take power in Britain when many were fearful of a revival of Catholicism under James. William's victory at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690 is still commemorated by loyalists in Northern Ireland and Scotland. His reign in Britain marked the beginning of the transition from the personal rule of the Stuarts to the more Parliament-centred rule of the House of Hanover.

William III of the Netherlands

William III (Dutch: Willem Alexander Paul Frederik Lodewijk; English: William Alexander Paul Frederick Louis; 19 February 1817 – 23 November 1890) was King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg from 1849 until his death in 1890. He was also the Duke of Limburg from 1849 until the abolition of the duchy in 1866.

William was the son of King William II and Anna Pavlovna of Russia. On the abdication of his grandfather William I in 1840, he became the Prince of Orange. On the death of his father in 1849, he succeeded as king of the Netherlands.

William married his cousin Sophie of Württemberg in 1839 and they had three sons, William, Maurice, and Alexander, all of whom predeceased him. After Sophie's death in 1877 he married Emma of Waldeck and Pyrmont in 1879 and they had one daughter Wilhelmina, who succeeded William to the Dutch throne. Meanwhile, being the last agnatic dynastic descendant of Otto I, Count of Nassau, the throne of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg passed to his patrilineal seventeenth cousin once removed (and matrilineal third cousin), Adolphe. To date, he is the last Dutch monarch to die whilst on the throne.

William II of the Netherlands

William II (Willem Frederik George Lodewijk, anglicized as William Frederick George Louis; 6 December 1792 – 17 March 1849) was King of the Netherlands, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, and Duke of Limburg.

William II was the son of William I and Wilhelmine of Prussia. When his father, who up to that time ruled as sovereign prince, proclaimed himself king in 1815, he became Prince of Orange as heir apparent of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. With the abdication of his father on 7 October 1840, William II became king. During his reign, the Netherlands became a parliamentary democracy with the new constitution of 1848.

William II was married to Anna Pavlovna of Russia. They had four sons and one daughter. William II died on 17 March 1849 and was succeeded by his son William III.

William IV, Prince of Orange

William IV (Willem Karel Hendrik Friso; 1 September 1711 – 22 October 1751) was Prince of Orange-Nassau and the first hereditary stadtholder of all the United Provinces.

William I of the Netherlands

William I (Willem Frederik, Prince of Orange-Nassau; 24 August 1772 – 12 December 1843) was a Prince of Orange and the first King of the Netherlands and Grand Duke of Luxembourg.

He was the ruler of the Principality of Nassau-Orange-Fulda from 1803 until 1806 and of the Principality of Orange-Nassau in the year 1806 and from 1813 until 1815. In 1813 he proclaimed himself Sovereign Prince of the United Netherlands. He proclaimed himself King of the Netherlands and Duke of Luxembourg on 16 March 1815. In the same year on 9 June William I became also the Grand Duke of Luxembourg and after 1839 he was furthermore the Duke of Limburg. After his abdication in 1840 he styled himself King William Frederick, Count of Nassau.

William V, Prince of Orange

William V, Prince of Orange (Willem Batavus; 8 March 1748 – 9 April 1806) was the last Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic. He went into exile to London in 1795. He was the reigning Prince of Nassau-Orange until his death in 1806. In that capacity he was succeeded by his son William.

William the Silent

William I, Prince of Orange (24 April 1533 – 10 July 1584), also known as William the Silent or William the Taciturn (translated from Dutch: Willem de Zwijger), or more commonly known as William of Orange (Dutch: Willem van Oranje), was the main leader of the Dutch Revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs that set off the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1581. He was born in the House of Nassau as Count of Nassau-Dillenburg. He became Prince of Orange in 1544 and is thereby the founder of the branch House of Orange-Nassau and the ancestor of the monarchy of the Netherlands. Within the Netherlands he is also known as Father of the Fatherland (Dutch: Vader des Vaderlands).

A wealthy nobleman, William originally served the Habsburgs as a member of the court of Margaret of Parma, governor of the Spanish Netherlands. Unhappy with the centralisation of political power away from the local estates and with the Spanish persecution of Dutch Protestants, William joined the Dutch uprising and turned against his former masters. The most influential and politically capable of the rebels, he led the Dutch to several successes in the fight against the Spanish. Declared an outlaw by the Spanish king in 1580, he was assassinated by Balthasar Gérard (also written as "Gerardts") in Delft in 1584.

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