Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester

Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, KG, KT, KP, GCB, GCMG, GCVO, PC (Henry William Frederick Albert; 31 March 1900 – 10 June 1974) was the third son and fourth child of King George V and Queen Mary. He served as Governor-General of Australia from 1945 to 1947, the only member of the British royal family to hold the post.

Henry was the first son of a British monarch to be educated at school, where he excelled at sports, and went on to attend Eton College, after which he was commissioned in the 10th Royal Hussars, a regiment he hoped to command. But his military career was interrupted by royal duties, and he was nicknamed "the unknown soldier". While big-game shooting in Kenya, he met the future aviator Beryl Markham, with whom he became romantically involved. The court put pressure on him to end the relationship, but had to pay regular hush-money to avert a public scandal. In 1935, also under parental pressure, he married Lady Alice Montagu Douglas Scott, with whom he had two sons, Princes William and Richard.

From 1939 to 1940, Henry served in France as a liaison officer to Lord Gort. He performed military and diplomatic duties during the rest of the war, then in 1945 was appointed as Australia's governor-general at the request of Prime Minister John Curtin. The post had originally been offered to his younger brother, the Duke of Kent, who died in an air crash. Henry attended the coronation of his niece Queen Elizabeth II in 1953 and carried out several overseas tours, often accompanied by his wife. From 1965, he became incapacitated by a number of strokes. Upon his death, he was succeeded as the Duke of Gloucester by his only living son, Richard.

At the time of his death, Prince Henry was the last surviving child of King George V and Queen Mary. His widow, who died at the age of 102, became the longest-lived member of the British royal family in history.

Prince Henry
Duke of Gloucester
Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester
11th Governor-General of Australia
In office30 January 1945 – 11 March 1947
PredecessorThe Lord Gowrie
SuccessorSir William McKell
Prime MinistersJohn Curtin
Frank Forde
Ben Chifley
Born31 March 1900
York Cottage, Sandringham
Died10 June 1974 (aged 74)
Barnwell Manor, Northamptonshire
Burial14 June 1974
Spouse
Issue
Full name
Henry William Frederick Albert
HouseWindsor (after 1917)
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (before 1917)
FatherGeorge V
MotherMary of Teck
OccupationGovernor-General of Australia, military
Military career
Allegiance United Kingdom
Service/branch British Army
Years of service1919–37
(end of active service)
RankField Marshal
UnitKing's Royal Rifle Corps
10th Royal Hussars
British Expeditionary Force
Battles/warsSecond World War

Early life

Princejohnandfamily
The royal children in 1912: (Back row l-r) Albert, Henry and Edward.
(Front row l-r) John, Mary and George

Prince Henry was born on 31 March 1900, at York Cottage, on the Sandringham Estate during the reign of his great-grandmother Queen Victoria.[1] His father was the Duke of York (later King George V), the eldest surviving son of the Prince and Princess of Wales (later King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra).[1] His mother was the Duchess of York (later Queen Mary), the only daughter of the Duke and Duchess of Teck.[1] At the time of his birth, he was fifth in the line of succession to the throne, behind his grandfather, father and two elder brothers.

He was baptised at the private chapel of Windsor Castle on 17 May 1900, by Randall Thomas Davidson, Bishop of Winchester, and his godparents were: Queen Victoria (his great-grandmother); the German Emperor (his first cousin once removed, for whom Prince Albert of Prussia stood proxy); Princess Henry of Battenberg (his paternal great-aunt); the Duchess of Cumberland (his paternal great-aunt, whose sister, his grandmother the Princess of Wales represented her); Prince George of Greece (his first cousin once removed, for whom Prince Henry's paternal grandfather the Prince of Wales stood proxy); Princess Carl of Denmark (his paternal aunt, for whom her sister Princess Victoria of Wales stood proxy); Prince Alexander of Teck (his maternal uncle, for whom Prince Henry's great-uncle the Duke of Cambridge stood proxy); and Field Marshal The Earl Roberts (for whom General Sir Dighton Probyn stood proxy).[2] He was informally known to his family as Harry.[3]

Childhood and education

Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester circa 1916
At Eton College in 1916

As a young boy, Prince Henry suffered from ill health very much like his older brother Albert. He also had knocked knees, and had to wear painful leg splints. He was an extremely nervous child, and was often victim to spontaneous fits of crying or giggling, and also like his brother, Henry had a combination of speech disorders.[4] They both had rhotacism, which prevented them from pronouncing the sound r, but while Albert's pronunciation was slightly reminiscent of the "French r", Henry was completely unable to pronounce it, causing the intended r to sound like [w]. On top of this, Henry also had a nasal lisp and an unusually high-pitched tone, resulting in a very distinctive voice.[5]

By 1909, Henry's poor health had become a serious concern for his parents. He was very small for his age and was prone to get very aggressive colds. "You must remember that he is rather fragile and must be treated differently to his two elder brothers who are more robust", wrote Prince George to Henry's tutor, Henry Peter Hansell.[6]

On 6 May 1910, Prince George ascended the throne as George V, and Henry became the third in line to the throne. The King was persuaded by Hansell that it would be good for Henry's character to attend school, where he could interact with boys his age. The King, having previously rejected this proposition for his two elder sons, agreed on the basis that it would help him "behave like a boy and not like a little child".[6] Prince Henry thus became the first son of a British monarch to attend school. After three days at St Peter's Court in Broadstairs as a day boy, Hansell, noticing he liked it, asked the King to send him as a boarder, to which he agreed.[6]

Henry spent three years at St Peter's Court. Academically, he was not very bright, although he did show a particular aptitude in mathematics, Henry's sole interest became sports, particularly cricket and football. "All you write about is your everlasting football of which I am heartily sick", wrote his mother, answering a fully detailed letter from Henry about a match.[6]

In September 1913, Henry started at Eton College.[1] During the First World War, Crown Prince Leopold of Belgium, later King Leopold III, was a member of his house (Mr Lubbock's[1]). His studies did not improve, but his nerves and disposition did. He made friends through his enthusiasm for sports, and his masters were very pleased with him, noting in his report that he was "thoroughly willing, cheerful, modest & obedient". To his father, these values were the most important, having no time or interest in what he called "intellectuals".[6]

By the time he went up to Trinity College, Cambridge in 1919 with his brother Albert, Henry had outgrown all his brothers, both in height and size, and enjoyed very good health. Their stay at Cambridge lasted just one year and was very uneventful for both of them, as they were not allowed to live in college with the other undergraduates, due to their father's fear of their mixing with undesirable company.[6]

Military career

Unlike his brothers, Prince Henry joined the Army rather than the Royal Navy. He attended the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, in 1919,[1] and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the King's Royal Rifle Corps on 16 July 1919.[7] On 16 July 1921 he was promoted to lieutenant in the 10th Royal Hussars,[8][1] with whom he continued to serve. Though he desired to serve in more active roles as a soldier, his position as a senior member of the royal family effectively ruled out any such options.

Prince Henry was promoted to captain on 11 May 1927,[9] and was appointed a personal aide-de-camp to his father on 2 August 1929.[10] On 3 March 1931, he was appointed a staff captain and was seconded for service with the 2nd Cavalry Brigade.[11] He was brevetted to major on 2 August 1934,[12] and upon his father's Silver Jubilee the following May, was appointed Colonel-in-Chief of the Gloucestershire Regiment.[13] On 6 July 1935, he was promoted to the substantive rank of major, his final rank as an actively serving officer.[14] On 23 June 1936, he was appointed a personal aide-de-camp to his eldest brother, Edward VIII.[15]

Following his brother's abdication and the accession of his brother the Duke of York as George VI, Prince Henry was effectively retired from active duty, and received a ceremonial promotion to major-general on 1 January 1937, skipping two ranks.[16] He continued to serve as a personal aide-de-camp to the new King, receiving this appointment on 1 February.[17] On 12 March, he received the colonelcy of his former regiment, the 10th Royal Hussars, along with the colonelcies of the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers and the Gordon Highlanders.[18] On 28 May, he received an honorary appointment as a captain in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve (RNVR),[19] followed by his appointment on 10 November to the honorary colonelcies of the Ceylon Planters' Rifle Corps and the Ceylon Light Infantry (now the Sri Lanka Light Infantry).[20]

Following the outbreak of the Second World War, he joined the British Expeditionary Force, and was appointed as a Chief Liaison Officer on 4 September 1939.[21][1] In January 1940, he was appointed to the colonelcies of the Ulster Anti-Aircraft Regiments, the Royal Artillery and the Territorial Army.[22] He was slightly wounded in 1940 when his staff car was attacked from the air.[1] In August 1940, he was appointed Chief Liaison Officer, GHQ Home Forces.[23] He also became second-in-command of the 20th Armoured Brigade that year,[1] and was promoted to lieutenant-general on 17 September 1941.[24] On 27 October 1944, he was promoted to the rank of full general.[25]

He was appointed a Field Marshal in 1955[1] and a Marshal of the Royal Air Force in 1958.[26]

Duke of Gloucester

Princes Edward, Henry, and Albert Time cover 1927
Henry (far right) with his brothers The Prince of Wales and Prince George on Time magazine's cover, 8 August 1927

On 31 March 1928, his father created him Duke of Gloucester, Earl of Ulster, and Baron Culloden, three titles that linked him with three parts of the United Kingdom, namely England, Northern Ireland and Scotland.[27] Prince Henry visited Canada sometime in 1928.[28]

Before his marriage, Prince Henry's greatest ambition was to someday command his regiment, the 10th Royal Hussars, or at least spend as much time in the army as possible. Although he was a capable soldier, as the King's son he was prevented from joining his regiment abroad, and this meant he was generally seen as an outsider to his fellow officers. To his increasing despair, he had to fulfill the many royal duties his father assigned him.[29]

In September 1928, Henry left England with his brother Edward, Prince of Wales, to shoot big game in Africa. The brothers parted in Nairobi, where Henry was to stay for a while. There, he was entertained by Mansfield Markham and his wife Beryl Markham. Beryl and Henry soon started an affair (though sources differ over when the affair started; many say it was not until her visit to England). In November, the brothers were recalled to England due to their father’s worsening health, and soon after Beryl returned too. At the Grosvenor Hotel, close to Buckingham Palace, the affair continued with Prince Henry openly hosting parties with her in her suite and drinking too much.[6]

The affair, widely known by the London society, shocked the Queen, to the delight of the Prince of Wales who remarked that “for once, Queen Mary’s blue-eyed boy was in trouble instead of himself”. The King stepped in, thinking that keeping Henry busy would be the best way to end the affair, as would keeping him from drinking too much, too often. That year, he arranged a series of tours for his son to undertake.[6]

In 1929, he went to Japan to confer the Garter on the Emperor, and a year later he attended the coronation of Haile Selassie of Ethiopia in Addis Ababa.[1] In 1934 George V made him a Knight of St Patrick, Ireland's chivalric order. It was the second to last time this order was awarded (the last appointment being the Duke of York, later George VI, in 1936); at the time of his death, the Duke of Gloucester was the only remaining knight. In 1934, he went to Australia and New Zealand where the people received him with overwhelming enthusiasm that one journalist wrote, "(amounted) to something very near adoration".[29]

Marriage and family

Duke and Duchess of Gloucester with sons
The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester with their two sons William (standing) and Richard in Canberra

When he returned from his trip to Japan in 1929, the affair with Markham ended. Her husband wanted a divorce and threatened to disclose Prince Henry's private letters to his wife if he did not "take care of Beryl". The Duke and Beryl never met again, although she did write to him when he visited Kenya in 1950 with his wife, but he didn't write back. Prince Henry's solicitors paid out an annuity until her death in 1985.[6]

After his tour of Australia and New Zealand, and pressured by his parents, Prince Henry decided it was time to settle down and proposed to Lady Alice Montagu Douglas Scott, sister of one of Henry's best friends Lord William Montagu Douglas Scott. The proposal, wrote Lady Alice many years later, was not at all romantic as "it was not his way", instead he just "mumbled it as we were on a walk one day".[30] They were married on 6 November 1935. The marriage was originally planned to take place at Westminster Abbey, but was moved to the more modest Private Chapel at Buckingham Palace due to the death of Lady Alice's father, John Montagu Douglas Scott, 7th Duke of Buccleuch, shortly before the wedding. After suffering two miscarriages,[31] the Duchess of Gloucester gave birth to two sons:[1]

The couple lived first at the Royal Pavilion in Aldershot, near the barracks of the Duke's regiment. "It was a very simple cabin" recalled the Duchess of Gloucester, and "the only royal thing about it was my husband's presence".[30] After his father's death, the Duke bought Barnwell Manor with the larger part of his inheritance. It was a large country house in Northamptonshire which had belonged to his wife's ancestors. As their London seat, they were given York House in St. James's Palace.

Abdication of Edward VIII

In December 1936, Henry's brother Edward VIII abdicated the throne to marry divorcée Wallis Simpson. His brother, Prince Albert, ascended the throne as King George VI. Although third in line to the throne, following his two nieces Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret, he became the first adult in line, meaning he would act as regent if anything were to happen to the King before Princess Elizabeth came of age on 21 April 1944, her 18th birthday. Because of this, Prince Henry could not leave England at the same time as the King. Furthermore, he and his younger brother, the Duke of Kent, had to increase their royal engagements considerably to support the new King.[6]

Edward VIII, who became Duke of Windsor after abdicating, recalled that it was Henry who reacted least to the news of his abdication. The brothers had never been close, and apart from horses, they had not much in common. But Edward did admit regretting the implications the abdication would have on "The Unknown Soldier", a nickname he teasingly used to refer to Henry, owing to his low profile.[32]

The abrupt change in Prince Henry's somewhat carefree life up to that point was made clear by the new King on the very first evening of his reign. "If you two think that, now that I have taken this new job on, you can go on behaving just as you like, in the same old way, you are very much mistaken! You two have to pull yourselves together", the King warned his two younger brothers at dinner.[33]

Although the Duke of Gloucester supported his brother, and later his niece, tirelessly and dutifully, he had a fondness for whisky. On one occasion, Queen Mary wrote to the Duchess suggesting that if they were planning to visit, the Duke should bring his own supply of whisky, "as we have not got much left, and it is so expensive". Even Noble Frankland, who wrote the Duke's biography after his death at the request and under the supervision of the Duchess, wrote that: "He did not eschew a glass of whisky ... or the occasional blasphemous oath."[6][34]

King George VI had great affection for his younger brother. Circumstances had made them closer following the abdication, and the King trusted Prince Henry with important matters, which he dutifully undertook. Sometimes, though, the organised King found his brother's less systematic manner irritating. On one occasion after a day of shooting at Balmoral Castle, the King found a mistake on his shot-game record, where there seemed to be a pair of grouse missing. A member of staff suggested that the King call and ask the Duke of Gloucester, who was staying at Birkhall. When the Duke confirmed he had taken the birds, the King's gruff warning to his brother that he should never again take birds without telling him surprised the member of staff.[35]

Second World War

After the outbreak of the Second World War, the Duke of Gloucester, as Chief Liaison Officer to Lord Gort, spent almost the entire first year of the war in France. Besides boosting the troops' morale, he was useful as a first-hand witness of the situation; he reported to government officials and to the King, to whom he continually wrote detailed and objective accounts of what was happening. Always eager to get involved, the Duke often found himself in dangerous situations, but did not seem overly worried. "Motoring about is not nice as many villages are being bombed," he wrote to his wife in his usual straightforward and dismissive manner. The Duke's two narrowest escapes both came in May 1940.

Having known King Leopold III of Belgium from school days, the Duke wanted to meet him personally to offer support after rumours began circulating that Belgium would surrender to Germany. On 14 May, he and his brother-in-law, Lord William Scott, drove from Hotel Univers in Arras into Belgium to see the King of the Belgians at a secret location. That night, Hotel Univers was bombed, resulting in several deaths, including those staying in the rooms next to the Duke's. The Duke wrote to his brother that King Leopold was "very depressed". As the Duke and Lord William Scott drove back, they were caught up in heavy enemy bombing in Tournai, where their car caught fire. They managed to get out and dive into an alleyway, although not unscathed as the Duke needed medical attention for a profusely bleeding wound.[36]

Although generally optimistic, Prince Henry did sometimes suffer from bouts of depression during his service in 1940, especially at the end of his occasional leaves. "My beloved Alice, I did hate leaving you yesterday so very much that I could hardly keep a straight face", he wrote to his wife after reporting back. The strains of living at the French front also diminished his resolve at times: "I think I hate this country and war more than ever... it is such an awful waste of everything," he told the Duchess.[36][37]

In June, after the fall of Dunkirk, the Duke was ordered back to England by an embarrassed General Headquarters, which had not been able to assure the King's brother's safety. "Wherever I went or had been, I was bombed" the Duke explained to his mother, amused.[36]

In early 1942 the King arranged a four-month-long military and diplomatic mission for the Duke to the Middle East, India, and East Africa.[38] The mission came just after Prince Henry had become a father for the first time, and it was considered a dangerous trip, as the Germans were rapidly advancing toward some of the territories the Duke would visit. The King even wrote to his sister-in-law that he would act as guardian of the newly-born Prince William if anything should happen to his brother.[36][39]

After Prince Henry's younger brother, the Duke of Kent, died in a plane crash in August 1942, it was decided that the Duke of Gloucester would not be sent on any further missions that could prove dangerous.[39]

Governor-General of Australia

King George VI and Queen Elizabeth with the Gloucesters
The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester are seen off on their departure for Australia by the King and Queen, 1945

In late 1944 the Duke was unexpectedly appointed Governor-General of Australia[1] after his younger brother, the Duke of Kent, who had been offered the position, died in an aeroplane crash in Scotland.

The Duke had made a successful visit to Australia in 1934. Because the Duke was shy,[1] he sometimes appeared stiff and formal, but he and the Duchess travelled widely in Australia using his own plane during their time in office. When Prime Minister Curtin died in 1945, the Duke appointed Frank Forde as prime minister.

Gloucester left Australia in March 1947, after two years in the post, due to the need to act as Senior Counsellor of State during a visit by King George VI and Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret to South Africa.[1] As a parting gift, he left his own plane for use by the government and people of Australia.

Later life

Australia stamp Gloucesters 1945
Stamp of Australia, 1945, showing the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester, when the Duke became Governor-General

In May 1949, May 1961, May 1962, and May 1963, the Duke served in the office of Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, which temporarily afforded him precedence in Scotland immediately below the King and Queen.

The Duke attended the coronation of his niece Elizabeth II in 1953. Both the Duke and Duchess carried out royal engagements, including several overseas tours.[1] In 1954 the Duke served as the Treasurer of the Honourable Society of Gray's Inn. He suffered a series of strokes in later years,[1] and was too ill to attend the funeral of his elder brother, the Duke of Windsor in May or to attend the July wedding of his younger son, Prince Richard, in 1972. He tragically lost his eldest son William in an air crash the following month.

Henry's first stroke was in 1965 while he and his wife, Alice, were returning from Winston Churchill's funeral ceremony in their vehicle which resulted in a car crash.[40] This, together with later strokes, left him dependent on a wheelchair, and he was unable to speak in his last remaining years.[40] His last public appearance was at the unveiling of Queen Mary's plaque at Marlborough House in 1967, where he appeared weak and considerably older than the Duke of Windsor. In 1972, the Duke's elder son, Prince William, died in a plane crash.[1] The Duke was in such poor health that his wife hesitated about whether to tell him. She later admitted in her memoirs that she did not, but that he may have learned of their son's death from television coverage.[30]

Death

He died on 10 June 1974 at the age of 74. He was the last surviving child of King George V and Queen Mary. His body was buried in the Royal Burial Ground, Frogmore.

His second son, Prince Richard, inherited the title of Duke of Gloucester. The Duke's widow, Alice, received permission from Queen Elizabeth II to be styled Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester, to distinguish herself from Prince Richard's wife. She survived until 2004, becoming the longest-lived member of the British Royal Family in history.[41]

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

  • 1900–1901: His Royal Highness Prince Henry of York[42]
  • 1901: His Royal Highness Prince Henry of Cornwall and York
  • 1901–1910: His Royal Highness Prince Henry of Wales
  • 1910–1928: His Royal Highness The Prince Henry
  • 1928–1974: His Royal Highness The Duke of Gloucester
    • 1945–1947: (in Australia) His Royal Highness The Duke of Gloucester, Governor-General of Australia

Honours

Military

Arms

In 1921, Prince Henry was granted a personal coat of arms, being the royal arms, differenced by a label argent of three points, the centre bearing a lion rampant gules, and the outer points crosses gules.[44]

Coat of Arms of Henry, Duke of Gloucester
Royal Standard of Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester
Royal Standard of Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester (in Scotland)
Prince Henry's coat of arms
Henry's banner of arms, a three-point label, the first and third points charged with the Cross of St. George, the second point charged with a lion passant guardant
Henry's personal banner of arms in Scotland

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
  2. ^ Yvonne's Royalty Home Page – Royal Christenings
  3. ^ http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article50561785
  4. ^ Edwards, Anne Edwards, Anne (1984). Matriarch. William Morrow. p. 195. ISBN 0688035116. Matriarch
  5. ^ Made on TV by Duke of Gloucester (Speech). Retrieved 9 April 2015.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Van der Kiste, John (2003). George V's children. Sutton Publishing LTD. ISBN 0750934689.
  7. ^ "No. 31505". The London Gazette (Supplement). 14 August 1919. p. 10343.
  8. ^ "No. 32392". The London Gazette (Supplement). 15 July 1921. p. 5702.
  9. ^ "No. 33273". The London Gazette. 10 May 1927. p. 3055.
  10. ^ "No. 33522". The London Gazette. 2 August 1929. p. 5061.
  11. ^ "No. 33697". The London Gazette. 10 March 1931. p. 1645.
  12. ^ "No. 34075". The London Gazette. 3 August 1934. p. 4971.
  13. ^ "No. 34166". The London Gazette (Supplement). 31 May 1935. p. 3617.
  14. ^ "No. 34177". The London Gazette. 5 July 1935. p. 4343.
  15. ^ "No. 34297". The London Gazette. 23 June 1936. p. 4016.
  16. ^ "No. 34356". The London Gazette. 1 January 1937. p. 11.
  17. ^ "No. 34365". The London Gazette (Supplement). 29 January 1937. p. 687.
  18. ^ "No. 34365". The London Gazette. 12 March 1937. p. 1642.
  19. ^ "No. 34402". The London Gazette (Supplement). 28 May 1937. p. 3342.
  20. ^ "No. 34456". The London Gazette. 19 November 1937. p. 7261.
  21. ^ "No. 34675". The London Gazette (Supplement). 8 September 1939. p. 6174.
  22. ^ "No. 34764". The London Gazette (Supplement). 29 December 1939. p. 7.
  23. ^ "No. 34926". The London Gazette (Supplement). 16 August 1940. p. 5077.
  24. ^ "No. 35294". The London Gazette (Supplement). 30 September 1941. p. 5709.
  25. ^ "No. 36765". The London Gazette (Supplement). 24 October 1944. p. 4907.
  26. ^ "No. 41409". The London Gazette (Supplement). 3 June 1958. p. 3561.
  27. ^ "No. 33371". The London Gazette. 30 March 1928. p. 2321.
  28. ^ pch.gc.ca: "Royal Visits from 1786 to 1951"
  29. ^ a b Royal Family: Years of Transition.
  30. ^ a b c The Memoirs of Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester.
  31. ^ Davies, Caroline (13 December 2001). "Royal Family throws early 100th birthday party for princess who hated society life". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 30 May 2018.
  32. ^ Bloch Bloch, Michael (2012). The Secret File of the Duke of Windsor. England. ISBN 0349001081.
  33. ^ Cadbury Cadbury, Deborah (2015). Princes at War. England. ISBN 1610394038.
  34. ^ Frankland Frankland, Noble (1975). Prince Henry Duke of Gloucester. England. ISBN 029777705X.
  35. ^ Corbitt, Frederick John (1956). My Twenty Years in Buckingham Palace: a book of intimate memoirs. New York: David McKay Company Inc. ISBN 1258094002.
  36. ^ a b c d Cadbury
  37. ^ Aronson Aronson, Theo (2014). The Royal Family at War. England. ISBN 978-1910198032.
  38. ^ FO 954/5B/213, 30 March 1942, The National Archives, Kew, England
  39. ^ a b Aronson
  40. ^ a b "Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester". The Independent. 1 November 2004. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
  41. ^ "Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester, Later years and death". The Official Website of the British Monarchy. The Royal Household. 2008.
  42. ^ In 1898, Queen Victoria issued letters patent granting the children of the Duke and Duchess of York the style Royal Highness. Thus he was styled His Royal Highness Prince Henry of York from birth.
  43. ^ "Imperial Garter," Time Magazine, 13 May 1929.
  44. ^ Heraldica – British Royal Cadency

External links

Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester
Cadet branch of the House of Wettin
Born: 31 March 1900 Died: 10 June 1974
Government offices
Preceded by
The Lord Gowrie
Governor-General of Australia
1945–1947
Succeeded by
Sir William McKell
Honorary titles
Preceded by
The Duke of Connaught
and Strathearn
Great Master of the Order of the Bath
1942–1974
Succeeded by
The Prince of Wales
Preceded by
The Earl of Swinton
Senior Privy Counsellor
1972–1974
Succeeded by
Sir Henry Slesser
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New title
5th creation
Duke of Gloucester
1928–1974
Succeeded by
Prince Richard
1935 New Zealand Royal Visit Honours

The 1935 New Zealand Royal Visit Honours were appointments by George V of New Zealanders to the Royal Victorian Order, to mark the visit of Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester to New Zealand that year, and were announced on 21 January 1935. The recipients were honoured for their services in connection with the tour.The recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour.

1946 in Australia

The following lists events that happened during 1946 in Australia.

1947 in Australia

The following lists events that happened during 1947 in Australia.

Baron Westbury

The Baron Westbury, of Westbury in the County of Wiltshire, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1861 for the lawyer and Liberal politician Sir Richard Bethell on his appointment as Lord Chancellor, a post he held until 1865.The title descended in the direct line until the death of his great-great-grandson, the fourth baron (who succeeded his grandfather), in 1961. The fourth baron was succeeded by his younger brother, the fifth baron. He was equerry to Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester from 1947 to 1949 and also served as Deputy Lieutenant of North Yorkshire in 1973. As of 2016 the title is held by his son, the sixth baron, who succeeded in 2001.

Counsellor of State

The Counsellors of State are senior members of the British royal family to whom the monarch, currently Elizabeth II, delegates certain state functions and powers when not in the United Kingdom or unavailable for other reasons (such as short-term incapacity or sickness). Any two Counsellors of State may preside over Privy Council meetings, sign state documents, or receive the credentials of new ambassadors to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

While the establishment of a regency carries with it the suspension of the monarch from the personal discharge of the royal functions, when Counsellors of State are appointed, both the sovereign and the counsellors can—the Counsellors within the limits of their delegation of authority—discharge the royal functions. Thus, the monarch can give instructions to the Counsellors of State or even personally discharge a certain royal prerogative when the counsellors are in place. The Counsellors of State and regents always act in the name and on behalf of the sovereign.

The Counsellors of State do not assume the discharge of the royal functions automatically when the sovereign is unavailable. Instead, when an instance of travel abroad or temporary unavailability occurs, the monarch must sign specific letters patent delegating the royal functions (or some of the royal functions) to the Counsellors of State and fixing the duration of the delegation. The monarch may at any time amend or revoke the said letters patent.

Gloucester Road, Hong Kong

Gloucester Road () (Chinese: 告士打道) is a major highway in Hong Kong. It is one of the few major roads in Hong Kong with service roads. It was named on June 14, 1929 after Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, to commemorate his visit to Hong Kong that year. The road is 2.2 kilometres in length and has a speed limit of 70 km/h.

Gloucester Tree

The Gloucester Tree is a giant karri tree in the Gloucester National Park of Western Australia.

At 58 metres in height, it is the world's second tallest fire-lookout tree (second only to the nearby Dave Evans Bicentennial Tree), and visitors can climb up to a platform in its upper branches for views of the surrounding karri forest. It is owned by the Shire of Manjimup.

Built in 1947, the Gloucester Tree was one of eight karri trees that between 1937 and 1952 were made relatively easy to climb so that they could be used as fire lookout spots. The suitability of the tree as a fire lookout was tested by forester Jack Watson, who climbed the tree using climbing boots and a belt. It took Watson six hours to climb 58 metres, a difficult climb due to the 7.3 metre girth of the tree and the need to negotiate through limbs from 39.6 metres up.

Jack Watson, a Gallipoli veteran, was also Superintendent of Kings Park in Perth, and retired from that position in 1962.

Another forester, George Reynolds, pegged the ladder and lopped branches to facilitate climbing the tree, and a wooden lookout cabin was built 58 metres above the ground. The Governor-General of Australia, Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, visited the site during construction, and the tree and national park are named in his honour.The wooden lookout cabin was demolished in 1973 for safety reasons, and was replaced with a steel and aluminium cabin and visitors' gallery. Currently the climb is done by stepping on 153 spikes that spiral the tree.

Only 20 percent of visitors climb to the top of the tree; most make it only part of the way before turning back.

Henry Windsor

Henry Windsor may refer to:

Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester (1900–1974), third son of George V and Queen Mary

Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex (born 1984; formally Prince Henry of Wales), younger son of the Prince of Wales and grandson of the Queen.

Henry Haven Windsor (1859–1924), founder and editor of Popular Mechanics

Henry Thomas Windsor (1796–1848), American Colonial Continental Revolutionary

Henry Windsor Villiers-Stuart (1827–1895), British soldier

Henry Windsor, 5th Baron Windsor (1562–1605), see Baron Windsor

Independence Memorial Hall

Independence Memorial Hall (also Independence Commemoration Hall) is a national monument in Sri Lanka built for commemoration of the independence of Sri Lanka from the British rule with the restoration of full governing responsibility to a Ceylonese-elected legislature on February 4, 1948. It is located in Independence Square (formerly Torrington Square) in the Cinnamon Gardens, Colombo. It also houses the Independence Memorial Museum.

The monument was built at the location where the formal ceremony marking the start of self-rule, with the opening of the first parliament by the HRH Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester occurred at a special podium February 4, 1948.

Located at the head of the monument is the statue of the first prime minister of the country Rt. Hon. Don Stephen Senanayake "The Father of the Nation". Most of the annual National Independence Day celebrations have been held here. Apart from a monument it served as the ceremonial assembly hall for the Senate of Ceylon and the House of Representatives of Ceylon until the parliament was moved to the new parliament complex. Currently it is the venue for religious events and annual national day celebrations.

Prince Henry

Prince Henry (or Prince Harry) may refer to:

Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex (born 1984), formally Prince Henry, second son of Charles, Prince of Wales, and currently sixth in line to the throne of the United Kingdom

Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester (1900–1974), third son of George V of the United Kingdom

Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal (1394–1460)

Henry Frederick Stuart (1593/94–1612), son of James I of England

Henry, Duke of Cornwall (1511, 1513), first and second-born sons of Henry VIII of England and Catherine of Aragon, who both died in infancy

Prince Henry of Prussia (1726–1802), son of King Frederick William I of Prussia

Prince Heinrich of Prussia (1862–1929), son of Frederick III, German Emperor

Henry the Young King (1155–1183), son of Henry II of England, who was crowned king but predeceased his father

Prince Hal or Prince Harry, a character in Shakespeare's Henry IV, based on the future King Henry V

Prince Harry (Blackadder), a fictional character in the first series of the British TV comedy Blackadder

Prince Henry, Count of Bardi (1851–1905)

Prince Henry Heights, Queensland

Prince Henry Heights is a suburb of Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia, located 5 kilometres (3 mi) east of the city centre. It was named for Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, who served as Governor-General of Australia from 1945 until 1947; the suburb's boundary road had been known as Prince Henry Drive well before 1945.The suburb consists of a small residential area surrounded by Jubilee Park and Redwood Park, two large bushland reserves along Toowoomba's eastern edge.

Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester

Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester, (born Alice Christabel Montagu Douglas Scott; 25 December 1901 – 29 October 2004) was the wife of Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, the third son of King George V and Queen Mary. She was the mother of Prince William of Gloucester and Prince Richard, Duke of Gloucester.

The daughter of the 7th Duke of Buccleuch, Scotland's largest landowner, she became by marriage a princess of the United Kingdom, and a sister-in-law to Edward VIII and George VI. She was thus an aunt by marriage to Elizabeth II. Princess Alice was extremely well travelled, both before and after her marriage.

Simon Bland

Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Simon Claud Michael Bland, KCVO (born 1923) is a retired British soldier and courtier.

The son of the diplomat Sir Nevile Bland, he served with the Scots Guards in the Second World War and during the Malaya Emergency and was the assistant military adviser to the High Commission in Karachi (1959–60). In 1961, he was appointed Assistant Private Secretary to Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester; he then served as Comptroller and Private Secretary in his household from 1963 until the Duke's death in 1974, and was also Private Secretary to his eldest son, Prince William of Gloucester, from 1968 until the Prince's death in 1972. He subsequently served as Private Secretary, Comptroller and Equerry to Prince William's younger brother Richard (who became Duke of Gloucester in 1974) and to his mother Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester, until retirement in 1989.Bland was appointed a Member (Fourth Class) of the Royal Victorian Order in the 1967 Birthday Honours, and was promoted twice, firstly to Commander in the 1973 Birthday Honours and then to Knight Commander in the 1982 Birthday Honours.

Sir Godfrey Thomas, 10th Baronet

Sir Godfrey John Vignoles Thomas, 10th Baronet, (14 April 1889 – 4 March 1968) was a British courtier who served as Assistant Private Secretary to Edward VIII in 1936.

Thomas was the son of Brigadier-General Sir Godfrey Vignoles Thomas, 9th Baronet and Mary Frances Isabelle Oppenheim. He was educated at Harrow School, before serving in His Majesty's Diplomatic Service between 1912 and 1919.In 1919 he became Private Secretary to the Prince of Wales, and succeeded to his father's baronetcy the same year. In 1922 he was invested as a Companion of the Order of the Star of India. Following the accession of the Prince of Wales to the throne, Thomas became Assistant Private Secretary to King Edward VIII. In 1937 he was knighted as a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath, and became Private Secretary to Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester. During the Second World War, Thomas worked for the Foreign Office between 1939 and 1944, before resuming his position in the Duke of Gloucester's household until 1957. In 1947 he was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, and he was made a member of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom in the 1958 Birthday Honours List.He married Diana Mary Katherine Hoskyns, daughter of Venerable Benedict George Hoskyns and Dora Katherine Franklyn, on 11 September 1924. He was succeeded in his title by his son, Godfrey.

Sir Thomas Dixon, 2nd Baronet

Sir Thomas James Dixon, 2nd Baronet, PC (NI) (29 May 1868 – 10 May 1950), was a Northern Ireland politician.

Dixon was the eldest son of Sir Daniel Dixon, 1st Baronet, Lord Mayor of Belfast, and his wife, Eliza (née Agnew). He succeeded his father as second Baronet in 1907. Dixon was a Member of the Senate of Northern Ireland from 1924–50, and was admitted to the Privy Council of Northern Ireland in 1931. He served as High Sheriff of Antrim in 1912, and of County Down in 1913. He was Lord Lieutenant of Belfast between 1924–50.

Dixon married Edith Stewart Clark on 7 February 1906. He died in May 1950, aged 81, and was succeeded in the baronetcy by his younger brother Herbert, who had already been elevated to the peerage as Baron Glentoran.

In 1919, Dixon purchased Wilmont House and its estates in Belfast for £21,500. Lady Dixon was appointed Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire (DBE) for her services during World War I.

Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, was a guest in 1935 and General Collins of the United States Army was billeted at Wilmont House during World War II.

St Peter's Court

St Peter's Court was a prep school for boys at Broadstairs in Kent, U.K. In 1969 it merged with the nearby Wellesley House School and its site was redeveloped for housing.

Walter Montagu Douglas Scott, 8th Duke of Buccleuch

Walter John Montagu Douglas Scott, 8th Duke of Buccleuch and 10th Duke of Queensberry, (30 December 1894 – 4 October 1973) was a Scottish peer and Conservative politician. He was the son of John Montagu Douglas Scott, 7th Duke of Buccleuch and Lady Margaret Alice "Molly" Bridgeman. His sister, Alice, married Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester (one of the paternal uncles of Queen Elizabeth II) in 1935, becoming a member of the British Royal Family.

Wedding dress of Lady Alice Montagu Douglas Scott

The wedding dress of Lady Alice Montagu Douglas Scott was worn at her wedding to Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester on 6 November 1935 in the Private Chapel of Buckingham Palace. Alice was the third daughter of the 7th Duke of Buccleuch and his wife Lady Margaret Bridgeman, and Henry was the third son of King George V and Queen Mary.

The dress was designed by Norman Hartnell, and would prove the first of many collaborations with members of the British royal family, one of which was the wedding dress of Princess Elizabeth in 1947. The dress was made of satin. The colour of the dress was described by Hartnell as "glimmer of pearl", whilst others have called it "blush pink" or simply "blush-coloured". This choice of colour was unusual for a royal bride; however, due to her age, Alice wished to have a "less maiden tone". Orange blossoms covered the neckline of the dress, and the veil was constructed from tulle instead of the traditional lace. In terms of jewellery, Alice wore a pearl necklace, pearl stud earrings, and a tiara. Her bouquet was a mixture of roses and lilies.Alice was photographed in the dress by renowned photographer Yevonde Middleton.

York House, St James's Palace

York House is a historic wing of St James's Palace, London, built for Frederick, Prince of Wales on his marriage in 1736. It is in the north-western part of the palace on the site of a former suttling-house (canteen) for the Guards; it overlooks Ambassadors' Court and Cleveland Row to the west of the old Chapel Royal. Prince Frederick occupied it for about a year, until his quarrel with the his father drove him from Court.

In 1795, Princess Caroline resided here before her marriage with the Prince of Wales, afterwards George IV. Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, subsequently King of Hanover, lived here for a great many years; and the Duchess of Cambridge was identified with it from 1851 until her death in 1889. Later occupants included the future George V, the late Duke and Duchess of Gloucester from 1936 to 1970, and Princes Charles, William and Harry, who used it before moving to Clarence House.It was the birthplace of Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester, on 31 March 1900.As Edward, Prince of Wales, the future Edward VIII lived at York House, before his refurbishment of Fort Belvedere in Windsor Great Park.The plan of the building is as follows: a suite of somewhat low-pitched rooms on the ground-floor, several drawing-rooms on the first floor, a corridor in the rear, and the servants' rooms on the top storey; all facing Cleveland Row. The ceilings of the top floor are low; height having been sacrificed to that of the drawing-room floor, during the nineteenth century a common practice in London mansions.

The name York House has used at various times for other houses occupied by various Dukes of York, including those now known as Cumberland House, Dover House, Lancaster House and The Albany.

Ancestors of Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester
8. Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
4. Edward VII of the United Kingdom
9. Victoria of the United Kingdom
2. George V of the United Kingdom
10. Christian IX of Denmark
5. Princess Alexandra of Denmark
11. Princess Louise of Hesse-Kassel
1. Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester
12. Duke Alexander of Württemberg
6. Francis, Duke of Teck
13. Countess Claudine Rhédey von Kis-Rhéde
3. Princess Mary of Teck
14. Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
7. Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge
15. Princess Augusta of Hesse-Kassel
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