Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany

Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany KG GMB GCH (Frederick Augustus; 16 August 1763 – 5 January 1827) was the second son of George III, King of the United Kingdom and Hanover, and his consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. A soldier by profession, from 1764 to 1803 he was Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück in the Holy Roman Empire. From the death of his father in 1820 until his own death in 1827 he was the heir presumptive to his elder brother, George IV, in both the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Hanover.

Frederick was thrust into the British Army at a very early age and was appointed to high command at the age of thirty, when he was given command of a notoriously ineffectual campaign during the War of the First Coalition, a continental war following the French Revolution. Later, as Commander-in-Chief during the Napoleonic Wars, he oversaw the reorganisation of the British Army, establishing vital structural, administrative and recruiting reforms[2] for which he is credited with having done "more for the army than any one man has done for it in the whole of its history."[3]

Prince Frederick
Duke of York and Albany
Portrait of Frederick, Duke of York - Lawrence 1816
The Duke of York, painted by Sir Thomas Lawrence, in the uniform of a Field-Marshal, with the mantle of the Order of the Garter, holding his Marshal's baton in his left hand.
Born16 August 1763
St. James's Palace, London
Died5 January 1827 (aged 63)
Rutland House, London
Burial20 January 1827
Spouse
Full name
Frederick Augustus
HouseHanover
FatherGeorge III
MotherCharlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Military career
Allegiance
Service/branch British Army
Years of service
  • 1780–1809
  • 1811–1827
RankField Marshal
UnitLife Guards
Commands heldCommander-in-Chief of the Forces
Battles/wars
Coat of Arms of Frederick Augustus, Duke of York and Albany
Arms of Frederick Augustus, Duke of York and Albany used from 1801 to 1824: Royal arms of King George III with a label of three points argent the second point charged with a flag of St George for difference. The inescutcheon of Hanover had an inescutcheon argent charged with a wheel of six spokes gules for the Bishopric of Osnabrück.[1]

Early life

Prince Frederick Augustus, or the Duke of York as he became in later life, belonged to the House of Hanover.[4] He was born on 16 August 1763, at St. James's Palace, London.[4] His father was the reigning British monarch, King George III.[4] His mother was Queen Charlotte (née Princess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz).[5] He was christened on 14 September 1763 at St James's, by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Secker — his godparents were his great-uncle the Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (for whom the Earl Gower, Lord Chamberlain, stood proxy), his uncle the Duke of York (for whom the Earl of Huntingdon, Groom of the Stool, stood proxy) and his great-aunt the Princess Amelia.[6]

On 27 February 1764, when Prince Frederick was six months old, he became Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück upon the death of Clemens August of Bavaria.[4] The Peace of Westphalia stipulated that the city of Osnabrück would alternate between Catholic and Protestant rulers, with the Protestant bishops to be elected from the cadets of the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg.[7] The bishopric of Osnabrück came with a substantial income,[8] which he retained until the city was incorporated into Hanover in 1803 during the German mediatization. He was invested as Knight of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath on 30 December 1767[9] and as a Knight of the Order of the Garter on 19 June 1771.[10]

Military career

FrederickDukeofYork.jpeg
The Duke of York in 1790.

George III decided that his second son would pursue an army career and had him gazetted colonel on 4 November 1780.[11] From 1781 to 1787, Prince Frederick lived in Hanover, where he studied (along with his younger brothers, Prince Edward, Prince Ernest, Prince Augustus and Prince Adolphus) at the University of Göttingen.[12] He was appointed colonel of the 2nd Horse Grenadier Guards (now 2nd Life Guards) on 26 March 1782[13] before being promoted to major-general on 20 November 1782.[4] Promoted to lieutenant general on 27 October 1784,[4] he was appointed colonel of the Coldstream Guards on 28 October 1784.[14]

He was created Duke of York and Albany and Earl of Ulster on 27 November 1784[15] and became a member of the Privy Council.[7] On his return to Great Britain, the Duke took his seat in the House of Lords, where, on 15 December 1788 during the Regency crisis, he opposed William Pitt's Regency Bill in a speech which was supposed to have been influenced by the Prince of Wales.[7] On 26 May 1789 he took part in a duel with Colonel Charles Lennox, who had insulted him; Lennox missed, and Prince Frederick refused to return fire.[7]

Flanders

On 12 April 1793 Frederick was promoted to full general.[16] That year, he was sent to Flanders in command of the British contingent of Coburg's army destined for the invasion of France.[16] Frederick and his command fought in the Flanders Campaign under extremely trying conditions. He won several notable engagements, such as the Siege of Valenciennes in July 1793,[17] but was defeated at the Battle of Hondschoote in September 1793.[16] In the 1794 campaign he gained a notable success at the Battle of Beaumont in April and another at the Battle of Willems in May but was defeated at the Battle of Tourcoing later that month.[16] The British army was evacuated through Bremen in April 1795.[16]

Commander-in-Chief

After his return to Britain, his father George III promoted him to the rank of field marshal on 18 February 1795.[16] On 3 April 1795, George appointed him effective Commander-in-Chief in succession to Lord Amherst[18] although the title was not confirmed until three years later.[19] He was also colonel of the 60th Regiment of Foot from 19 August 1797.[20]

On appointment as Commander-in-Chief he immediately declared, reflecting on the Flanders Campaign of 1793–94, "that no officer should ever be subject to the same disadvantages under which he had laboured".[18]

His second field command was with the army sent for the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland in August 1799. On 7 September 1799, he was given the honorary title of Captain-General.[21] Sir Ralph Abercromby and Admiral Sir Charles Mitchell, in charge of the vanguard, had succeeded in capturing some Dutch warships in Den Helder. However, following the Duke's arrival with the main body of the army, a number of disasters befell the allied forces, including shortage of supplies.[22] On 17 October 1799, the Duke signed the Convention of Alkmaar, by which the allied expedition withdrew after giving up its prisoners.[22] 1799 also saw Fort Frederick in South Africa named after him.[23]

Frederick's military setbacks of 1799 were inevitable given his lack of moral seniority as a field commander, the poor state of the British army at the time, and conflicting military objectives of the protagonists. After this ineffectual campaign, Frederick was mocked, perhaps unfairly, in the rhyme "The Grand Old Duke of York":

The grand old Duke of York,
He had ten thousand men.
He marched them up to the top of the hill
And he marched them down again.
And when they were up, they were up.
And when they were down, they were down.
And when they were only halfway up,
They were neither up nor down.[24]

Mary Anne Clarke2
"The modern Circe or a sequel to the petticoat", caricature of Frederick's lover, Mary Anne Clarke by Isaac Cruikshank, 15 March 1809. The prince resigned as head of the British army ten days after the caricature's publication.
FrederickDukeofYork594fc
Statue of Frederick Duke of York in Waterloo Place, Westminster, London

Frederick's experience in the Dutch campaign made a strong impression on him. That campaign, and the Flanders campaign, had demonstrated the numerous weaknesses of the British army after years of neglect. Frederick as Commander-in-Chief of the British army carried through a massive programme of reform.[2] He was the person most responsible for the reforms that created the force which served in the Peninsular War. He was also in charge of the preparations against Napoleon's planned invasion of the United Kingdom in 1803. In the opinion of Sir John Fortescue, Frederick did "more for the army than any one man has done for it in the whole of its history".[3]

In 1801 Frederick actively supported the foundation of the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, which promoted the professional, merit-based training of future commissioned officers.[22]

On 14 September 1805 he was given the honorary title of Warden of Windsor Forest.[25]

Frederick resigned as Commander-in-Chief on 25 March 1809, as the result of a scandal caused by the activities of his latest mistress, Mary Anne Clarke.[22] Clarke was accused of illicitly selling army commissions under Frederick's aegis.[22] A select committee of the House of Commons enquired into the matter. Parliament eventually acquitted Frederick of receiving bribes by 278 votes to 196. He nevertheless resigned because of the high tally against him.[22] Two years later, it was revealed that Clarke had received payment for furniture from Frederick's disgraced chief accuser, Gwyllym Wardle,[26] and the Prince Regent reappointed the exonerated Frederick as Commander-in-Chief on 29 May 1811.[27]

Frederick maintained a country residence at Oatlands near Weybridge, Surrey but he was seldom there, preferring to immerse himself in his administrative work at Horse Guards (the British army's headquarters) and, after hours, in London's high life, with its gaming tables: Frederick was perpetually in debt because of his excessive gambling on cards and racehorses.[7] Following the unexpected death of his niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, in 1817, Frederick became second in line to the throne, with a serious chance of inheriting it.[28] In 1820, he became heir presumptive with the death of his father, George III.[7]

Death

Frederick died of dropsy and apparent cardio-vascular disease at the home of the Duke of Rutland on Arlington Street, London, in 1827.[22] After lying in state in London, Frederick's remains were interred in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.[7]

Family

On 29 September 1791 at Charlottenburg, Berlin, and again on 23 November 1791 at Buckingham Palace, Frederick married his cousin Princess Frederica Charlotte of Prussia, the daughter of King Frederick William II of Prussia and Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Lüneburg.[16] The marriage was not a happy one and the couple soon separated. Frederica retired to Oatlands, where she lived until her death in 1820.[7]

Frederick, Duke of York and Albany by John Jackson
The Duke of York in 1822.

Titles, styles, and honours

Titles and styles

  • 16 August 1763 – 27 November 1784: His Royal Highness The Prince Frederick
  • 27 November 1784 – 5 January 1827: His Royal Highness The Duke of York and Albany

His full style, recited at his funeral, was "Most High, Most Mighty, and Illustrious Prince, Frederick Duke of York and of Albany, Earl of Ulster, Knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, First and Principal Knight Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath, Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Hanoverian Guelphic Order".[29]

Honours

His honours were as follows:[29]

Legacy

Fredericton, the capital of the Canadian province of New Brunswick, was named after Prince Frederick. The city was originally named "Frederick's Town".[31]

Also in Canada, Duke of York Bay was named in his honour, since it was discovered on his birthday, 16 August.[32]

In Western Australia, York County and the towns of York and Albany were named after Prince Frederick.[33][34] Albany was originally named "Frederick Town".[35]

The towering Duke of York Column on Waterloo Place, just off The Mall, London was completed in 1834 as a memorial to Prince Frederick.[36]

The 72nd Regiment of Foot was given the title Duke of Albany's Own Highlanders in 1823 and, in 1881, became 1st Battalion Seaforth Highlanders (Ross-shire Buffs, The Duke of Albany's).[37]

The first British fortification in southern Africa, Fort Frederick, Port Elizabeth, a city in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa, was built in 1799 to prevent French assistance for rebellious Boers in the short-lived republic of Graaff-Reinet.[38]

See also

References and notes

  1. ^ Fox-Davies, p.498
  2. ^ a b Glover, (1963), p.12
  3. ^ a b The Oxford Illustrated History of the British Army (1994) p. 145
  4. ^ a b c d e f Heathcote, p. 127.
  5. ^ "Family Tree for Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz". Royal list on-line. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
  6. ^ "Yvonne's Royalty Home Page: Royal Christenings". Retrieved 21 April 2012.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h "Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
  8. ^ Kelly, Ian (2013). Beau Brummell: The Ultimate Man of Style. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9781416531982. The Yorks had bought Oatlands on their marriage in 1791 with the impressive allowances of £18,000 from the Civil List, £7,000 from Ireland and a full £45,000 a year from the duke's holdings as Prince-Bishop of Osnabruck.
  9. ^ Cokayne, p.921
  10. ^ Weir, p. 286.
  11. ^ "No. 12132". The London Gazette. 31 October 1780. p. 1.
  12. ^ "Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany". Regency History. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
  13. ^ "No. 12281". The London Gazette. 23 March 1782. p. 6.
  14. ^ "No. 12590". The London Gazette. 26 October 1784. p. 1.
  15. ^ "Yvonne's Royalty: Peerage". Retrieved 21 April 2012.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Heathcote, p.128
  17. ^ "No. 13552". The London Gazette. 1 August 1793. p. 650.
  18. ^ a b Glover, (1973), p.128
  19. ^ "No. 15004". The London Gazette. 3 April 1798. p. 283.
  20. ^ "No. 14038". The London Gazette. 19 August 1797. p. 795.
  21. ^ "No. 15177". The London Gazette. 3 September 1799. p. 889.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g Heathcote, p. 129
  23. ^ "Fort Frederick". Artifacts. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  24. ^ Opie, pp. 442–443
  25. ^ "No. 15842". The London Gazette. 10 September 1805. p. 1145.
  26. ^ "The Duke of York Scandal, 1809". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  27. ^ "No. 16487". The London Gazette. 21 May 1811. p. 940.
  28. ^ Heathcote, p. 130
  29. ^ a b "No. 18328". The London Gazette. 24 January 1827. p. 182.
  30. ^ a b c The Complete Peerage, Volume XII, Part II (1959), page 923, St Catherine's Press (London), editors Godfrey H. White and R.S. Lea.
  31. ^ "Fredericton – Capital City". Retrieved 21 April 2012.
  32. ^ Taylor, p.300
  33. ^ Taylor, Thomas George (1860). Western Australia; its history, progress, position, & prospects, Volume 13. London: G. Street. p. 10. Retrieved 26 January 2016.
  34. ^ West, D.A.P., The Settlement on the Sound – Discovery and settlement of the Albany Region 1791–1831, Western Australian Museum, Perth, 1976, reprinted 2004. pp. 55–115.
  35. ^ Nind, Isaac Scott (7 February 1828). "View of Frederick Town, King Georges Sound, at the expiration of the first year of its settlement" (pdf). Manuscripts, Oral History and Pictures. State Library of New South Wales. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
  36. ^ "Victorian London – Buildings, Monuments and Museums – Duke of York's column". Victorian London. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
  37. ^ "Old Scots Regiments". Archived from the original on 11 May 2012. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
  38. ^ "Fort Frederick". Nelson Mandela Bay. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
  39. ^ Genealogie ascendante jusqu'au quatrieme degre inclusivement de tous les Rois et Princes de maisons souveraines de l'Europe actuellement vivans [Genealogy up to the fourth degree inclusive of all the Kings and Princes of sovereign houses of Europe currently living] (in French). Bourdeaux: Frederic Guillaume Birnstiel. 1768. p. 5.
  40. ^ a b McNaughton, vol. 1, p. 413.
  41. ^ a b Louda & MacLagan

Sources

  • Cokayne, G. E. (2000). The Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and the United Kingdom, Extant, Extinct or Dormant, new ed., 13 volumes in 14 (1910–1959), volume XII/2. Alan Sutton Publishing.
  • Fox-Davies, Arthur (1909). A Complete Guide to Heraldry. London. Retrieved 4 April 2008.
  • Glover, Richard (1973). Britain at Bay: Defence against Bonaparte, 1803–14, Historical problems: Studies and documents series No.20. George Allen and Unwin Ltd., London.
  • Glover, Richard (1963). Peninsular Preparation: The Reform of the British Army 1795–1809. Cambridge University Press.
  • Heathcote, Tony (1999). The British Field Marshals 1736–1997. Pen & Sword Books Ltd. ISBN 0-85052-696-5.
  • Opie, I. & Opie, P. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of Nursery Rhymes. Oxford University Press, 1951, 2nd edn.
  • Taylor, Isaac (1898). "Names and Their Histories: A Handbook of Historical Geography". Rivingtons, London. OCLC 4161840. Retrieved 4 April 2008.
  • Weir, Alison (1999). Britain's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy. The Bodley Head, London.
  • McNaughton, C. Arnold (1973). The Book of Kings: A Royal Genealogy. Garnstone Press.
  • Louda, Jiri & MacLagan, Michael (1999). Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe, 2nd edition. Little, Brown and Company.

Further reading

Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany
Cadet branch of the House of Welf
Born: 16 August 1763 Died: 5 January 1827
Regnal titles
Vacant
Title last held by
Clemens August of Bavaria
Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück
1764–1802
as Protestant Administrator
Vacant
Title next held by
Paul Melchers
as bishop
Military offices
Preceded by
The Lord Amherst
Captain and Colonel of the
2nd Troop Horse Grenadier Guards

1782–1784
Succeeded by
Earl Percy
Preceded by
The Earl Waldegrave
Colonel of the Coldstream Guards
1784–1805
Succeeded by
The Duke of Cambridge
Preceded by
The Lord Amherst
Commander-in-Chief of the Forces
1795–1809
Succeeded by
Sir David Dundas
Colonel-in-Chief of the
60th (Royal American) Regiment of Foot

1797–1827
Succeeded by
The Duke of Cambridge
Vacant
Title last held by
The Duke of Cumberland
Captain-General
1799–1809
Office abolished
Preceded by
The Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh
Colonel of the 1st Regiment of Foot Guards
1805–1827
Succeeded by
The Duke of Wellington
Preceded by
Sir David Dundas
Commander-in-Chief of the Forces
1811–1827
Honorary titles
Vacant
Title last held by
The Duke of Montagu
Great Master of the Bath
1767–1827
Succeeded by
The Duke of Clarence and St. Andrews
later became King William IV
Preceded by
The Prince of Wales
later became King George IV
President of the Foundling Hospital
1820–1827
Succeeded by
The Duke of Cambridge
Battle of Alkmaar (1799)

For the 16th century siege, see Siege of Alkmaar.The Battle of Alkmaar (also sometimes called the Second Battle of Bergen or the Battle of Egmond-aan-Zee) was fought on 2 October 1799 between forces of the French Republic and her ally, the Batavian Republic under the command of general Guillaume Marie Anne Brune, and an expeditionary force from Great Britain and her ally Russia, commanded by Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany in the vicinity of Alkmaar during the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland. Though the battle ended in a tactical draw, the Anglo-Russians were in a position at the end of the battle that favored them slightly in a strategic sense. This prompted Brune to order a strategic withdrawal the next day to a line between Monnickendam in the East and Castricum in the West. There the final battle of the campaign would take place on 6 October.

Battle of Caesar's Camp

The Battle of Caesar's Camp (7 August 1793) saw the Coalition army led by Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld try to surround a Republican French army under Charles Edward Jennings de Kilmaine. Numerically superior Habsburg Austrian, British and Hanoverian columns converged on the fortified French camp but Kilmaine wisely decided to slip away toward Arras. The War of the First Coalition skirmish was fought near the village of Marquion located 12 kilometres (7 mi) northwest of Cambrai, France.

On 16 July 1793, Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine commander of the Army of the North was ordered to Paris where he was soon arrested and guillotined. Kilmaine was requested to lead the army until a permanent replacement arrived. On 6 August two Austrian columns set out to turn the French right flank while a British and Hanoverian column under Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany marched completely behind the French army. Though one representative on mission urged Kilmaine to attack, the general determined to escape to the west. On the 7th, the Coalition trap snapped shut on only two battalions and even these got away when Kilmaine intervened with his massed cavalry. Kilmaine was dismissed and later arrested, though he avoided the guillotine and served in Italy under Napoleon Bonaparte in 1796.

Battle of Courtrai (1794)

The 2nd Battle of Courtrai (10–12 May 1794) occurred during the War of the First Coalition near Kortrijk, Belgium, located about 85 kilometres (53 mi) west of Brussels.

The Republican French army under Jean-Charles Pichegru attacked the Coalition forces commanded by The Austrian Fieldmarshall François Sébastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt and Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany.

On May 10, 1794, the French infantry formed square to repel Coalition cavalry charges for the first time during the war. Later in the day, after being bombarded by British artillery, three squares were finally broken with heavy losses. This attack by the 7th Light Dragoons is often referred to as the Battle of Willems in Willems, Nord.But the attack on the Count of Clerfayt on the 11th, who had chased the French out of Courtrai with the help of Dutch Allies, proved successful for the French Troops, and forced Clerfayt to retreat to the north Thielt. Both sides lost between 700-800 Men.A clash to the north of Kortrijk (Courtrai) at Ingelmunster on the 12th ended the fighting.

As a result of the battle, the French Army of the North maintained the grip on Kortrijk and Menen (Menin) which it had won in the Battle of Mouscron in April.

The next Coalition attempt to eliminate the French hold on the area resulted in the Battle of Tourcoing a week later.

Battle of Tourcoing

The Battle of Tourcoing (18 May 1794) saw a Republican French army directed by General Joseph Souham defend against an attack by an Austrian, British, and Hanoverian Coalition army under Austrian Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. The French army was temporarily led by Souham in the absence of its normal commander Jean-Charles Pichegru. Threatened with encirclement, Souham and division commanders Jean Victor Marie Moreau and Jacques Philippe Bonnaud improvised a counterattack which defeated the Coalition's widely separated and badly coordinated columns. The War of the First Coalition action was fought near the town of Tourcoing, just north of Lille in northeastern France.

The Coalition battle plan drawn up by Karl Mack von Leiberich launched six columns that attempted to envelop a part of the French army holding an awkward bulge at Menen (Menin) and Kortrijk (Courtrai). The French were able to hold off François Sébastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt's northern column as the southern columns of Franz Joseph, Count Kinsky and Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen made slow progress. Meanwhile, Souham concentrated his main strength on the three center columns against the overall command of Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany and inflicted a costly setback on the Coalition's Habsburg Austrian, British and Hanoverian troops. The action is sometimes referred to as the Battle of Turcoine, a gesture towards the English pronunciation of the town.

Beer money

Beer money is the nickname for an allowance, established in the year 1800, that was given to non-commissioned officers and soldiers in the British Army. The practice was started at the suggestion of the Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Beer money payments were 1 penny per day and was a replacement for a daily issuance of beer or spirits while troops were on home service. The allowance continued until 1873 when it was rolled into the soldier's daily pay.

The phrase "beer money" is still commonly used in the British Army and to a lesser extent in England as a colloquialism for personal money set aside for entertainment, such as going to a pub.

Duke of York Inn, Toronto

The Duke LIVE is a restaurant/pub that was a 19th-century inn in Toronto, Ontario located at 1225 Queen Street East. Originally known as "The Duke of York," the building served as an inn with a restaurant/pub on the main floor. The inn no longer operates, but the restaurant and bar is still in business. For many years a mural of John Wayne was painted on the wall of the first floor of the building's exterior. The original name of this first location is likely for the Duke of York at the time, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany.

Frederick Augustus

Frederick Augustus may refer to:

Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor (1122–90), better known as Frederick Barbarossa

Frederick Augustus, Duke of Württemberg-Neuenstadt (1654–1716)

Frederick Augustus I, Elector of Saxony (1670–1733), better known as King Frederick August II of Poland

Frederick Augustus II, Elector of Saxony (1696–1763) better known as King August III of Poland

Frederick Augustus I of Oldenburg (1711-1785)

Frederick Augustus, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst (1734–93)

Frederick Augustus, Duke of Nassau (1738–1816)

Frederick Augustus, Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel-Oels (1740–1805)

Frederick Augustus III, Elector of Saxony (1750–1827), who then became King Frederick Augustus I of Saxony

Frederick Augustus, Count of Erbach-Fürstenau (1754–1784)

Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany (1763–1827), son of George III of the United Kingdom

Frederick Augustus II of Saxony (1797–1854)

Frederick Augustus II, Grand Duke of Oldenburg (1852-1931)

Frederick Augustus III of Saxony (1865–1932), last king of Saxony

Frederick House River

The Frederick House River is a river in the James Bay and Moose River drainage basins in Cochrane District in northeastern Ontario, Canada. It flows 100 kilometres (62 mi) from Night Hawk Lake in the city of Timmins to its mouth at the Abitibi River in Cochrane, Unorganized, North Part. Both the river and the associated Hudson's Bay Company Frederick House post (1785–1821) are named for Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, son of George III of the United Kingdom,

Frederick Sound

This article is for the sound in Alaska, United States. For the sound in British Columbia, Canada, see Frederick Sound (Canada).

Frederick Sound (also called Prince Frederick Sound or Prince Frederick's Sound) is a passage of water in the Alexander Archipelago in Southeast Alaska that separates Kupreanof Island to the south from Admiralty Island in the north.

Frederick Sound was named by Captain George Vancouver for Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. It was first charted in 1794 by two of his men, Joseph Whidbey and James Johnstone. The sound may also be known as the Russian transliteration Fridrikhe Zund.

The sound is a popular location for watching whales in the summer and is busy marine passageway for both Alaska Marine Highway ferries and cruise ships.

The sound is home to the Five Finger Islands Light.

Mary Anne Clarke

Mary Anne Clarke (born Mary Anne Thompson; 3 April 1776 – 21 June 1852) was the mistress of Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Their relationship began in 1803, while he was Commander-in-Chief of the army. Later in 1809, she wrote her memoirs which were published. She was the subject of a portrait by Adam Buck, and a caricature by Isaac Cruikshank; ten days after the latter's publication, the Duke resigned from his post as Commander of the British Army. In 1811, she commissioned Irish sculptor Lawrence Gahagan to sculpt a marble bust of her; this is now housed in the National Portrait Gallery, London.

Through her daughter who married Louis-Mathurin Busson du Maurier, Clarke was an ancestress of author Daphne du Maurier, who wrote the novel Mary Anne about her life.

Prince Frederick of Great Britain

For his father, see Frederick, Prince of Wales; for his nephew, see Prince Frederick, Duke of York and AlbanyPrince Frederick (Frederick William; 13 May 1750 – 29 December 1765), was a member of the British Royal Family, a grandchild of King George II and the youngest brother of King George III.

Princess Frederica

Princess Frederica may refer to:

Frederica of Hanover (1917–1981), queen consort of King Paul of Greece

Princess Frederica of Hanover (1848–1926), daughter of George V of Hanover and wife of Baron Alfons von Pawel-Rammingen

Frederica of Baden (1781–1826), queen consort of King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden

Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (1778–1841), wife of King Ernest Augustus I of Hanover

Princess Frederica Charlotte of Prussia (1767–1820), daughter of King Frederick William II of Prussia and wife of Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany

Princess Frederica Wilhelmina of Prussia (1796-1850), daughter of Prince Louis Charles of Prussia and wife of Leopold IV, Duke of Anhalt-Dessau

Princess Frederica Amalia of Denmark (1649–1704), duchess consort of Holstein-Gottorp, wife of Duke Christian Albrecht of Holstein-GottorpPrincess Frederika may refer to:

Frederika Louisa of Hesse-Darmstadt (1751–1805), queen consort and second wife of King Frederick William II of PrussiaPrincess Friederike may refer to:

Princess Friederike of Hanover (born 1954), daughter of Prince George William of Hanover and Princess Sophie of Greece and Denmark

Princess Friederike of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (1811–1902), daughter of Duke Friedrich Wilhelm of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

Princess Friederike of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck (1780–1862), daughter of Friedrich Karl Ludwig, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck

Princess Friederike of Hesse-Darmstadt (1752–1782), daughter of Landgrave George William of Hesse-Darmstadt and wife of Charles II, grand duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

Princess Friederike Luise of Prussia (1714–1784), daughter of King Frederick William I of Prussia and wife of Karl Wilhelm Friedrich, margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach

Princess Frederica Charlotte of Prussia

Princess Frederica Charlotte of Prussia (Friederike Charlotte Ulrike Katharina; 7 May 1767 – 6 August 1820) was a Prussian and British princess. She was the eldest daughter of King Frederick William II of Prussia and the wife of Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, second son of King George III of the United Kingdom.

Siege of Valenciennes (1793)

The Siege of Valenciennes took place between 13 June and 28 July 1793, during the Flanders Campaign of the War of the First Coalition. The French garrison under Jean Henri Becays Ferrand was blockaded by part of the army of Prince Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, commanded by the Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Valenciennes fell on 28 July, resulting in an Allied victory.

Street names of Regent's Park

This is a list of the etymology of street names in the area of Regent’s Park in London (i.e. the park, its immediately surrounding terraces, and Regent's Park Estate to the east); the area has no formal boundaries, though it generally thought to be delimited by Prince Albert Road to the north, Park Village East and Hampstead Road/the Euston railway line/Eversholt Street to the east, Euston Road and Marylebone Road to the south and Park Road and Baker Street to the west,

Albany Street, Albany Terrace and Little Albany Street – after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Allsop Place – as this area was formerly Allsop’s farm, after Thomas Allsop

Augustus Street – after Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Avenue Road – simply a descriptive name

Baker Street – after Edward Baker, friend and business partner of the Portman family

The Broad Walk – descriptive

Brock Street

Brunswick Place – after Caroline of Brunswick, wife of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Cambridge Gate, Cambridge Gate Mews, Cambridge Terrace and Cambridge Terrace Mews – after Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Cardington Street – after the Dukes of Bedford, who also owned land at Cardington, Bedfordshire

Charles Place

Chester Close North, Chester Close South, Chester Court, Chester Gate, Chester Place, Chester Road and Chester Terrace – after the Prince Regent (George IV), also Earl of Chester

Clarence Gardens, Clarence Gate and Clarence Terrace – after the future William IV, Duke of Clarence, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Cobourg Street – after Leopold I of Belgium off Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, husband of Princess Charlotte of Wales, George IV’s daughter

Compton Close

Cornwall Terrace and Cornwall Terrace Mews

Cumberland Market, Cumberland Place, Cumberland Terrace and Cumberland Terrace Mews – after Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, Duke of Cumberland, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Drummond Street – after Lady Caroline Drummond, a member of the Duke of Grafton's family

Edward Mews and Little Edward Street – after Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Euston Grove, Euston Road, Euston Square, Euston Station Colonnade, Euston Street and Euston Underpass – after the earl of Euston, son of the duke of Grafton, local landowners when the road was built in the 1760s

Eversholt Street –after the Dukes of Bedford, whose seat was at Woburn Abbey near Eversholt, Bedfordshire

Everton Buildings

Exmouth Mews – presumably by relation to Exmouth Street, now Starcross Street

Foundry Mews

George Mews – presumably for the Prince Regent (George IV)

Gloucester Gate, Gloucester Gate Bridge and Gloucester Gate Mews – after Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh, sister of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Granby Terrace – after John Manners, Marquess of Granby, noted Georgian-era military commander

Hampstead Road – as it leads to the north London district of this name

Hanover Gate, and Hanover Terrace and Hanover Terrace Mews – after the House of Hanover, reigning dynasty when the square and street were built in 1713

Harrington Street – as this land was formerly owned by Dukes of Bedford; Francis Russell, 7th Duke of Bedford was married to Anna Russell, Duchess of Bedford, daughter of Charles Stanhope, 3rd Earl of Harrington

Inner Circle and Outer Circle – simply descriptive names

Kent Passage and Kent Terrace – after Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Laxton Place – after its 1806 developer, the baker George Laxton

Longford Street

Macclesfield Bridge – after George Parker, 4th Earl of Macclesfield, chairman of the Regent’s Canal Company in the 17th century

MacFarren Place – after George Alexander Macfarren, composer and principal at the nearby Royal Academy of Music

Mackworth Street – after Thomas Mackworth, local landowner who is buried nearby; it was formerly Rutland Street, after John Manners, Marquess of Granby (also Duke of Rutland), but was changed in 1938 to avoid confusion with several other similarly named streets

Marylebone Road – from a church dedicated to St Mary, represented now by St Marylebone Parish Church (1817); the original church was built on the bank of a small stream or "bourne", called the Tybourne or Tyburn. This stream rose further north in what is now Swiss Cottage, eventually running along what is now Marylebone Lane, which preserves its curve within the grid pattern. The church and the surrounding area later became known as St Mary at the Bourne which, over time, became shortened to its present form, Marylebone

Melton Street – unknown

Mornington Street – after Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley, Earl of Mornington, noted 18th - 19th century statesman

Munster Square – after the future William IV, Earl of Munster, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Nash Street – after John Nash, architect of the terraces around Regent’s Park

Netley Street – possibly after Netley in Hampshire

North Gower Street – after Gertrude Leveson-Gower, wife of local landowner John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford; it is the northern extension of Gower Street

Nottingham Terrace – after Nottinghamshire, where local landowners the dukes of Portland owned property

Osnaburgh Street and Osnaburgh Terrace – after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück (Osnaburgh in English), brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Park Road – after the adjacent Regent’s Park

Park Square, Park Square East, Park Square Mews and Park Square West – after the adjacent Regent’s Park

Park Village East and Park Village West – after the adjacent Regent’s Park

Peto Place – after Samuel Morton Peto, MP, entrepreneur, civil engineer and railway developer, who paid for a Batist chapel to be built here in 1855 (since closed)

Prince Albert Road – after Albert, Prince Consort; formerly Primrose Hill Road

Prince of Wales Passage – after the Royal family

Prince Regent Mews – after the Prince Regent, later George IV, by association with Regent’s Park

Redhill Street

Regnart Buildings

Robert Street

St Andrew’s Place – after the later William IV, Duke of St Andrews, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

St Katherine’s Precinct – after the former Anglican chapel of St Katharine's Hospital, which retains its original dedication to Saint Katharine, and was built in 1826-8 (now the Danish Church)

Stanhope Street – as this land was formerly owned by Dukes of Bedford; Francis Russell, 7th Duke of Bedford was married to Anna Russell, Duchess of Bedford, daughter of Charles Stanhope, 3rd Earl of Harrington

Starcross Street – formerly Exmouth Street, it was renamed after the town of this name in Devon to avoid confusion with similarly named streets

Station Approach – descriptive, next to Euston station

Stephenson Way – after Robert Stephenson, Victoria-era builder of the adjacent Euston station

Sussex Place – after Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Tolmers Square – after the village of this name in Hertfordshire; the New River flowed from the county and this land was formerly a reservoir owned by the New River Company

Triton Square and Triton Street – after the Greek god of this name

Ulster Place and Ulster Terrace – after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Earl of Ulster, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Varndell Street – after the architect CE Varndell, who took over as surveyor the Regent’s Park development from John Nash

William Road – after the later William IV, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Wybert Street

York Bridge, York Gate, York Terrace East and York Terrace West – after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Sylvia Llewelyn Davies

Sylvia "Jocelyn" Llewelyn Davies (25 November 1866 – 27 August 1910), née Sylvia du Maurier, was the mother of the boys who were the inspiration for the stories of Peter Pan by J. M. Barrie. She was the daughter of cartoonist and writer George du Maurier and his wife Emma Wightwick, the elder sister to actor Gerald du Maurier, the aunt of novelists Angela and Daphne du Maurier and a great-granddaughter of Mary Anne Clarke, royal mistress of Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany.

She met the young barrister Arthur Llewelyn Davies at a dinner party in 1889 and they became engaged shortly thereafter. She married him in 1892, and they had five children, all boys: George (1893–1915), Jack (1894–1959), Peter (1897–1960), Michael (1900–1921), and Nicholas (Nico) (1903–1980).

In 1898, Llewelyn Davies met Barrie at a dinner party, discovering he was already friends with her three sons from their regular visits to Kensington Gardens. She and Barrie became close (he adopted the pet name "Jocelyn" for her), with him spending considerable time at the Llewelyn Davies's home, and the family accompanying Barrie and his wife on holidays. She encouraged her boys' friendship with him.

Her husband died in 1907 of a sarcoma in his cheek. Llewelyn Davies welcomed Barrie's financial and emotional support, both for herself and for her boys. Following Barrie's divorce, he and Sylvia remained close, but did not marry. She became ill with an inoperable cancer in her chest, and died in 1910. Shortly before her death, she wrote that she wanted her boys' nurse Mary Hodgson to continue caring for them, and that she knew Barrie would continue providing for them, which he did. She named him, along with her mother Emma du Maurier, her brother Guy du Maurier, and Arthur's brother Crompton Llewelyn Davies as their guardians. Barrie told the boys after her death that she had been engaged to him, but Jack and Peter later expressed scepticism of this report.

Her son Peter was the publisher of her niece Daphne du Maurier's book about their grandfather, The Young George du Maurier, letters 1860–1867 (1951).

In the 1978 BBC mini-series The Lost Boys, she was portrayed by Ann Bell. She was played by Kate Winslet in the 2004 movie Finding Neverland, and was portrayed by Laura Michelle Kelly in the Broadway-musical adaptation of the same name, which ran until the 21st of August, 2016.

The Grand Old Duke of York

"The Grand Old Duke of York" (also sung as The Noble Duke of York) is an English children's nursery rhyme, often performed as an action song. The eponymous duke has been argued to be a number of the bearers of that title, particularly Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany (1763–1827) and its lyrics have become proverbial for futile action. It has a Roud Folk Song Index number of 742.

The Partisan in War

The Partisan in War is a pamphlet written by the German soldier Andreas Emmerich (born 1739; also known as Colonel Andrew Emmerick).

It is a treatise on light infantry tactics learned in the Seven Years' War under Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick, and in the American Revolutionary War. Emmerich had commanded the British Emmerich's Chasseurs regiment during the Revolutionary War. The treatise was dedicated in 1789 to Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany.

Emmerich was executed by occupying French forces in 1809.

York County, Western Australia

York County was one of the 26 counties of Western Australia that were designated in 1829 as cadastral divisions. It was named after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, who was until his death in 1827, the heir presumptive to King George IV. It approximately corresponds to the western part of the Avon Land District which forms the basis for land titles in the area.

Ancestors of Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany[39]
8. George II of Great Britain
4. Frederick Lewis, Prince of Wales
9. Princess Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach
2. George III of the United Kingdom
10. Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
5. Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
11. Princess Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst
1. Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany
12. Adolphus Frederick II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz[40]
6. Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
13. Princess Christiane Emilie of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen[40]
3. Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
14. Ernest Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen[41]
7. Princess Elisabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen
15. Countess Sophia Albertine of Erbach-Erbach[41]
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Commanders-in-Chief of the Forces
Chief of the General Staff
Chiefs of the Imperial General Staff
Chiefs of the General Staff
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