Prince Edward County, Virginia

Prince Edward County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,368.[1] Its county seat is Farmville.[2]

Prince Edward County, Virginia
Ruffner Hall
Seal of Prince Edward County, Virginia

Seal
Map of Virginia highlighting Prince Edward County

Location within the U.S. state of Virginia
Map of the United States highlighting Virginia

Virginia's location within the U.S.
Founded1754
Named forPrince Edward, Duke of York and Albany
SeatFarmville
Largest townFarmville
Area
 • Total354 sq mi (917 km2)
 • Land350 sq mi (906 km2)
 • Water3.9 sq mi (10 km2), 1.1%
Population (est.)
 • (2018)22,950
 • Density66/sq mi (25/km2)
Congressional district5th
Time zoneEastern: UTC−5/−4
Websitewww.co.prince-edward.va.us

History

Edward, Duke of York (Pompeo Batoni)
Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany, for whom the county was named

Formation and county seats

Prince Edward County, Virginia was formed in the Virginia Colony in 1754 from Amelia County. It was named for Prince Edward, second son of Frederick, Prince of Wales and younger brother of George III of the United Kingdom.

The original county seat housed the courthouse and was called Prince Edward Courthouse; it is now the village of Worsham.

Near the headwaters of the Appomattox River, the Town of Farmville was formed in 1798, and was incorporated in 1912. The county seat was moved from Worsham to Farmville in 1871.

Railroads

In the 1850s, the Southside Railroad between Petersburg and Lynchburg was built through Farmville between Burkeville and Pamplin City. The route, which was subsidized by a contribution from Farmville, required an expensive crossing of the Appomattox River slightly downstream which became known as the High Bridge.

The Southside Railroad was heavily damaged during the American Civil War. The High Bridge played a key role during Confederate General Robert E. Lee's final retreat from Petersburg to Appomattox Courthouse, where the surrender to Union General Ulysses S. Grant took place in April, 1865.

After the Civil War, under the leadership of former Confederate General William "Billy" Mahone, the Southside Railroad was rebuilt. In 1870, it was combined with the Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad and the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad to form Mahone's Atlantic, Mississippi and Ohio Railroad (AM&O), which extended 400 miles across the southern tier of Virginia from Norfolk on Hampton Roads to Bristol. After the Financial Panic of 1873, the AM&O fell into default on its debt; it was purchased in the early 1880s by new owners who renamed it the Norfolk and Western (N&W). In 1982, it became part of the current Norfolk Southern Railway system.

Due to the high cost of maintaining the High Bridge over the Appomattox River, the line through Farmville was downgraded and eventually abandoned, in favor of the Farmville Belt Line, which had been built on a more direct line between Burkeville and Pamplin City, as had originally been envisioned in the planning for the Southside Railroad.

Another railroad formerly served Farmville. In the late 19th century, the narrow gauge Farmville and Powhatan Railroad was built from Farmville through Cumberland, Powhatan, and Chesterfield counties to reach Bermuda Hundred on the navigable portion of the James River near its confluence with the Appomattox River at City Point. It was later renamed the Tidewater and Western Railroad, but was dismantled in the early 20th century.

Desegregation

Prince Edward County is the source of Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County, a case incorporated into Brown v. Board of Education, which ultimately resulted in the U.S. Supreme Court decision that racially segregated public schools were unconstitutional. This ultimately led to the desegregation of all U.S. public schools. Among the five cases decided under Brown, Davis was the only one initiated by students, after they walked out in 1951 to protest overcrowding and poor conditions at their segregated school under Jim Crow laws.

The all-black R.R. Moton High School, named after Robert Russa Moton, a noted educator from neighboring Amelia County, did not have a gymnasium, cafeteria, or teachers' restrooms. Due to overcrowding, three plywood buildings had been erected, and some students had to take classes in a school bus parked outside. Teachers and students did not have desks or blackboards. The school's requests for additional funds were denied by the all-white school board. On Monday, April 23, 1951, Barbara Johns, the sixteen-year-old niece of Reverend Vernon Johns, a civil rights activist, led students who staged a walkout protesting the conditions.[3] The NAACP took up their case when the students agreed to petition for an integrated school rather than improved conditions at their black school. This vote passed by one count. Howard University-trained attorneys Spottswood W. Robinson and Oliver Hill filed suit against the county school system on behalf of the students. As in other Southern states, since the turn of the twentieth century black voters in Virginia had been largely disenfranchised, which resulted in their lacking political power.

In Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County, a state court rejected the suit, agreeing with defense attorney T. Justin Moore that Virginia was vigorously equalizing conditions in black and white schools. The state verdict was appealed to the U.S. District Court, which ruled for the plaintiffs, a decision the school district and the state appealed. Subsequently, it was one of five cases incorporated into Brown v. Board of Education, the landmark case in which the U.S. Supreme Court in 1954 ruled that segregated public schools were unconstitutional.

Massive Resistance

In 1956, the Virginia General Assembly passed a series of laws (the Stanley plan) to implement Massive Resistance, a policy promoted by the Byrd Organization led by former Virginia governor and U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd, to avoid compliance with the Supreme Court ruling in Brown and its direction to integrate public schools.

The state legislature (overwhelmingly dominated by whites since disfranchisement of African Americans in the state in the early 1900s) created a program of "tuition grants," which could be given to students so they could attend a private school of their choice. In practice, this meant state support of all-white schools that were developed as a way to evade integration of public schools. These newly formed schools became known as the "segregation academies".

As a result of the Brown decision, and changes in Virginia laws, in 1959, the Board of Supervisors for Prince Edward County refused to appropriate any funds at all for the County School Board. It effectively closed all public schools rather than integrate them. The Prince Edward County Public Schools remained closed for five years. While other Virginia and some southern school systems resisted integration, Prince Edward County was the only school district in the country to resort to such extreme measures.

During the interruption in access to Prince Edward County's public schools, white parents established the Prince Edward Foundation. It founded a series of private schools restricted to white children. These schools were supported by the tuition grants from the state and tax credits from the county. Collectively they became known as "Prince Edward Academy", one of Virginia's "segregation academies". Prince Edward Academy operated as the de facto school system and enrolled K-12 students at a number of facilities throughout the county.

From 1959 to 1964, black students in Prince Edward County had to go to school elsewhere or forgo their education altogether. Some got schooling by living with relatives in nearby communities or at makeshift schools the community created in church basements. Others were educated out of state with funds raised by groups such as the Quakers. In the final year (1963–1964), the NAACP-sponsored Prince Edward Free School picked up some of the slack by educating some of the black youth who had been unable to leave the county to attend public schools elsewhere.

In 1963, federal district courts ordered the public schools to open; Prince Edward County appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court. Ruling in Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward County, the Court unanimously agreed in May 1964 that Prince Edward County's actions violated the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment. At that point, county and state supervisors gave in rather than risk prosecution and prison, ending the era of Massive Resistance in Virginia.[4]

The same summer, following the Griffith ruling, 16 students from Queens College (New York) ventured south to Prince Edward County during their "Student Help Project" Program, a precursor to the 1964 Mississippi Freedom Summer. The students served as teachers to the many African-American children who had been denied an education. These volunteers worked with the students to prepare them to resume classes when schools reopened that fall. The volunteers from Queens College were housed among leading African-American families in the county that summer. They used local churches as school houses during the week. Many of the students involved in the program have since donated their archives to the Queens College Department of Special Collections and Archives.[5]

As a result of Prince Edward County's actions, some students missed part or all of their education for five years. This group has been called the "Lost Generation" of Prince Edward County's youth.

Private education since 1964

Even after the re-opening of the public schools, Prince Edward Academy remained segregated. Many of the segregation academies in Virginia eventually closed; others changed their missions and eliminated discriminatory policies. Some yielded on integration only after the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) revoked the tax-free status of non-profit discriminatory private schools. Prince Edward Academy was one of the latter and lost its tax-exempt status in 1978. In 1986, the school began to accept all students regardless of race or ethnicity. It was renamed the Fuqua School in 1992, in honor of J.B. Fuqua, a wealthy businessman who was born in Farmville and was a strong supporter of the school in its early years. Fuqua remains the only private school in Prince Edward County.

Robert Russa Moton Museum

The former R.R. Moton High School building in Farmville has been recognized as a nationally significant community landmark. In 1998, it was designated a National Historic Landmark. It now houses the Robert Russa Moton Museum, a center for the study of civil rights in education.

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 354 square miles (920 km2), of which 350 square miles (910 km2) is land and 3.9 square miles (10 km2) (1.1%) is water.[6] Most of the county's streams drain into the Appomattox River, a tributary of the James River, but in the southeastern corner of the county, streams drain via the Nottoway River into the Chowan River and thence into Albemarle Sound in North Carolina. The highest point in the county is the top of Leighs Mountain at 714 feet above sea level.[7]

Adjacent counties

Major highways

  • US 15 (Farmville Rd; merges with US 460 to bypass Farmville. US Business 15 goes through the town of Farmville)
  • US 360 (Patrick Henry Hwy)
  • US 460 (Prince Edward Hwy)
  • SR 45 (N. Main St in Farmville)
  • SR 307 (Holly Farms Rd)

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
17908,100
180010,96235.3%
181012,40913.2%
182012,5771.4%
183014,10712.2%
184014,069−0.3%
185011,857−15.7%
186011,844−0.1%
187012,0041.4%
188014,66822.2%
189014,6940.2%
190015,0452.4%
191014,266−5.2%
192014,7673.5%
193014,520−1.7%
194014,9222.8%
195015,3983.2%
196014,121−8.3%
197014,3791.8%
198016,45614.4%
199017,3205.3%
200019,72013.9%
201023,36818.5%
Est. 201822,950[8]−1.8%
U.S. Decennial Census[9]
1790–1960[10] 1900–1990[11]
1990–2000[12] 2010–2013[1]

As of the census[13] of 2000, there were 19,720 people, 6,561 households, and 4,271 families residing in the county. The population density was 56 people per square mile (22/km²). There were 7,527 housing units at an average density of 21 per square mile (8/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 62.17% White, 35.82% Black or African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.55% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 0.23% from other races, and 0.95% from two or more races. 0.94% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 6,561 households out of which 29.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.50% were married couples living together, 14.90% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.90% were non-families. 28.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.30% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.99.

In the county, the population was spread out with 20.20% under the age of 18, 23.50% from 18 to 24, 22.50% from 25 to 44, 19.60% from 45 to 64, and 14.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 95.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.20 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $31,301, and the median income for a family was $38,509. Males had a median income of $29,487 versus $21,659 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,510.

Poverty

About 14.6 percent of families and 18.9 percent of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.4 percent of those under age 18 and 15.9 percent of those ages 65 and over. Persons below poverty in the year of 2007 were 20.3 percent compared to 9.9 percent of Virginia. Native Americans accounted for 71.8 percent in 2000. There is a relatively large amount of children between the ages of 12 and 17. This age group accounts for 27 percent of the poverty.[14]

Unemployment accounted for 10.3 percent in Prince Edward County compared to 7.2 in all of Virginia.[15]

Education

Prince Edward County Public Schools operates the following schools, all located on the same multi-school campus in the Town of Farmville:

Also located within the multi-school campus is the Prince Edward County Career & Technical Education Center, offering a range of specialized courses, such as business law, carpentry, agriculture and automotive technology.

The Fuqua School, member of the Virginia Association of Independent Schools, is the primary K-12 alternative to the public schools for Prince Edward County. It, like each of the county's public schools, is located in Farmville.

Communities

Towns

Census-designated place

Other places

See also

Notable people

References

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 4, 2014.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  3. ^ Both Victors And Victims: Prince Edward County, Virginia, The NAACP, And Brown, Virginia Law Review, accessed 2011-09-24
  4. ^ Saxon, Wolfgang (January 25, 1995). "Albertis S. Harrison Jr., 88, Dies; Led Virginia as Segregation Fell". The New York Times.
  5. ^ [1], Queens College, CUNY
  6. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  7. ^ "Leigh Mountain (variant: Leighs Mountain)". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey.
  8. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved July 14, 2019.
  9. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 4, 2014.
  10. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved January 4, 2014.
  11. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 4, 2014.
  12. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 4, 2014.
  13. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-05-14.
  14. ^ Income and Poverty in Prince Edward County, Virginia Archived February 24, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ "Recovery Tracker". Projects.propublica.org. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
  16. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved 5 April 2018.
  17. ^ Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607–1896. Marquis Who's Who. 1967.

Further reading

External links

Coordinates: 37°13′N 78°26′W / 37.22°N 78.44°W

Abraham B. Venable

Abraham Bedford Venable (November 20, 1758 – December 26, 1811) was a representative and senator from Virginia. He was the uncle of congressman Abraham Watkins Venable.

Briery Creek Wildlife Management Area

Briery Creek Wildlife Management Area is a 3,164-acre (12.80 km2) Wildlife Management Area in Prince Edward County, Virginia. With terrain typical of Virginia's south-central Piedmont, it encompasses the 845-acre (3.42 km2) Briery Creek Lake, a reservoir formed by the damming of Briery Creek and Little Briery Creek. Much of the area was historically used for tobacco farming, and more recently, timber production; today the land contains a mixture of hardwoods and loblolly pine.Briery Creek Wildlife Management Area is owned and maintained by the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries. The area is open to the public for hunting and trapping; game species include deer, turkey, quail, rabbits, and waterfowl. Fishing and boating is facilitated by two boat ramps on Briery Creek Lake. Other permissible activities include hiking, horseback riding, and primitive camping. Access for persons 17 years of age or older requires a valid hunting or fishing permit, a current Virginia boat registration, or a WMA access permit.

Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County

Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County (Docket number: Civ. A. No. 1333; Case citation: 103 F. Supp. 337 (1952)) was one of the five cases combined into Brown v. Board of Education, the famous case in which the U.S. Supreme Court, in 1954, officially overturned racial segregation in U.S. public schools. The Davis case was the only such case to be initiated by a student protest. The case challenged segregation in Prince Edward County, Virginia.

Elam, Virginia

Elam is an unincorporated community in Prince Edward County, Virginia, United States.

Featherfin Wildlife Management Area

Featherfin Wildlife Management Area is a 2,800-acre (11 km2) Wildlife Management Area (WMA) in Prince Edward, Appomattox, and Buckingham counties, Virginia. It covers forests and marshland along 10 miles (16 km) of the Appomattox River; many stands of hardwood and pine (primarily loblolly) may be found within its boundaries. Some of these are found on old farm fields.Featherfin WMA is owned and maintained by the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries. The area is open to the public for hunting, fishing, hiking, and primitive camping. Horseback riding is not permitted. Access for persons 17 years of age or older requires a valid hunting or fishing permit, a current Virginia boat registration, or a WMA access permit.

Five Forks, Prince Edward County, Virginia

Five Forks is an unincorporated community in Prince Edward County, Virginia, United States.

Green Bay, Prince Edward County, Virginia

Green Bay is an unincorporated community in Prince Edward County, Virginia, United States located on US Highway 360 between Burkeville Virginia and Keysville Virginia. Peach growing in the area was very successful during the 1930s and 1940s, but finally succumbed to the advancement of larger growers and the change in technique and labor availabilities. Rail access was a mainline by Norfolk and Western Railway and also the Southern Railway which have merged to form Norfolk Southern.

Hampden Sydney, Virginia

Hampden Sydney is a census-designated place (CDP) in Prince Edward County, Virginia, United States. The population was 1,450 at the 2010 census.

Hampden Sydney is the home of Hampden–Sydney College, a private all-male college that is the tenth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States.

Hampden–Sydney College

Hampden–Sydney College (H-SC) is a men's liberal arts college in Hampden Sydney, Virginia. Founded in 1775, Hampden–Sydney is the oldest privately chartered college in the southern United States, the tenth-oldest college in the nation, the last college founded before the American Declaration of Independence, and one of only three four-year, all-male liberal arts colleges remaining in the United States. Hampden–Sydney College is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and the Virginia Landmarks Register. It is affiliated with the Presbyterian Church (USA).

National Register of Historic Places listings in Prince Edward County, Virginia

This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Prince Edward County, Virginia.

This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Prince Edward County, Virginia, United States. The locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below, may be seen in a Google map.There are 15 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county, including 2 National Historic Landmarks.

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted July 19, 2019.

Pamplin City, Virginia

Pamplin City is a town in Appomattox and Prince Edward counties in the U.S. state of Virginia. The population was 219 at the 2010 census.

The Appomattox County portion of Pamplin City is part of the Lynchburg Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Peter Johnston Jr.

Peter Johnston Jr. (1763–1831) was a Virginia politician. He represented Prince Edward County in the Virginia House of Delegates, and served as that body's Speaker from 1805 until 1807.

Prince Edward-Gallion State Forest

Prince Edward-Gallion State Forest is a state forest located in Prince Edward County, Virginia. Virginia's first state forest, it was founded upon land donated to the Commonwealth by its namesake, Emmett Dandridge Gallion. Its 6,496 acres (26.29 km2) provide a number of recreational opportunities. Within its boundaries is Twin Lakes State Park.

Rice, Virginia

Rice is an unincorporated community in Prince Edward County, Virginia, United States. Rice has a U.S. Post Office with the ZIP code 23966. The nearest town to Rice is Farmville. During the Civil War era, it was known as Rice's Depot.

Shields, Prince Edward County, Virginia

Shields is an unincorporated community in Prince Edward County, Virginia, United States.

Twin Lakes State Park (Virginia)

Twin Lakes State Park is a state park in Virginia. It is located in Central Virginia in Prince Edward County.

Twin Lakes State Park, centrally located in Virginia's Piedmont region, provides visitors from all over the Commonwealth with a variety of lakefront activities in a secluded setting. Swimming, camping, fishing, biking, canoeing and hiking are popular activities. The park is home to Cedar Crest Conference Center, a perfect facility for group meetings, family reunions, birthday parties, wedding receptions and company picnics.

The land for Twin Lakes State Park was initially bought from struggling farmers by the federal government during the Great Depression. Two parks, Goodwin Lake and Prince Edward Lake, were founded in 1939 and until the early 1960s were run as two racially segregated parks. The parks merged in 1976 and became Twin Lakes State Park in 1986.

A historical marker reads:

Prince Edward State Park for Negroes was established in 1950 one mile west on the site of the former Prince Edward Lake Recreation Area for Negroes. Maceo C. Martin, an African American from Danville, sued the state when he was denied access to Staunton River State Park. Governor William M. Tuck funded the new park to provide "similar and equal" facilities in lieu of access. The park, with a black superintendent, was operated separately from neighboring Goodwin Lake Recreation Area until the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The two parks merged in 1986 to form Twin Lakes State Park.

Virso, Virginia

Virso is an unincorporated community in Prince Edward County, Virginia, United States.

WFLO (AM)

WFLO is a Country formatted broadcast radio station licensed to Farmville, Virginia, serving Farmville and Prince Edward County, Virginia. WFLO is owned and operated by Colonial Broadcasting Company, Inc.

William Cowper Alexander

William Cowper Alexander (May 20, 1806 – August 23, 1874) was an American lawyer, politician, and insurance executive. He served as President of the New Jersey State Senate and as President of the Equitable Life Assurance Society.

Places adjacent to Prince Edward County, Virginia
Municipalities and communities of Prince Edward County, Virginia, United States
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