Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn

Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, KG, KP, GCB, GCH, PC (Edward Augustus; 2 November 1767 – 23 January 1820) was the fourth son and fifth child of Britain's king, George III, and the father of Queen Victoria.

Prince Edward was created Duke of Kent and Strathearn and Earl of Dublin on 23 April 1799[2] and, a few weeks later, appointed a General and commander-in-chief of British forces in the Maritime Provinces of North America.[3] On 23 March 1802, he was appointed Governor of Gibraltar and nominally retained that post until his death. The Duke of Kent was appointed Field-Marshal of the Forces on 3 September 1805.[4]

He was the first member of the royal family to live in North America for more than a short visit (1791–1800) and, in 1794, the first prince to enter the United States (travelling to Boston on foot from Lower Canada) after independence.

On June 27, 1792, Edward is credited with the first use of the term "Canadian" to mean both French and English settlers in Upper and Lower Canada. The Prince used the term in an effort to quell a riot between the two groups at a polling station in Charlesbourg, Lower Canada.[5] Recently he has been styled the "Father of the Canadian Crown" for his impact on the development of Canada.[6]

Prince Edward
Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn by Sir William Beechey
Portrait by Sir William Beechey, 1818 (originally owned by Mme de Saint-Laurent)
Born2 November 1767
Buckingham House, London, England
Died23 January 1820 (aged 52)
Woolbrook Cottage, Sidmouth, England
Burial12 February 1820[1]
Spouse
IssueVictoria, Queen of the United Kingdom
Full name
Edward Augustus
HouseHanover
FatherGeorge III of the United Kingdom
MotherCharlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz

Early life

Prince Edward was born on 2 November 1767.[7] His parents were the reigning British monarch, George III, and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.

As a son of the British monarch, he was styled His Royal Highness The Prince Edward from birth, and was fourth in the line of succession to the throne. He was named after his paternal uncle, the Duke of York and Albany, who had died several weeks earlier and was buried at Westminster Abbey the day before his birth.

Prince Edward was baptised on 30 November 1767; his godparents were the Hereditary Prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg (his paternal uncle by marriage, for whom the Earl of Hertford, Lord Chamberlain, stood proxy), Duke Charles of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (his maternal uncle, for whom the Earl of Huntingdon, Groom of the Stole, stood proxy), the Hereditary Princess of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (his paternal aunt, who was represented by a proxy) and the Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel (his paternal grandfather's sister, for whom the Duchess of Argyll, Lady of the Bedchamber to the Queen, stood proxy).

Army

The Prince began his military training in Germany in 1785. King George III intended to send him to the University of Göttingen, but decided against it upon the advice of the Duke of York. Instead, Edward went to Lüneburg and later Hanover, accompanied by his tutor, Baron Wangenheim. From 1788 to 1789, he completed his education in Geneva.[7] On 5 August 1789, aged 22, he became a mason in the L'Union, the most important Genevan masonic lodge in the 19th century.[8]

In 1789, he was appointed colonel of the 7th Regiment of Foot (Royal Fusiliers). In 1790, he returned home without leave and, in disgrace, was sent off to Gibraltar as an ordinary officer. He was joined from Marseilles by Madame de Saint-Laurent.[7]

Quebec

Due to the extreme Mediterranean heat, Edward requested to be transferred to present-day Canada, specifically Quebec, in 1791.[9] Edward arrived in Canada in time to witness the proclamation of the Constitutional Act of 1791, become the first member of the Royal Family to tour Upper Canada and became a fixture of British North American society. Edward and his mistress, Julie St. Laurent, became close friends with the French Canadian family of Ignace-Michel-Louis-Antoine d'Irumberry de Salaberry; the Prince mentored all of the family's sons throughout their military careers. Edward guided Charles de Salaberry throughout his career, and made sure that the famous commander was duly honoured after his leadership during the Battle of Chateauguay.

The prince was promoted to the rank of major-general in October 1793 and the next year served successfully in the West Indies campaign being mentioned in dispatches and receiving the thanks of parliament.

Nova Scotia

Prince Edward By William J Weaver
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn by William J. Weaver, Province House (Nova Scotia)

After 1794, Prince Edward lived at the headquarters of the Royal Navy's North American Station located in Halifax, Nova Scotia. He was instrumental in shaping that settlement's military defences, protecting its important Royal Navy base, as well as influencing the city's and colony's socio-political and economic institutions. Edward was responsible for the construction of Halifax's iconic Garrison Clock, as well as numerous other civic projects such as St. George's Round Church. Lieutenant Governor Sir John Wentworth and Lady Francis Wentworth provided their country residence for the use of Prince Edward and Julie St. Laurent. Extensively renovated, the estate became known as "Prince's Lodge" as the couple hosted numerous dignitaries, including Louis-Phillippe of Orléans (the future King of the French). All that remains of the residence is a small rotunda built by Edward for his regimental band to play music.

After suffering a fall from his horse in late 1798, he was allowed to return to England.[7] On 24 April 1799,[2] Prince Edward was created Duke of Kent and Strathearn and Earl of Dublin, received the thanks of parliament and an income of £12,000. In May that same year the Duke was promoted to the rank of general and appointed Commander-in-Chief of British forces in North America.[7] He took leave of his parents 22 July 1799[10] and sailed to Halifax. Just over twelve months later he left Halifax[11] and arrived in England on 31 August 1800 where it was confidently expected his next appointment would be Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.[note 1]

Gibraltar

Appointed Governor of Gibraltar by the War Office, gazetted 23 March 1802,[12] the Duke took up his post on 24 May 1802 with express orders from the government to restore discipline among the drunken troops. The Duke's harsh discipline precipitated a mutiny by soldiers in his own and the 25th Regiment on Christmas Eve 1802. The Duke of York, then Commander-in-Chief of the Forces, recalled him in May 1803 after receiving reports of the mutiny, but despite this direct order he refused to return to England until his successor arrived. He was refused permission to return to Gibraltar for an inquiry and, although allowed to continue to hold the governorship of Gibraltar until his death, he was forbidden to return.[7]

As a consolation for the end of his active military career at age 35, he was promoted to the rank of field marshal[4] and appointed Ranger of Hampton Court Park on 5 September 1805.[13] This office provided him with a residence now known as The Pavilion. (His sailor brother William, with children to provide for, had been made Ranger of Bushy Park in 1797.) The Duke continued to serve as honorary colonel of the 1st Regiment of Foot (the Royal Scots) until his death.[7]

Though it was a tendency shared to some extent with his brothers, the Duke's excesses as a military disciplinarian may have been due less to natural disposition and more to what he had learned from his tutor Baron Wangenheim. Certainly Wangenheim, by keeping his allowance very small, accustomed Edward to borrowing at an early age. The Duke applied the same military discipline to his own duties that he demanded of others. Though it seems inconsistent with his unpopularity among the army's rank and file, his friendliness toward others and popularity with servants has been emphasized. He also introduced the first regimental school. The Duke of Wellington considered him a first-class speaker. He took a continuing interest in the social experiments of Robert Owen, voted for Catholic emancipation, and supported literary, Bible and abolitionist societies.[7]

His daughter, Victoria, after hearing Lord Melbourne's opinions, was able to add to her private journal of 1 August 1838 "from all what I heard, he was the best of all".[7]

Personal life and interests

Marriage

Role in the royal succession

Following the death of Princess Charlotte Augusta of Wales in November 1817, the only legitimate grandchild of George III at the time, the royal succession began to look uncertain. The Prince Regent and his younger brother Frederick, the Duke of York, though married, were estranged from their wives and had no surviving legitimate children. King George's surviving daughters were all past likely childbearing age. The unmarried sons of King George III, the Duke of Clarence (later King William IV), the Duke of Kent, and the Duke of Cambridge, all rushed to contract lawful marriages and provide an heir to the throne. (The fifth son of King George III, the Duke of Cumberland, was already married but had no living children at that time, whilst the marriage of the sixth son, the Duke of Sussex, was void because he had married in contravention of the Royal Marriages Act 1772.)

Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld

For his part the Duke of Kent, aged 50, was already considering marriage, and he became engaged to Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld[7] (17 August 1786 – 16 March 1861), who had been the sister-in-law of his now-deceased niece Princess Charlotte. They were married on 29 May 1818 at Schloss Ehrenburg, Coburg, in a Lutheran rite, and again on 11 July 1818 at Kew Palace, Kew, Surrey.[7]

Princess Victoria was the daughter of Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, and the sister of Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, husband of the recently deceased Princess Charlotte. She was a widow: her first husband had been Emich Carl, 2nd Prince of Leiningen, with whom she had had two children: a son Carl and a daughter Feodora.

Issue

They had one child, Princess Alexandrina Victoria of Kent (24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901), who became Queen Victoria on 20 June 1837. The Duke took great pride in his daughter, telling his friends to look at her well, for she would be Queen of the United Kingdom.[7]

Mistresses

Madame de Saint-Laurent- Mistress of Prince Edward

Various sources report that the Duke of Kent had mistresses. In Geneva, he had two mistresses, Adelaide Dubus and Anne Moré. Dubus died at the birth of their daughter Adelaide Dubus (1789 – in or after 1832). Anne Moré was the mother of Edward Schenker Scheener (1789–1853). Scheener married but had no children and returned to Geneva, perhaps significantly in 1837, where he later died.[14]

In 1790, while still in Geneva, the Duke took up with "Madame de Saint-Laurent" (born Thérèse-Bernardine Montgenet), the wife of a French colonel. She went with him to Canada in 1791, where she was known as "Julie de Saint-Laurent". She accompanied the Duke for the next 28 years, until his marriage in 1818.[7] The portrait of the Duke by Beechey was hers.[15]

There is no evidence of children but many families in Canada have claimed descent from the couple.[7]

Canadian Confederation

While Prince Edward lived in Quebec (1791–93) he met with Jonathan Sewell, an immigrant American Loyalist who played trumpet in the Prince's regimental band. Sewell would rise in Lower Canadian government to hold such offices as Attorney General, Chief Justice, and Speaker of the Legislative Assembly. In 1814, Sewell forwarded to the Duke a copy of his report "A plan for the federal union of British provinces in North America." The Duke supported Sewell's plan to unify the colonies, offering comments and critiques that would later be cited by Lord Durham (1839) and participants of the Charlottetown and Quebec Conferences (1864).

Edward's 1814 letter to Sewell:

My dear Sewell,

I have had this day the pleasure of receiving your note of yesterday with its interesting enclosure. Nothing can be better arranged than the whole thing is or more perfectly, and when I see an opening it is fully my intention to point the matter out to Lord Bathurst and put the paper in his hands, without however telling him from whom I have it, though I shall urge him to have some conversation with you relative to it. Permit me, however, just to ask you whether it was not an oversight in you to state that there are five Houses of Assembly in the British Colonies in North America. If I am not under an error there are six, viz., Upper and Lower Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and the islands of Prince Edward and Cape Breton.

Allow me to beg of you to put down the proportions in which you think the thirty members of the Representatives Assembly ought to be furnished by each Province, and to suggest whether you would not think two Lieutenant-Governors with two Executive Councils sufficient for an executive government of the whole, namely one for the two Canadas, and one for New Brunswick and the two small dependencies of Cape Breton and Prince Edward Island, the former to reside in Montreal, and the latter at whichever of the two (following) situations may be considered most central for the two provinces whether Annapolis Royal or Windsor.

But, at all events, should you consider in your Executive Councils requisite I presume there cannot be a question of the expediency of comprehending the two small islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence with Nova Scotia.

Believe me ever to remain, With the most friendly regard, My dear Sewell, Yours faithfully,

EDWARD

United Grand Lodge of England

In January 1813 Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, became Grand Master of the Premier Grand Lodge of England, and in December of that year Prince Edward became Grand Master of the Antient Grand Lodge of England. On 27 December 1813 the United Grand Lodge of England was constituted at Freemasons' Hall, London with the Duke of Sussex as Grand Master.

Later life

Castle Hill Lodge, Ealing
Castle Hill Lodge 1814

The Duke of Kent purchased a house of his own from Maria Fitzherbert in 1801. Castle Hill Lodge on Castlebar Hill, Ealing[16] was then placed in the hands of architect James Wyatt and more than £100,000 spent. Near neighbours from 1815 to 1817 at Little Boston House were US envoy and future US President John Quincy Adams and his English wife Louisa. "We all went to church and heard a charity sermon preached by a Dr Crane before the Duke of Kent", wrote Adams in a diary entry from August 1815.[17]

Following the birth of Princess Victoria in May 1819, the Duke and Duchess, concerned to manage the Duke's great debts, sought to find a place where they could live inexpensively. After the coast of Devon was recommended to them they leased from a General Baynes, intending to remain incognito, Woolbrook Cottage on the seaside by Sidmouth.[7]

Death

The Duke of Kent died of pneumonia on 23 January 1820 at Woolbrook Cottage, Sidmouth,[7] and was interred in St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.[7] He died six days before his father, George III, and less than a year after his daughter's birth.

He predeceased his father and his three elder brothers but, as none of his elder brothers had any surviving legitimate children, his daughter Victoria succeeded to the throne on the death of her uncle King William IV in 1837.

In 1829 the Duke's former aide-de-camp purchased the unoccupied Castle Hill Lodge from the Duchess in an attempt to reduce her debts;[16] the debts were finally discharged after Victoria took the throne and paid them over time from her income.

Legacy

Scriven Prince Edward
Edward Scriven engraving of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathern (1834) after W. Beechey's portrait

There is a bronze statue of the prince in Park Crescent, London. Sculpted by Sebastian Gahagan and installed in January 1824, the statue is seven feet two inches (2.18 m) tall and represents the Duke in his Field Marshal's uniform, over which he wears his ducal dress and the regalia of the Order of the Garter.[18]

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Coat of Arms of Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Arms of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn used from 1801 until his death.

Titles and styles

  • 2 November 1767 – 24 April 1799: His Royal Highness The Prince Edward
  • 24 April 1799 – 23 January 1820: His Royal Highness The Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn

Honours

Prince Edward was appointed a Knight of the Order of St. Patrick on 5 February 1783 and a Knight of the Order of the Garter on 2 May 1786. George III appointed him a member of the Privy Council on 5 September 1799. His elder brother, the Prince Regent (later King George IV), appointed the Duke of Kent a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath in the military division on 2 January 1815 and a Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Guelphic Order (military division) on 12 August 1815.

Arms

As a son of the sovereign, the Duke of Kent had use of the arms of the kingdom from 1801 to his death, differenced by a label argent of three points, the centre point bearing a cross gules, the outer points each bearing a fleur-de-lys azure.[19]

Ancestors

Ancestors of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
8. George II of Great Britain
4. Frederick, Prince of Wales
9. Princess Caroline of Brandenburg-Ansbach
2. George III of the United Kingdom
10. Frederick II, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
5. Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
11. Princess Magdalena Augusta of Anhalt-Zerbst
1. Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
12. Adolphus Frederick II, Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
6. Duke Charles Louis Frederick of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
13. Princess Christiane Emilie of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen
3. Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
14. Ernest Frederick I, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen
7. Princess Elisabeth Albertine of Saxe-Hildburghausen
15. Countess Sophia Albertine of Erbach-Erbach

Notes

  1. ^ The Duke of Kent
    We have the pleasure to announce the safe arrival of the Duke of Kent in England. His Royal Highness landed at Plymouth on Sunday evening under a Royal Salute from the Forts, the ships on the Sound, Cawsand Bay and the Hamoaze and set off immediately for Weymouth to pay his respects to their Majesties.
    While we rejoice in his safe arrival we cannot but regret that ill health should again have been the cause of his Royal Highness's return to this country, especially when we reflect on the motives which induced him to quit England.
    Before his Royal Highness was created Duke of Kent with a suitable income, he had incurred some debts. On his returning to England on finding that he was unable to live in any degree suitable to his rank, and at the same time to discharge his debts, he generously resolved again to go to America, and to remain there, living solely on his pay as an Officer, till his debts were entirely liquidated, to which purpose he gave up the whole of his income allowed him by Government, and in this resolution he persisted, till repeated bilious attacks compelled him to quit that country.
    We are sensible that an idea once prevailed that his Royal Highness, in early life, had participated in several of the fashionable vices of the age; but nothing was ever more remote from the truth—for it may be truly said of the Duke of Kent (what can be said of very few men of Rank) that he never was known to be intoxicated, or ever won or lost a farthing at any kind of play in his life; that he never endeavored to seduce the wife of another, or even made a promise he did not do his utmost to perform—his rigid adherence to his word is so remarkable that no consideration has ever induced him to swerve from a promise he has once given. To these good qualities his Royal Highness united a most benevolent disposition; and amidst all his pecuniary embarrassments he has invariably set apart 500l. a year of his income for the relief of private indigence and distress—throughout all British America he was so universally beloved, that the loss of his presence is reckoned one of the greatest misfortunes that could have befallen the country. And we have no hesitation in expressing our conviction, that no measure will more strongly contribute to pacify and reconcile all ranks of people in Ireland, than the presence of his Royal Highness in that country, where we now understand it is the intention of the Government to employ him.
    The Times, Wednesday, 3 Sep 1800; pg. 2; Issue 4890.

References

  1. ^ "Royal Burials in the Chapel since 1805". College of St George. stgeorges-windsor.org. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
  2. ^ a b Whitehall, 23 April 1799.
    The King has been pleased to grant to His Most Dearly-Beloved Son Prince Edward, and to the Heirs Male of His Royal Highness's Body lawfully begotten, the Dignities of Duke of the Kingdom of Great Britain, and of Earl of the Kingdom of Ireland, by the Names, Styles, and Titles of Duke of Kent, and of Strathern, in the Kingdom of Great Britain, and of Earl of Dublin, in the Kingdom of Ireland. "No. 15126". The London Gazette. 23 April 1799. p. 372.
  3. ^ Whitehall, 17 May 1799.
    The King has been pleased to appoint His Royal Highness General Edward Duke of Kent, K.G. to be General and Commander in Chief of His Majesty's Forces in North America, in the Room of General Robert Prescott. London Gazette issue 15133, page 458, published 14 May 1799.
  4. ^ a b London Gazette issue 15840, page 1114, published 3 September 1805
  5. ^ Nathan Tidridge, "Prince Edward, Duke of Kent: Father of the Canadian Crown (Toronto, Dundurn Press, 2013), 90.
  6. ^ Michael Taube, "A Neglected Royal" (Toronto: Literary Review of Canada, 2013), 43.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Longford, Elizabeth (2004). "Edward, Prince, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (1767–1820)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/101008526. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  8. ^ Plaquette commémorative...: «  L’Union disposait d’un spacieux local en ville, la Maison Caillate, entre le Molard et Longemalle, et d’un autre à la campagne, aux Eaux-Vives, où l’on se rendait en été. Le local en ville était fort vaste, doté de deux étages, avec un cercle où l’on jouait aux cartes et au billard.»
  9. ^ Nathan Tidridge, "Prince Edward, Duke of Kent: Father of the Canadian Crown (Toronto: Dundurn Press, 2013), 56.
  10. ^ The Times, Monday, 22 Jul 1799; pg. 3; Issue 4541.
  11. ^ By the arrival of the Packet from America we learn that the Duke of Kent was to embark at Halifax for this country about the 5 August on board of the Assistance, Captain Hall, his Royal Highnesses state of health rendering his return to England necessary. Very few Officers have been so constantly kept on foreign service as his Royal Highness, who we have reason to believe is coming home to be appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. The Times, Friday, 22 Aug 1800; pg. 3; Issue 4880.
  12. ^ London Gazette issue 15464, page 304, published 23 March 1799
  13. ^ Whitehall, 25 November 1805.
    His Majesty has been pleased to grant unto His Royal Highness Edward Duke of Kent the Offices and Places of Keeper and Paler of the House Park of Hampton-Court, and of Mower of the Brakes there, and of the Herbage and Passage of the said Park, with the Wood called Browsings, Windfall Wood, and dead Wood, happening in the said Park; and of all the Barns, Stables, Outhouses, Gardens and Curtilages belonging to the Great Lodge in the said Park, together with the said Lodge itself &c. during his Majesty's pleasure. London Gazette issue 15865, page 1467, published 23 November 1805
  14. ^ Jones, R. A. (2004). "Scheener, Edward Schencker (1789–1853)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/101053528. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  15. ^ Gillen, Mollie (1987). "Montgenet, Thérèse-Bernardine". In Halpenny, Francess G. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. VI (1821–1835) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.
  16. ^ a b T F T Baker, C R Elrington (Editors) A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 7 Victoria County History 1982, pp. 128-131
  17. ^ Adams, John Quincy (2014). Diary 29, John Quincy Adams Diary: An Electronic Archive. Massachusetts Historical Society. p. 309. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
  18. ^ Lives & Portraits of Public Characters. 3. London: J. Cumberland. 1828. p. 50.
  19. ^ Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family
  • Naftel, W.D. (2005). Prince Edward's Legacy: The Duke of Kent in Halifax: Romance and beautiful buildings. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Formac Publishing. ISBN 978-0-88780-648-3.

External links

Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
Cadet branch of the House of Welf
Born: 2 November 1767 Died: 23 January 1820
Political offices
Preceded by
Charles O'Hara
Governor of Gibraltar
1802–1820
Succeeded by
Henry Fox
(acting)
Military offices
Preceded by
John Campbell, of Strachur
Commander-in-Chief, North America
1799–1800
Succeeded by
George Prevost
Preceded by
William Gordon
Colonel of the 7th Regiment of Foot (Royal Fuzileers)
1789–1801
Succeeded by
Sir Alured Clarke
Preceded by
Lord Adam Gordon
Colonel of the 1st Regiment of Foot (Royal Scots)
1801–1820
Succeeded by
Marquess of Huntly
Masonic offices
Preceded by
The Duke of Atholl
Grand Master of the
Antient Grand Lodge of England

1813
Succeeded by
The Duke of Sussex
as Grand Master of the United
Grand Lodge of England
1767 in Great Britain

Events from the year 1767 in Great Britain.

1820 in the United Kingdom

Events from the year 1820 in the United Kingdom. This year sees a change of monarch after a nine-year Regency.

Beauport, Quebec City

Beauport is a borough of Quebec City, Quebec, Canada on the Saint Lawrence River.

Beauport is a northeastern suburb of Quebec City. Manufacturers include paint, construction materials, printers, and hospital supplies. Food transportation is important to the economy. Attractions include Parc de la Chute-Montmorency (Montmorency Falls Park), which contains a fortification built in 1759 by James Wolfe and Manoir Montmorency, the home from 1791 to 1794 of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn.

The city's historic district contains many interesting churches and homes, including Bélanger-Girardin House, a National Historic Site of Canada where visitors can learn about Beauport's heritage. Annual events include the spring arts festival Salon de Mai and the summer Festival Folklorique des enfants du monde, a multicultural and international children's folklore festival.

Duchess of Kent

The Duchess of Kent is the title given to the wife of the Duke of Kent, a now royal title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It has been created several times since 1710.

Duke of Kent House, Quebec

Duke of Kent House or Kent House (French: Maison du Duc-de-Kent) is situated on the corner of Rue Saint-Louis and Haldimand, behind the Château Frontenac in Quebec City, named after its most famous resident Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn. Though altered and transformed since its original construction, the most part of its foundations and of the first floor walls date back to the vicinity of 1650, making it one of the oldest houses, if not the oldest house in Quebec City. In 1759, the Articles of Capitulation of Quebec were signed within the house. The present edifice has remained largely unchanged since 1819. It served as the French Consulate from 1980 to 2015.

Duncan Clark (surgeon)

Duncan Clark (1759-1808) was a Loyalist who became an influential figure in Halifax, Nova Scotia.. He served in the 82nd Regiment of Foot and arrived in Halifax in 1778. He was a member of the North British Society, eventually becoming president. He was a frequent patron of the Great Pontack (Halifax).. Clark also was the head of a Masonic Lodge for St. John, New Brunswick. He was also a friend of John Halliburton (surgeon) of the doctor for Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn.

Earl of Dublin

Earl of Dublin is a title that has been created three times in British and Irish history.

It was created first on 22 October 1766 in the Peerage of Ireland for Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn, younger brother of King George III. This title became extinct in 1790 upon the Duke's dying childless. It was created again on 24 April 1799, again in the Peerage of Ireland, for Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, fourth son of George III. This title became extinct upon his death without sons, in 1820. It was created a third time on 10 September 1849 or 17 January 1850,in the Peerage of the United Kingdom for Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, eldest son of Queen Victoria.

Edward Augustus

Edward Augustus may refer to:

Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany (1739–1767)

Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (1767–1820)

Edward M. Augustus Jr. (born 1965), American politician and administrator in Massachusetts

George Stracey Smyth

George Stracey Smyth (4 April 1767 – 27 March 1823) was Commander-in-Chief, North America, Lieutenant-Governor of Nova Scotia and Lieutenant-Governor of New Brunswick.

John Conroy

Sir John Ponsonby Conroy, 1st Baronet, KCH (21 October 1786 – 2 March 1854) was a British army officer who served as comptroller to the Duchess of Kent and her young daughter, Princess Victoria, the future Queen of the United Kingdom.

Conroy was born in Wales to Anglo-Irish parents. In 1817, after holding several ranks in the army, he became the equerry of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn. Edward died two years later, leaving a widow and infant daughter. Holding the position of comptroller of the Duchess of Kent's household for the next nineteen years, Conroy also acted as her confidant and political agent, among other roles. Together, they designed the Kensington System, an elaborate and strict system of rules for the upbringing of young Victoria, designed to render her weak-willed and utterly dependent upon them in the hope of allowing them one day to wield power through her.

Princess Victoria grew to hate Conroy, thanks to the oppressive system, and he was also unpopular among the rest of the British royal family. His efforts to place the Duchess in the role of regent were ultimately unsuccessful, as Victoria ascended the throne after reaching her majority in 1837. Conroy was immediately expelled from Victoria's household, though he remained in the Duchess of Kent's service for several more years. Given a pension and a baronetcy, Conroy retired to his estate near Reading, Berkshire, in 1842 and died heavily in debt twelve years later.

Historians have often referred to Conroy as someone with strong ambition, with varying degrees of positive or negative opinion. Rumours circulated during and after his lifetime that he was perhaps the Duchess of Kent's lover. Queen Victoria was shocked to hear this, stating that her mother's piety would have prevented it.

John Philippart

John Philippart (1784?–1874) was a British military writer.

Born in London about 1784, Philippart was educated at a military academy, and was subsequently placed in the office of a Scottish solicitor. His inclinations, however, tended more to military than to legal studies. In 1809 he became private secretary to John Baker-Holroyd, 1st Baron (later 1st Earl of) Sheffield, the President of the Board of Agriculture, and two years later he was appointed a clerk in the War Office. He proposed, in pamphlets issued in 1812 and 1813, the establishment of a benefit fund for officers, an idea suggested by Colonel D. Roberts. The scheme was supported by persons of influence in the profession, but it failed owing to the fear on the part of ministers that such a combination might weaken the discipline of the army. Philippart also suggested, in a further pamphlet, a means of rendering the militia available for foreign service, and part of his plan was adopted by Lord Castlereagh. Philippart was one of the body of members of the order of St. John of Jerusalem, or knights-hospitallers, who contributed to the revival of the English langue. He was elected a knight of St. John of Jerusalem on 11 November 1830, chevalier of justice in 1831, and bailiff ad honores in 1847. He was chancellor of the order for forty-three years, and outlived all the knights who had revived the English langue except the Chevalier Philippe de Chastelain. His interest in the duties of a knight-hospitaller induced him to aid in founding in 1856 the West London Hospital, which was originally called the Fulham and Hammersmith General Dispensary. He was honorary treasurer of the institution from 1856 to 1861, and an active member of the committee from that date until his death. He was created a knight of the Swedish orders of Gustavus Vasa and of the Polar Star in 1832. He died at his residence, College House, Church Lane, Hammersmith, in 1874.

Philippart was an industrious compiler of many books of reference relating to the army. From October 1812 to September 1814 he owned and edited a journal called The Military Panorama. In 1813 he published his Northern Campaigns, from … 1812 … June 4, 1813, with an appendix, containing all the Bulletins issued by the French Ruler, in two volumes. To the same class belong his Royal Military Calendar, containing the Services of every general officer … in the British Army … and Accounts of the Operations of the Army under Lieut.-Gen. Sir John Murray on the Eastern Coast of Spain in 1812–13, London, 3 volumes 1815–16, and The East India Military Calendar, 1823.

Among other works by Philippart were Memoirs of the Prince Royal of Sweden, 1813; Memoirs of General Moreau, &c., London, 1814; General Index to the first and second series of Hansard's Parliamentary Debates, London, 1834; Memoir of … Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn and volume II of Queen Victoria, from her Birth to her Bridal, London, 1840.

Jubilee bust of Queen Victoria

The Jubilee bust of Queen Victoria is a sculpted bust of Queen Victoria, made as an official commemoration her 1887 golden jubilee by the sculptor Francis John Williamson. Many copies were made, and distributed throughout the British Empire.Many other busts of Victoria were carved, including others commemorating her golden and other jubilees, and these should not be confused with the Williamson Jubilee bust.

Madame de Saint-Laurent

Madame Alphonsine-Thérèse-Bernardine-Julie de Montgenêt de Saint-Laurent (30 September 1760 in Besançon, France - 8 August 1830 in Paris) was the wife of Baron de Fortisson, a colonel in the French service, and the mistress of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn.

Madame de Saint-Laurent was born 30 September 1760 in Besançon, France to Jean-Claude Mongenêt, a civil engineer, and Jeanne-Claude (Claudine) Pussot and later moved to Quebec.

On the formation of Lower Canada, in August, 1791, Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn arrived in Quebec City and shortly afterwards leased Judge Mabane's house for £90 per annum. He lived at the Duke of Kent House in Quebec City for three years with Madame de Saint Laurent, before he was posted to Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1794.

Morne Fortune

Morne Fortune is a hill and residential area located south of Castries, Saint Lucia, in the West Indies.

Originally known as Morne Dubuc, it was renamed Morne Fortuné in 1765 when the French moved their military headquarters and government administration buildings here from Vigie Height. A fort was constructed here by the French, Citadelle du Morne Fortuné, completed in 1784. The fort was first captured by the British on 1 April 1794, but recaptured by the French in June 1795. It was captured again by the British on 24 May 1796. A memorial to the 27th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Foot still stands commemorating the battle. France regained possession in 1802 with the Treaty of Amiens, but Commodore Samuel Hood defeated French Governor Brig. Gen. Antoine Noguès in June 1803, and the fort remained a British one until independence in 1979.Fort Charlotte was named on 4 April 1794 by Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn to honor Queen Charlotte.

The Apostle's Battery was manned on 16 Dec. 1888 by the 1st West India Regiment when the port became a coaling station. On 12 Nov. 1890, 4 RML 10 inch 18 ton guns were manned by the Royal Artillery. The fort was abandoned in 1905, and a Secondary School occupies the site.The original fortifications also still stand on the summit, and the old military buildings are in a listed historical area. The Saint Lucia National Trust operates this area.

Morne Fortune also hosts the Saint Lucian campus of the University of the West Indies as well as Sir Arthur Lewis Community College.

Government House, the official residence of the Governor-General of Saint Lucia, is on the northern side of Morne Fortune. There are fine views of Castries available from there.

Prince Edward Islands

The Prince Edward Islands are two small islands in the sub-antarctic Indian Ocean that are part of South Africa. The islands are named Marion Island (named after Marc-Joseph Marion du Fresne) and Prince Edward Island (named after Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn).

The islands in the group have been declared Special Nature Reserves under the South African Environmental Management: Protected Areas Act, No. 57 of 2003, and activities on the islands are therefore restricted to research and conservation management. Further protection was granted when the area was declared a "Marine Protected Area" in 2013. The only human inhabitants of the islands are the staff of a meteorological and biological research station run by the South African National Antarctic Programme on Marion Island.

St. George's (Round) Church, Halifax, Nova Scotia

St. George's (Anglican) Round Church is a wooden round church in the neo-Classical Palladian style located in Halifax Regional Municipality in Downtown Halifax .Construction on the church began in 1800 thanks in large part to the financial backing of the British royal family. The church’s architect remains a mystery, but Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (and father of Queen Victoria) is believed to have been highly involved in the design process. It is located at the corner of Brunswick and Cornwallis Streets in the North End district. The church was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1983 given its associations with the early history of Halifax and its Palladian architecture.

Street names of Regent's Park

This is a list of the etymology of street names in the London area of Regent’s Park (i.e. the park, its immediately surrounding terraces, and the estate to the east); the area has no formal boundaries, though it generally thought to be delimited by Prince Albert Road to the north, Park Village East and Hampstead Road/the Euston railway line/Eversholt Street to the east, Euston Road/Marylbone Road to the south and Park Road and Baker Street to the west,

Albany Street, Albany Terrace and Little Albany Street – after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Allsop Place – as this area was formerly Allsop’s farm, after Thomas Allsop

Augustus Street – after Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Avenue Road – simply a descriptive name

Baker Street – after Edward Baker, friend and business partner of the Portman family

The Broad Walk – descriptive

Brock Street

Brunswick Place – after Caroline of Brunswick, wife of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Cambridge Gate, Cambridge Gate Mews, Cambridge Terrace and Cambridge Terrace Mews – after Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Cardington Street – after the Dukes of Bedford, who also owned land at Cardington, Bedfordshire

Charles Place

Chester Close North, Chester Close South, Chester Court, Chester Gate, Chester Place, Chester Road and Chester Terrace – after the Prince Regent (George IV), also Earl of Chester

Clarence Gardens, Clarence Gate and Clarence Terrace – after the future William IV, Duke of Clarence, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Cobourg Street – after Leopold I of Belgium off Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, husband of Princess Charlotte of Wales, George IV’s daughter

Compton Close

Cornwall Terrace and Cornwall Terrace Mews

Cumberland Market, Cumberland Place, Cumberland Terrace and Cumberland Terrace Mews – after Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, Duke of Cumberland, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Drummond Street – after Lady Caroline Drummond, a member of the Duke of Grafton's family

Edward Mews and Little Edward Street – after Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Euston Grove, Euston Road, Euston Square, Euston Station Colonnade, Euston Street and Euston Underpass – after the earl of Euston, son of the duke of Grafton, local landowners when the road was built in the 1760s

Eversholt Street –after the Dukes of Bedford, whose seat was at Woburn Abbey near Eversholt, Bedfordshire

Everton Buildings

Exmouth Mews – presumably by relation to Exmouth Street, now Starcross Street

Foundry Mews

George Mews – presumably for the Prince Regent (George IV)

Gloucester Gate, Gloucester Gate Bridge and Gloucester Gate Mews – after Princess Mary, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh, sister of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Granby Terrace – after John Manners, Marquess of Granby, noted Georgian-era military commander

Hampstead Road – as it leads to the north London district of this name

Hanover Gate, and Hanover Terrace and Hanover Terrace Mews – after the House of Hanover, reigning dynasty when the square and street were built in 1713

Harrington Street – as this land was formerly owned by Dukes of Bedford; Francis Russell, 7th Duke of Bedford was married to Anna Russell, Duchess of Bedford, daughter of Charles Stanhope, 3rd Earl of Harrington

Inner Circle and Outer Circle – simply descriptive names

Kent Passage and Kent Terrace – after Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Laxton Place – after its 1806 developer, the baker George Laxton

Longford Street

Macclesfield Bridge – after George Parker, 4th Earl of Macclesfield, chairman of the Regent’s Canal Company in the 17th century

MacFarren Place – after George Alexander Macfarren, composer and principal at the nearby Royal Academy of Music

Mackworth Street – after Thomas Mackworth, local landowner who is buried nearby; it was formerly Rutland Street, after John Manners, Marquess of Granby (also Duke of Rutland), but was changed in 1938 to avoid confusion with several other similarly named streets

Marylebone Road – from a church dedicated to St Mary, represented now by St Marylebone Parish Church (1817); the original church was built on the bank of a small stream or "bourne", called the Tybourne or Tyburn. This stream rose further north in what is now Swiss Cottage, eventually running along what is now Marylebone Lane, which preserves its curve within the grid pattern. The church and the surrounding area later became known as St Mary at the Bourne which, over time, became shortened to its present form, Marylebone

Melton Street – unknown

Mornington Street – after Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley, Earl of Mornington, noted 18th - 19th century statesman

Munster Square – after the future William IV, Earl of Munster, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Nash Street – after John Nash, architect of the terraces around Regent’s Park

Netley Street – possibly after Netley in Hampshire

North Gower Street – after Gertrude Leveson-Gower, wife of local landowner John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford; it is the northern extension of Gower Street

Nottingham Terrace – after Nottinghamshire, where local landowners the dukes of Portland owned property

Osnaburgh Street and Osnaburgh Terrace – after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück (Osnaburgh in English), brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Park Road – after the adjacent Regent’s Park

Park Square, Park Square East, Park Square Mews and Park Square West – after the adjacent Regent’s Park

Park Village East and Park Village West – after the adjacent Regent’s Park

Peto Place – after Samuel Morton Peto, MP, entrepreneur, civil engineer and railway developer, who paid for a Batist chapel to be built here in 1855 (since closed)

Prince Albert Road – after Albert, Prince Consort; formerly Primrose Hill Road

Prince of Wales Passage – after the Royal family

Prince Regent Mews – after the Prince Regent, later George IV, by association with Regent’s Park

Redhill Street

Regnart Buildings

Robert Street

St Andrew’s Place – after the later William IV, Duke of St Andrews, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

St Katherine’s Precinct – after the former Anglican chapel of St Katharine's Hospital, which retains its original dedication to Saint Katharine, and was built in 1826-8 (now the Danish Church)

Stanhope Street – as this land was formerly owned by Dukes of Bedford; Francis Russell, 7th Duke of Bedford was married to Anna Russell, Duchess of Bedford, daughter of Charles Stanhope, 3rd Earl of Harrington

Starcross Street – formerly Exmouth Street, it was renamed after the town of this name in Devon to avoid confusion with similarly named streets

Station Approach – descriptive, next to Euston station

Stephenson Way – after Robert Stephenson, Victoria-era builder of the adjacent Euston station

Sussex Place – after Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Tolmers Square – after the village of this name in Hertfordshire; the New River flowed from the county and this land was formerly a reservoir owned by the New River Company

Triton Square and Triton Street – after the Greek god of this name

Ulster Place and Ulster Terrace – after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Earl of Ulster, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Varndell Street – after the architect CE Varndell, who took over as surveyor the Regent’s Park development from John Nash

William Road – after the later William IV, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

Wybert Street

York Bridge, York Gate, York Terrace East and York Terrace West – after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV)

William J. Weaver

William Joseph Weaver (1759-1817) was an artist born in London who came to prominence in North America. He is perhaps most famous for his portrait of Alexander Hamilton which hangs in the United States State Department, and his full-length portrait of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, which hangs in Province House (Nova Scotia), Canada. He also worked for Joseph Booth's Polygraphic Society.

Former Director and Chief Curator of the Munson-Williams-Proctor Arts Institute Paul Schweizer writes that Weaver's work "convey [s] a chaste elegance that is similar in look and mood to the finest neoclassical portraits made in North America." Weaver's composition reflects a knowledge of British and French military portraiture. He painted portraits and miniatures in many of the principal cities along the Atlantic seaboard from Halifax, Nova Scotia, to Savannah, Georgia. He also produced portraits of Martha and George Washington, though their locations are unknown.Weaver was one of the first professional artists to work in Halifax (c. 1797). He made portraits or miniatures of the city's merchants, aristocrats and military officers. Currently, six small portraits that Weaver painted in Nova Scotia have been identified. Five of these were painted on tinplate. There are likely more that are unsigned.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.