Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, KG, KT, GCB, GCH, PRS, FRSA (27 January 1773 – 21 April 1843) was the sixth son and ninth child of King George III and his consort Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. He was the only surviving son of George III who did not pursue an army or navy career. He was known for his liberal views, which included reform of Parliament, abolition of the slave trade, Catholic emancipation, and the removal of existing civil restrictions on Jews and dissenters.
|Prince Augustus Frederick|
|Duke of Sussex|
Portrait by Guy Head, 1798
|Born||27 January 1773|
Buckingham House, London
|Died||21 April 1843 (aged 70)|
Kensington Palace, London
|Burial||4 May 1843|
Kensal Green Cemetery, London
Lady Augusta Murray
(m. 1793; annulled 1794)
Lady Cecilia Underwood
|Father||George III of the United Kingdom|
|Mother||Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz|
Augustus Frederick was born at Buckingham House, London. He was the 9th child and 6th son of George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
He was baptised in the Great Council Chamber at St James's Palace, on 25 February 1773, by Archbishop of Canterbury Frederick Cornwallis. His godparents were the Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (his paternal first cousin once-removed, for whom The Earl of Hertford, Lord Chamberlain, stood proxy), Duke George Augustus of Mecklenburg (his maternal uncle, for whom the Earl of Bristol, Groom of the Stole, stood proxy) and Princess Charles of Hesse-Cassel (his first cousin once-removed, for whom The Viscountess Weymouth, Lady of the Bedchamber to the queen, stood proxy).
He was tutored at home before being sent to the University of Göttingen in Germany in the summer of 1786, along with his brothers Prince Ernest and Prince Adolphus. Prince Augustus, who suffered from asthma, did not join his brothers in receiving military training in Hanover. He briefly considered becoming a cleric in the Church of England. In 1805, during the Napoleonic War, he served at home in Britain as Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant of the "Loyal North Britons" Volunteers regiment.
While travelling in Italy, the prince met Lady Augusta Murray (1768–1830), the second daughter of the 4th Earl of Dunmore. The couple secretly married in Rome on 4 April 1793. The King's minister of Hanover affairs Ernst zu Münster was sent to Italy to escort him back to London.
The couple married again without revealing their full identities at St George's, Hanover Square, Westminster, on 5 December 1793. Both marriages took place without the consent, or even the knowledge, of his father.
In August 1794, the Court of Arches annulled the prince's first marriage on the grounds that it contravened the Royal Marriages Act 1772, not having been approved by the King. However, Prince Augustus Frederick continued to live with Lady Augusta until 1801, when he received a parliamentary grant of £12,000 and the couple separated. Lady Augusta retained custody of their children and received maintenance of £4,000 a year. Their two children were named Augustus Frederick d'Este and Augusta Emma d'Este, both parents being descended from the royal House of Este. In 1806, their mother, Lady Augusta, was given royal licence to use the surname "de Ameland" instead of Murray.
Augustus Frederick was invested as a Knight of the Garter on 2 June 1786, and installed by dispensation on 28 May 1801. The King created him Duke of Sussex, Earl of Inverness, and Baron Arklow in the Peerage of the United Kingdom on 24 November 1801. Since he had no legitimate issue, the title became extinct on his death in 1843. In 1815 the Duke became a patron of the Jews' Hospital and Orphan Asylum, later to become the charity known today as Norwood. Royal patronage continued, with Queen Elizabeth II eventually becoming Norwood's patron.
A known mistress was Mrs Bugge. Sir William Dillon recorded in his diary they were both present with him at a party held by Emma Hamilton (Lord Nelson's mistress) where she rented tableware for the meal but neglected to rent a carving knife, creating great difficulty in serving the Christmas dinner to her guests.
In January 1813, Prince Augustus Frederick became Grand Master of the Premier Grand Lodge of England, and in December of that year his brother, Prince Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, became Grand Master of the Antient Grand Lodge of England. On 27 December 1813 the United Grand Lodge of England was constituted at Freemasons' Hall, London with Prince Augustus Frederick as Grand Master.
George Oliver's "Signs and Symbols Illustrated and Explained in a Course of Twelve Lectures on Freemasonry" (1837) was dedicated to Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex.
A year after the death of Lady Augusta D'Ameland (Lady Augusta Murray) , the Duke of Sussex married a second time on 2 May 1831 (again in contravention of the Royal Marriages Act) to Lady Cecilia Letitia Buggin (1793–1873), the eldest daughter of Arthur Gore, 2nd Earl of Arran, and Elizabeth Underwood, and the widow of Sir George Buggin. On the same day, Lady Cecilia assumed the surname Underwood by Royal Licence. She was never titled or recognized as the Duchess of Sussex. However, she was created Duchess of Inverness in her own right by Queen Victoria in 1840.
William IV appointed his younger brother Chief Ranger and Keeper of St James's Park and Hyde Park on 29 January 1831, and Queen Victoria appointed her uncle Governor of Windsor Castle in 1842. The Duke of Sussex was elected president of the Society of Arts in 1816 and held that post for the rest of his life. He also held the honorary posts of Colonel of the Hon. Artillery Company from 1817, and of Captain-General (at which point the posts were united) from 1837 onward. He was president of the Royal Society between 1830 and 1838, and had a keen interest in biblical studies and Hebrew. His personal library contained over 50,000 theological manuscripts, some in Hebrew. In 1838, he introduced in a meeting scientist John Herschel, and the Duke gave a speech in which he spoke about the compatibility of science and religion:
In making these remarks I am not presumptuous; but allow me to say, that attached as I am to science – attached as I am to religion, I am satisfied that the real philosopher is the most religious man; and it is in looking to the operations in nature that the finger of the Almighty leads us to the lesson.— 16 June 1838
The Duke of Sussex was the favourite uncle of Queen Victoria. He gave her away at her wedding to Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. The Duke of Sussex died, aged 70 of erysipelas, at Kensington Palace. in 1843. In his will he specified that he was not to have a state funeral and was accordingly buried at Kensal Green Cemetery on 4 May 1843. He is buried in front of the main chapel, immediately opposite the tomb of his sister, Princess Sophia.
The Duchess of Inverness continued to reside at Kensington Palace until her death in 1873. She was buried next to her second husband, Prince Augustus.
As a son of the sovereign, the Duke of Sussex had use of the arms of the kingdom, differenced by a label argent of three points, the centre point bearing two hearts gules, the outer points each bearing a cross gules.
|By Lady Augusta Murray (married 4 April 1793; annulled)|
|Augustus Frederick d'Este||1794||1848|
|Augusta Emma d'Este||1801||1866||married Thomas Wilde, 1st Baron Truro; no issue.|
|By Lady Cecilia Underwood (married 2 May 1831)|
Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex
Cadet branch of the House of WelfBorn: 27 January 1773 Died: 21 April 1843
The Earl of Moira
as Acting Grand Master of the Premier
Grand Lodge of England
| Grand Master of the United
Grand Lodge of England
The Earl of Zetland
The Duke of Kent and Strathearn
as Grand Master of the Antient
Grand Lodge of England
Title last held byThe Duke of Clarence and St Andrews
| Great Master of the Order of the Bath
The Prince Consort
Events from the year 1773 in Great Britain.1843 in the United Kingdom
Events from the year 1843 in the United Kingdom.Angharad Llwyd
Angharad Llwyd (15 April 1780 – 16 October 1866) was a Welsh antiquary and a prizewinner at the National Eisteddfod of Wales.
Llwyd was born at Caerwys in Flintshire, the daughter of Rev. John Lloyd, himself a noted antiquary. Her essay entitled Catalogue of Welsh Manuscripts, etc. in North Wales won a prize at the Welshpool eisteddfod of 1824. In 1827 Llwyd edited a revised version of Sir John Wynn's History of the Gwydir Family and in the following year, she was among those awarded silver medals by Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, on his visit to the eisteddfod at Denbigh. She won another first prize at the Beaumaris eisteddfod of 1833.Augustus d'Este
Sir Augustus Frederick d'Este, KCH (13 January 1794 – 28 December 1848) was a relative of the British royal family and the earliest recorded person for whom a definite diagnosis of multiple sclerosis can be made.Cecilia Underwood, 1st Duchess of Inverness
Cecilia Underwood, 1st Duchess of Inverness (born Lady Cecilia Letitia Gore; c. 1789 – 1 August 1873) was a mistress of Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex (sixth son of King George III). Despite marrying, their union was in contravention of the Royal Marriages Act 1772 and as such was considered legally void. Consequently, she could not be styled either as the Duchess of Sussex nor a Princess. She was created Duchess of Inverness, in her own right, by Queen Victoria, on 10 April 1840.Duke of Inverness
The Dukedom of Inverness was a title in the Jacobite Peerage of Great Britain, and as such was not recognised by the government or monarch or Great Britain. Its only holder was John Hay of Cromlix.
Lady Cecilia Underwood was the second wife of Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, the sixth son of King George III; however, their marriage was deemed illegal because of the Royal Marriages Act 1772, so Cecilia was never recognized as Duchess of Sussex or a British princess. Instead, Queen Victoria later created Cecilia Duchess of Inverness with remainder to the heirs male of her body lawfully begotten.Earl of Inverness
The title of Earl of Inverness (Scottish Gaelic: Iarla Inbhir Nis) was first created in 1718 in the Jacobite Peerage of Scotland, together with the titles Viscount of Innerpaphrie and Lord Cromlix and Erne, by James Francis Edward Stuart ("James III & VIII") for the Honourable John Hay of Cromlix, third son of the 7th Earl of Kinnoull. He was created Duke of Inverness in 1727, but both titles became extinct upon the death of the grantee in 1740.
It has been created several times in of the Peerage of the United Kingdom, each time as a subsidiary title for a member of the royal family. It was created first in 1801 as a subsidiary title of Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, sixth son of George III, becoming extinct in 1843. Sussex's second wife (whom he married in contravention of the Royal Marriages Act of 1772 making the marriage legally void) was given the title of Duchess of Inverness in her own right, which became extinct upon her death in 1873.
The next creation was for Prince George (later George V), second son of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (later Edward VII) and grandson of Queen Victoria, as a subsidiary title along with the Dukedom of York. As the Prince became King in 1910, succeeding his father, his titles merged in the crown.
The title was created again in 1920 as a subsidiary title of the Prince Albert (second son of George V), who was also created Duke of York at the same time. The title merged in the crown when Albert succeeded his brother in 1936 to become King George VI.
The title was created a fourth time in 1986 as a subsidiary title for Queen Elizabeth II's second son, Prince Andrew, Duke of York, along with the title of Baron Killyleagh.Highland Society of London
The Highland Society of London is a charity registered in England and Wales, with "the view of establishing and supporting schools in the Highlands and in the Northern parts of Great Britain, for relieving distressed Highlanders at a distance from their native homes, for preserving the antiquities and rescuing from oblivion the valuable remains of Celtic literature, and for promoting the improvement and general welfare of the Northern parts of Great Britain".James Andrew (educator)
James Andrew, LL.D. (1774?–13 June 1833), was the principal of the East India Company's Military Seminary at Addiscombe, Surrey from 1809 to 1822.
Andrew was from Scotland, and received his education at Aberdeen. He established a successful private military academy at Woolwich Common which prepared pupils for the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. In 1809 the East India Company purchased Addiscombe Place, near Croydon, to be its military seminary, training cadets for its private army in India. Andrew was appointed headmaster and Professor of Mathematics. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in March, 1821.The terms of his contract allowed him to accrue large profits from the cadets' fees: following criticism, the system was changed at his request in 1821. He retired in August 1822 and died at Edinburgh on 13 June 1833.
Andrew was the author of Astronomical and Nautical Tables (1805); Institutes of Grammar and Chronological Tables (1817); Key to Scriptural Chronology (1822); and Hebrew Grammar and Dictionary without Points (1823). The copy of this book in the British Library belonged to the Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, and contains an autograph letter of Andrew.Lady Augusta Murray
Lady Augusta De Ameland (née Murray; 27 January 1768 – 5 March 1830) was a mistress of Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, the sixth son of George III. Although they married, their union was in contravention of the Royal Marriages Act 1772 and as such was considered legally void. As a result she could not be styled as the Duchess of Sussex or be referred to as a Royal Highness.Leeds baronets
The Leeds Baronetcy, of Croxton Park in the County of Cambridge, is a title in the Baronetage of the United Kingdom. It was created on 31 December 1812 for George Leeds. He was an equerry to Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex. The Croxton Park estate in Cambridgeshire had been in the Leeds family since circa 1568. As of 2011 the presumed ninth and present Baronet, a resident of Canada, has not successfully proven his succession and is not on the Official Roll of the Baronetage.Maitland Club
The Maitland Club was a Scottish historical and literary club and text publication society, modelled on the Roxburghe Club and the Bannatyne Club. It took its name from Sir Richard Maitland (later Lord Lethington), the Scottish poet. The club was founded in Glasgow in 1828, to edit and publish early Scottish texts. Since the distribution of the publications was usually limited to members, the typical print run was between seventy and a hundred copies. The club was wound up in 1859, after publishing its own history as its 80th volume.Samuel Bellin
Samuel Bellin (13 May 1799 – 29 April 1893) was an English printmaker and engraver.
He was the son of John Bellin of Chigwell, Essex, and born at Doctors' Commons in London. He trained under the Huguenot James Basire the younger (1769-1822) before spending several years in Rome, where he came to know J. M. W. Turner, Frederick Catherwood and Bertel Thorvaldsen. While in Rome he made some excellent copies of celebrated pictures, and acquired great facility as a draughtsman.
On his return to England, about 1834, he devoted himself to engraving, and became one of the leading workers in mezzotint and the mixed method. His plates, which are all from pictures by popular English painters of the day, include 'The Meeting of the Council of the Anti-Corn Law League,' after J. R. Herbert; 'Heather Belles,' after John Phillip; 'The Council of War in the Crimea,' after Augustus Egg; 'The Gentle Warning,' after Frank Stone; 'The Heart's Resolve,' and 'The Momentous Question,' after Sarah Setchell; 'Milton composing "Samson Agonistes,"' after J. C. Horsley; 'Opening of the Great Exhibition of 1851,' after H. C. Selous; 'Salutation to the Aged Friars,' after C. L. Eastlake; 'Dr. Johnson's Visit to Garrick,' after E. M. Ward; and portraits of Albert, Prince Consort, Lord John Russell, and the M.P. Joseph Hume. He produced his last plate in 1870, when he retired from the profession. Bellin drew and etched on three plates a panoramic view of Rome from Monte Pincio, which he published, with a dedication to Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, in 1835. He was an original member of the Graphic Society. He died at his house in Regent's Park Road, London, on 29 April 1893.Sussex County, Western Australia
Sussex County was one of the 26 counties of Western Australia that were designated in 1829 as cadastral divisions. Lieutenant-Governor James Stirling named the county in honour of Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, the sixth son of George III.It approximately corresponds to the modern-day Sussex Land District which forms the basis for land titles in the area.Sussex Drive
Sussex Drive (French: Promenade Sussex) is a major street in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, and one of the city's major ceremonial and institutional routes.
Running roughly parallel to the Ottawa River, Sussex Drive begins at Rideau Street at the north end of Colonel By Drive, running north and then bending northeast until MacKay Street, where it becomes the Sir George-Étienne Cartier Parkway.
Sussex is a particularly famous street in the capital, as it is home to the Prime Minister's residence at 24 Sussex Drive and home to the Governor General's residence at Rideau Hall at 1 Sussex Drive. Also located on Sussex are Ottawa's former city hall on Green Island, which includes Earnscliffe, and a number of prominent embassies such as those of France, Japan, Saudi Arabia and the United States.
Other landmarks along Sussex are Major's Hill Park, the National Gallery of Canada, the Former Geological Survey of Canada Building, the Royal Canadian Mint, Rideau Falls Park, the Peacekeeping Monument, the National Laboratories, the Connaught Building, the John G. Diefenbaker Building, the Lester B. Pearson Building which is home to Foreign Affairs Canada, and the Archives of the Dominion Building, which is home to the Global Centre for Pluralism, and 700 Sussex Drive, a residential condo and retail complex. The most significant recent addition to Sussex Drive, having been opened on December 6, 2008, is the Delegation of the Ismaili Imamat, a representative building for His Highness the Aga Khan.
Sussex was originally three different streets. The section in the Byward Market was originally named Metcalfe Street, and the portion east of the Rideau River was known as Ottawa Street. The centre portion, named for Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, was then known as Sussex Street. Sussex Street was renamed Sussex Drive in 1967.In the 1960s the National Capital Commission launched a beautification campaign through the market section of the street. Beginning in 1961, the privately held buildings were purchased by the government and restored to their original appearances. The governments of Canada and the United Kingdom and the CANLOAN Army Officers Association erected a memorial on 3 June 1961 on the east side of Sussex Drive in Ottawa, Ontario dedicated to the memory of the 128 CANLOAN fatalities within the 673 that served in the British Army during the Second World War.Through the Byward Market area, Sussex is a northbound one-way arterial road (paired with Mackenzie Avenue), before joining up at the Alexandra Bridge approach where it becomes a four-lane principal arterial road, with a speed limit of 50 km/h (31 mph) south of the bend and 60 km/h (37 mph) north and east of the bend. Just before becoming the Sir George-Étienne Cartier Parkway, Sussex narrows to a two-lane rural-standard parkway.Sussex Parish, New Brunswick
Sussex is a Canadian parish in Kings County, New Brunswick.Sussex Street, Sydney
Sussex Street is a street in the central business district of Sydney in New South Wales, Australia. It runs north-south along the western side of the city, between Hickson Road and Hay Street. It is in the local government area of the City of Sydney. The street is 1.7 kilometres (1.1 mi) long. It was named in honour of Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, the sixth son of King George III.
The street is home to the state headquarters of the Australian Labor Party (ALP) and "Sussex St" is widely used as a metonym for the ALP in general and for ALP headquarters in particular.Thomas Birch (priest)
Thomas Birch DCL (1766 – 25 February 1840) was the Archdeacon of Lewes from 1823 until 1840. Birch was born in 1766, son of Rev. Thomas Birch, who was Rector of Thoresby in Lincolnshire. He was educated at Merchant Taylors' School, Northwood until 1785 when he was elected a fellow at St John's College, Oxford. He was also Dean of Battle (appointed 1801), Vicar of Westfield, Sussex (appointed in 1828), Vicar of Bexhill, Sussex (appointed in March 1836), and chaplain to the House of Correction in Battle (appointed in 1834). Birch was highly respected and in his office as Dean of Battle in 1820 he performed the baptism of the second son of Sir Godfrey Webster, 5th Baronet in the presence of the child's godfather, Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex.Birch was described in The Gentleman's Magazine as "amiable, learned, and pious".He married Maria Rosara Gordon, daughter of Charles Gordon, on 30 January 1804. Maria was the sister of James Alexander Gordon and niece of Sylvester Douglas, 1st Baron Glenbervie. They had four sons and five daughters. Their first son, Thomas Frederick Birch (born 16 January 1805) was in the Royal Navy, was commander of HMS Wizard (1830) in 1837, and retired a Rear-Admiral.He was buried at Bexhill, but after his death, the inhabitants of Battle erected a tablet to his memory in the nave of Battle Church. Additional tablets in the church are dedicated to five of his daughters and to his mother.Tracing board
Tracing boards are painted or printed illustrations depicting the various emblems and symbols of Freemasonry. They can be used as teaching aids during the lectures that follow each of the Masonic Degrees, when an experienced member explains the various concepts of Freemasonry to new members. They can also be used by experienced members as reminders of the concepts they learned as they went through the ceremonies of the different masonic degrees.
|Ancestors of Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex|
The generations indicate descent from George I, who formalised the use of the titles prince and princess for members of the British royal family.