Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn

Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (Arthur William Patrick Albert; 1 May 1850 – 16 January 1942) was the seventh child and third son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. He served as the Governor General of Canada, the tenth since Canadian Confederation and the only British prince to do so. In 1910 he was appointed Grand Prior of the Order of St John and held this position until 1939.

Arthur was educated by private tutors before entering the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich at the age of 16. Upon graduation, he was commissioned as a lieutenant in the British Army, where he served for some 40 years, seeing service in various parts of the British Empire. During this time he was also created a royal duke, becoming the Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, as well as the Earl of Sussex. In 1911, he was appointed as Governor General of Canada, replacing the Earl Grey as viceroy. He occupied this post until he was succeeded by the Duke of Devonshire in 1916. He acted as the King's, and thus the Canadian Commander-in-Chief's, representative through the first years of the First World War.

After the end of his viceregal tenure, Arthur returned to the United Kingdom and there, as well as in India, performed various royal duties, while also again taking up military duties. Though he retired from public life in 1928, he continued to make his presence known in the army well into the Second World War, before his death in 1942. He was Queen Victoria's last surviving son.

Prince Arthur
Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught
Prince Arthur in 1915
Governor General of Canada
In office13 October 1911 – 11 November 1916
MonarchGeorge V
PredecessorThe Earl Grey
SuccessorThe Duke of Devonshire
Prime Minister
Born1 May 1850
Buckingham Palace, London, England
Died16 January 1942 (aged 91)
Bagshot Park, Surrey, England
Burial19 March 1942
Spouse
Issue
Full name
Arthur William Patrick Albert
HouseWindsor (from 1917)
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
(until 1917)
FatherPrince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
MotherVictoria, Queen of the United Kingdom
Military career
Service/branch British Army
Years of service1868–1942
RankField Marshal
UnitRoyal Engineers
Royal Regiment of Artillery
Rifle Brigade
Commands heldInspector-General of the Forces
Commander-in-Chief, Ireland
Third Army Corps
Aldershot Command
Southern Command
Bombay Army
Battles/warsFenian Raids Anglo-Egyptian War
First World War
Second World War
AwardsVolunteer Officers' Decoration
Territorial Decoration

Early life

Queen Victoria with Prince Arthur
A painting of Queen Victoria with Prince Arthur by Franz Xaver Winterhalter.

Arthur was born at Buckingham Palace on 1 May 1850, the seventh child and third son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. The prince was baptised by the Archbishop of Canterbury, John Bird Sumner, on 22 June in the palace's private chapel. His godparents were Prince William of Prussia (the later King of Prussia and German Emperor Wilhelm I); his great-uncle's sister-in-law, Princess Bernard of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (for whom his maternal grandmother the Duchess of Kent stood proxy); and the Duke of Wellington, with whom he shared his birthday and after whom he was named.[1][2] As with his older brothers, Arthur received his early education from private tutors. It was reported that he became the Queen's favourite child.[3]

Military career

It was at an early age that Arthur developed an interest in the army, and in 1866 he followed through on his military ambitions by enrolling at the Royal Military College at Woolwich, from where he graduated two years later and was commissioned as a lieutenant in the Corps of Royal Engineers on 18 June 1868.[4] The Prince transferred to the Royal Regiment of Artillery on 2 November 1868 and,[5] on 2 August 1869, to the Rifle Brigade,[6] his father's own regiment, after which he conducted a long and distinguished career as an army officer, including service in South Africa, Canada in 1869, Ireland, Egypt in 1882, and in India from 1886 to 1890.

In Canada, Arthur, as an officer with the Montreal detachment of the Rifle Brigade,[2] undertook a year's training and engaged in defending the Dominion from the Fenian Raids; there was initially concern that his personal involvement in Canada's defence might put the Prince in danger from Fenians and their supporters in the United States, but it was decided his military duty was primary.[2] Following his arrival at Halifax, Arthur toured the country for eight weeks and made a visit in January 1870 to Washington, D.C., where he met with President Ulysses S. Grant.[2][7] During his service in Canada he was also entertained by Canadian society; among other activities, he attended an investiture ceremony in Montreal, was a guest at balls and garden parties, and attended the opening of parliament in Ottawa (becoming the first member of the royal family to do so),[7] all of which was documented in photographs that were sent back for the Queen to view. It was not, however, all social and state functions for Arthur; the Prince was on 25 May 1870 engaged in fending off Fenian invaders during the Battle of Eccles Hill, for which he received the Fenian Medal.[8]

Prince Arthur Mohawk Chapel Canada 1869
Prince Arthur met with the Chiefs of the Six Nations of the Grand River at the Mohawk Chapel in 1869.

Arthur made an impression on many in Canada. He was given on 1 October 1869 the title Chief of the Six Nations by the Iroquois of the Grand River Reserve in Ontario and the name Kavakoudge (meaning the sun flying from east to west under the guidance of the Great Spirit), enabling him to sit in the tribe's councils and vote on matters of tribe governance. As he became the 51st chief on the council, his appointment broke the centuries-old tradition that there should only be 50 chiefs of the Six Nations.[9] Of the Prince, Lady Lisgar, wife of then Governor General of Canada the Lord Lisgar, noted in a letter to Victoria that Canadians seemed hopeful Prince Arthur would one day return as governor general.[10]

Arthur was promoted to the honorary rank of colonel on 14 June 1871,[11] substantive lieutenant-colonel in 1876,[2] colonel on 29 May 1880 and,[12] on 1 April 13 years later, was made a general.[2] He gained military experience as Commander-in-Chief of the Bombay Army from December 1886 to March 1890.[13] He went on to be General Officer Commanding Southern District, at Portsmouth, from September 1890[14][15] to 1893.[16] The Prince had hoped to succeed his first cousin once-removed, the elderly Prince George, Duke of Cambridge, as Commander-in-chief of the British Army, upon the latter's forced retirement in 1895. But this desire was denied to Arthur, and instead he was given, between 1893[17] and 1898, command of the Aldershot District Command.[14]

In August 1899 the 6th Battalion, Rifles of the Canadian Non-Permanent Active Militia, located in Vancouver, British Columbia, asked Prince Arthur to give his name to the regiment and act as its honorary colonel. The regiment had recently been converted to the infantry role from the 2nd Battalion, 5th British Columbia Regiment of Canadian Artillery. With the Prince's agreement the unit was renamed 6th Regiment, Duke of Connaught's Own Rifles (DCORs) on 1 May 1900. He was subsequently appointed colonel-in-chief of the regiment, then known as The British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own), in 1923. He held that appointment until his death.

On 26 June 1902 he was promoted to the post of field marshal, and thereafter served in various important positions, including Commander-in-Chief of Ireland, from January 1900[18] to 1904, with the dual position of commander of the Third Army Corps from October 1901,[19] and Inspector-General of the Forces, between 1904 and 1907.

Peerage, marriage, and family

On his mother's birthday (24 May) in 1874, Arthur was created a royal peer, being titled as the Duke of Connaught and Strathearn and Earl of Sussex.[20] Some years later, Arthur came into the direct line of succession to the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in Germany, upon the death in 1899 of his nephew, Prince Alfred of Edinburgh, the only son of his elder brother, Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh. He decided, however, to renounce his own and his son's succession rights to the duchy, which then passed to his other nephew, Prince Charles Edward, the posthumous son of Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany.[21]

ArthurConnaughtfamille
The Duke and Duchess of Connaught with their three children, 1893.

At St. George's Chapel in Windsor Castle, on 13 March 1879, Arthur married Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia, the daughter of Prince Frederick Charles and a great-niece of the German Emperor, Arthur's godfather, Wilhelm I. The couple had three children: Princess Margaret Victoria Charlotte Augusta Norah (born 15 January 1882), Prince Arthur Frederick Patrick Albert (born 13 January 1883), and Princess Victoria Patricia Helena Elizabeth (born 17 March 1886), who were all raised at the Connaughts' country home, Bagshot Park, in Surrey, and after 1900 at Clarence House, the Connaughts' London residence. Through his children's marriages, Arthur became the father-in-law of Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden; Princess Alexandra, Duchess of Fife; and Sir Alexander Ramsay. Arthur's first two children predeceased him; Margaret while pregnant with his sixth grandchild.[n 1] For many years, Arthur maintained a liaison with Leonie, Lady Leslie, sister of Jennie Churchill, while still remaining devoted to his wife.[22]

Alongside his military career, he continued to undertake royal duties beyond, or vaguely associated with, the army. On the return from a posting in India, he again, this time with his wife, toured Canada in 1890, stopping in all major cities across the country.[9] He also toured Canada in 1906.[23] In 1910, Arthur travelled aboard the Union-Castle Line ship Balmoral Castle to South Africa, to open the first parliament of the newly formed union,[24] and in Johannesburg on 30 November he laid a commemorative stone at the Rand Regiments Memorial, dedicated to the British soldiers that died during the Second Boer War.[25] When his brother was obliged to resign the office upon his accession in 1901 as King Edward VII, Prince Arthur was elected as Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of England and was subsequently re-elected as such an additional 37 times before 1939, when the Prince was nearly 90 years of age.

Governor General of Canada

It was announced on 6 March 1911 that King George V had, by commission under the royal sign-manual, approved the recommendation of his British prime minister, H.H. Asquith, to appoint Arthur as his representative.[26] His brother-in-law, the Duke of Argyll, had previously served as the country's governor general, but when Arthur was sworn in on 13 October 1911 in the salon rouge of the parliament buildings of Quebec,[27] he became the first Governor General of Canada who was a member of the British royal family.[26]

HRH the Duke of Connaught and staff (HS85-10-26905)
The Duke of Connaught with his staff in 1913. He was appointed as the Governor General of Canada from 1911 to 1916.

To Canada, Arthur brought with him his wife and his youngest daughter, the latter of whom would become an extremely popular figure with Canadians. The Governor General and his viceregal family travelled throughout the country, performing such constitutional and ceremonial tasks as opening parliament in 1911 (to which Arthur wore his field marshal's uniform and the Duchess of Connaught wore the gown she had worn at the King's coronation the previous year) and,[27] in 1917, laying at the newly rebuilt Centre Block on Parliament Hill the same cornerstone his older brother, the late King Edward VII, had set on 1 September 1860, when the original building was under construction. The family crossed the country a number of times and the Governor General made another trip to the United States in 1912, when he met with President William Howard Taft.[28]

When in Ottawa, Connaught maintained a routine of four days each week at his office on Parliament Hill and held small, private receptions for members of all political parties and dignitaries. The Duke learned to ice skate and hosted skating parties at the royal and viceroyal residence— Rideau Hall— to which the Connaughts made many physical improvements during Arthur's term as governor general. The royal family also took to camping and other outdoor sports, such as hunting and fishing.[29]

Postcard of Vice-Regal Visit to Valcartier Military Base 1914
Prince Arthur and his viceregal party visit the Valcartier military base in 1914.

In 1914, the First World War broke out, with Canadians called to arms against Germany and Austria-Hungary. Arthur maintained a wider role in the empire— for instance, from 1912 until his death, serving as Colonel-in-Chief of the Cape Town Highlanders Regiment[30]— but the Connaughts remained in Canada after the beginning of the global conflict, with Arthur emphasising the need for military training and readiness for Canadian troops departing for war, and giving his name to Connaught Cup for the Royal Northwest Mounted Police, to encourage pistol marksmanship for recruits. He was also active in auxiliary war services and charities and conducted hospital visits. Though well intended, upon the outbreak of the war, Arthur immediately donned his field marshal's uniform and went, without advice or guidance from his ministers, to training grounds and barracks to address the troops and to see them off before their voyage to Europe. This was much to the chagrin of Prime Minister Robert Borden, who saw the Prince as overstepping constitutional conventions.[31] Borden placed blame on the military secretary, Edward Stanton (whom Borden considered to be "mediocre"), but also opined that Arthur "laboured under the handicap of his position as a member of the royal family and never realised his limitations as Governor General."[32] At the same time, the Duchess of Connaught worked for the Red Cross and other organisations to support the war cause. She was also Colonel-in-Chief of the Duchess of Connaught's Own Irish Canadian Rangers battalion, one of the regiments in the Canadian Expeditionary Force, and Princess Patricia also lent her name and support to the raising of a new Canadian army regiment— Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry.

His term as Canada's Governor General ended in 1916.

Following the war, Arthur commissioned in memory of Canada's fallen a stained glass window which is located in St. Bartholomew's Church, Ottawa, next to Rideau Hall, and which the family attended regularly.

Later life

Laszlo - Prince Arthur, The Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
Portrait by Philip de László, 1937.

After his years in Canada, the Duke of Connaught and Strathearn held no similar public offices but undertook a number of public engagements. In 1921, he travelled to India, where he officially opened the new Central Legislative Assembly, Council of State, and Chamber of Princes.[33] During his time in India, the Indian National Congress's first satyagraha was ongoing; as part of this, shops were closed and few Indians attended the official ceremonies when he visited Calcutta in the same year.[34] As president of the Boy Scouts Association and one of Lord Baden-Powell's friends and admirers, he performed the official opening of the 3rd World Scout Jamboree at Arrowe Park.

The Duke also returned to military service and continued well into the Second World War,[35] where he was seen as a grandfather figure by aspiring recruits. The Duchess, who had been ill during their years at Rideau Hall, died in March 1917, and Arthur mostly withdrew from public life in 1928; his last formal engagement was the opening of the Connaught Gardens in Sidmouth, Devon, on 3 November 1934.

Death

He died on 16 January 1942 at Bagshot Park, at the age of 91 years, 8 months and 15 days, the same age to the day as his elder sister, Louise, Duchess of Argyll, who had died three years before. A funeral service for the Duke was held at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle on 23 January, after which his body was placed temporarily in the Tomb House beneath the Albert Memorial Chapel in Windsor.[36] He was buried on 19 March 1942 in the Royal Burial Ground, Frogmore.[37][38] He was the second last of Queen Victoria's children to die, with his younger sister Princess Beatrice dying two years later.

Titles, styles, honours and arms

As a member of the royal family and having been a viceroy, Prince Arthur held a number of titles and styles during his life. He was also the recipient of many honours, both domestic and foreign. He was an active member of the military, eventually reaching the rank of Field Marshal, and served as personal aide-de-camp to four successive sovereigns.

Arms

Issue

Image Name Birth Death Notes
Margaret of Connaught Princess Margaret of Connaught 15 January 1882 1 May 1920 married, 15 June 1905, Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden; had issue. Grandchildren include Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, Queen Anne-Marie of Greece and Margarethe II of Denmark.
Prince Arthur of Connaught Garter Prince Arthur of Connaught 13 January 1883 12 September 1938 married, 15 October 1913, Princess Alexandra, 2nd Duchess of Fife; had issue
Princess Patricia Princess Patricia of Connaught 17 March 1886 12 January 1974 married, 27 February 1919, Captain Sir Alexander Ramsay, renouncing her title and becoming Lady Patricia Ramsay; had issue

See also

Named in his honour:

Notes

  1. ^ Through Princess Margaret, the reigning monarchs of Sweden and Denmark are descended from the Duke of Connaught and Strathearn.

References

  1. ^ "No. 21108". The London Gazette. 26 June 1850. p. 1807.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Bousfield, Arthur; Toffoli, Gary (2010). Home to Canada: Royal Tours 1786–2010. Tonawanda: Dundurn Press. p. 80. ISBN 978-1-55488-800-9.
  3. ^ Erickson, Carolly (15 January 2002). Her Little Majesty: The Life of Queen Victoria. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7432-3657-7.
  4. ^ "No. 23391". The London Gazette. 19 June 1868. p. 3431.
  5. ^ "No. 23436". The London Gazette. 30 October 1868. p. 5467.
  6. ^ "No. 23522". The London Gazette. 3 August 1869. p. 4313.
  7. ^ a b Bousfield 2010, p. 81
  8. ^ Bousfield 2010, p. 82
  9. ^ a b Bousfield 2010, p. 83
  10. ^ Hubbard, R.H. (1977). Rideau Hall. Montreal and London: McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-7735-0310-6.
  11. ^ "No. 23751". The London Gazette. 30 June 1871. p. 3006.
  12. ^ "No. 24849". The London Gazette. 29 May 1880. p. 3269.
  13. ^ India Office (1819). The India List and India Office List. London: Harrison. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
  14. ^ a b "Army Commands" (PDF). Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  15. ^ "No. 26084". The London Gazette. 2 September 1890. p. 4775.
  16. ^ "No. 26458". The London Gazette. 14 November 1893. p. 6356.
  17. ^ "No. 26446". The London Gazette. 3 October 1893. p. 5554.
  18. ^ "No. 27154". The London Gazette. 16 January 1900. p. 289.
  19. ^ "No. 27360". The London Gazette. 1 October 1901. p. 6400.
  20. ^ "No. 24098". The London Gazette. 26 May 1874. p. 2779.
  21. ^ "House Laws of the Saxe-Coburg and Gotha". Heraldica.org.
  22. ^ King, Greg (2007). Twilight of Splendor: The Court of Queen Victoria During Her Diamond Jubilee. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-470-04439-1.
  23. ^ Edmonton Bulletin, 9 March 1906
  24. ^ Cox, Martin. "Union-Castle Line – A brief Company History". Maritime Matters. Archived from the original on 17 September 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2008.
  25. ^ "The Anglo-Boer War Memorial at the Museum of Military History". The All at Sea Network. Archived from the original on 18 September 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2008.
  26. ^ a b Office of the Governor General of Canada. "Governor General > Former Governors General > Field Marshal His Royal Highness the Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 30 April 2009.
  27. ^ a b Bousfield 2010, p. 85
  28. ^ Bousfield 2010, p. 86
  29. ^ Bousfield 2010, p. 87
  30. ^ "History – Past Royal Connections". Cape Town Highlanders Website (Unofficial). Archived from the original on 8 October 2007. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
  31. ^ Hubbard, R.H. (1977). Rideau Hall. Montreal and London: McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-0-7735-0310-6.
  32. ^ Borden, Robert (1 January 1969). Memoires. 1. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart. pp. 601–602.
  33. ^ Harrison, Brian, ed. (2004), "Arthur, Prince, first duke of Connaught and Strathearn", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, I, Oxford: Oxford University Press
  34. ^ Jane Shuter, Rosemary Rees, William Beinart, Edward Teversham, Rick Rogers (2015). Searching for rights and freedoms in the 20th century. London: Pearson Education Limited. p. 196. ISBN 978-1-447-98533-4.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  35. ^ Bell, Edward (4 June 1939), Letter to Mrs. E.I.J. Bell, The Letter Repository, retrieved 25 April 2010
  36. ^ "The Late Duke of Connaught". The Times (49189). London. 20 March 1942. p. 7.
  37. ^ "Duke Of Connaught Dead In England, 91. Last of Four Sons of Queen Victoria, Governor General of Canada, 1911-16. King Orders Mourning. Senior Field Marshal of the British Army Had a Notable Career in Armed Forces". New York Times. 17 January 1942. p. 8.
  38. ^ Coincidentally this was exactly the same age at which his elder sister, Princess Louise, Dowager Duchess of Argyll, died, making them jointly the two longest-lived of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert's nine children with him being the longest-lived living at almost 92.
  39. ^ "British Royalty Cadency". Heraldica. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  40. ^ Louda, Jiří; Maclagan, Michael (1999). Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe. London: Little, Brown. p. 34. ISBN 1-85605-469-1.

External links

Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
Cadet branch of the House of Wettin
Born: 1 May 1850 Died: 16 January 1942
Government offices
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Governor General of Canada
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1850 in Canada

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Events from the year 1874 in Ireland.

Albert Grey, 4th Earl Grey

Albert Henry George Grey, 4th Earl Grey (28 November 1851 – 29 August 1917) was a British nobleman and politician who served as Governor General of Canada, the ninth since Canadian Confederation. He was a radical Liberal aristocrat, founder of the Society of Apostles, and Aricles Club and a member of a string of liberal high society clubs in London. An active and articulate campaigner in late Victorian England he was associated with many of the leading Imperialists seeking change.

Albert Grey was born into a noble and political family, though at birth not in direct line to inherit the earldom. His father General Charles Grey was a younger brother of the 3rd earl, who died without issue. As General Grey was deceased, the titles descended to his eldest living son Albert, then in his forties. Albert was educated at Harrow School before going up to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated MA and LLM.In 1878, he entered into politics as a member of the Liberal Party and, after relinquishing a tied vote to his opponent, eventually won a place in the British House of Commons in 1880. In 1894 Grey inherited the Earldom Grey from his uncle, the third Earl, and thereafter took his place in the House of Lords, while simultaneously undertaking business ventures around the British Empire as Director of the British South Africa Company from 1898, he experienced a steep learning curve during high tension with the Boers. As administrator in Rhodesia he was directly responsible to Cecil Rhodes for conduct of the colony's business from 1894 to 1897. On his return in 1899 he was appointed Lord Lieutenant of his native Northumberland.The 4th Earl was in 1904 appointed as Governor General of Canada by King Edward VII, on the recommendation of Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Arthur Balfour, to replace the Earl of Minto as viceroy and occupied that post until succeeded by Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, in 1911. Grey travelled extensively in Canada and was active in Canadian political affairs, including national unity, leaving behind him a number of legacies, the most prominent being the Grey Cup.

Alexander Ramsay (Royal Navy officer)

Admiral Sir Alexander Robert Maule Ramsay, (29 May 1881 – 8 October 1972) was a Royal Navy officer. He was the husband of Princess Patricia of Connaught, the youngest child of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, third son of Queen Victoria. He served with distinction during the First World War. During the 1920s and 1930s, he held several important naval aviation commands.

Canadian Public Health Association

The Canadian Public Health Association (CPHA) is a national non-profit organization dedicated to public health.

The association was founded in 1910 by the editors of the Public Health Journal, which became the Canadian Public Health Journal under the auspices of the new organization. CPHA's objective was to establish professional standards for the field of public health and to advance research in the area. Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn was named as the patron of the new organization, and its first president was T.A. Starkey of McGill University. CPHA received a federal charter in 1912. The organization celebrated its centenary in 2010.The Association journal was later called the Canadian Journal of Public Health.

Cheylesmore Memorial

The Cheylesmore Memorial is a Grade II listed outdoor stone memorial dedicated to British Army officer Herbert Eaton, 3rd Baron Cheylesmore, located in the Victoria Embankment Gardens in Westminster, London, England. The memorial was designed by Edwin Lutyens and unveiled in 1930.At the dedication ceremony on 17 July 1930, the memorial was unveiled by Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, the third son of Queen Victoria. Those attending included John Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe and Paul Methuen, 3rd Baron Methuen.The memorial is made of Portland stone and has seats backing on to a decorative screen facing a small pond. An inscription at the centre of the screen reads:

Major-General Lord Cheylesmore, GBE, KCMG, KCMO, Grenadier Guards. Born 1848. Died 1925. Soldier, administrator, philanthropist and steadfast friend.

Grandchildren of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

This is a list of the 42 grandchildren of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, the British ruler from 1837 to 1901 and her consort. Each was therefore either a sibling or a first cousin to each of the others. It also lists Victoria and Albert's 9 children and 87 great-grandchildren, as well as the spouses of those children and grandchildren who married.

Jubilee bust of Queen Victoria

The Jubilee bust of Queen Victoria is a sculpted bust of Queen Victoria, made as an official commemoration her 1887 golden jubilee by the sculptor Francis John Williamson. Many copies were made, and distributed throughout the British Empire.Many other busts of Victoria were carved, including others commemorating her golden and other jubilees, and these should not be confused with the Williamson Jubilee bust.

List of Knights Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order appointed by Victoria

The Royal Victorian Order is an order of knighthood awarded by the sovereign of the United Kingdom and several Commonwealth realms. It is granted personally by the monarch and recognises personal service to the monarchy, the Royal Household, royal family members, and the organisation of important royal events. The order was officially created and instituted on 23 April 1896 by letters patent under the Great Seal of the Realm by Queen Victoria. It was instituted with five grades, Knight Grand Cross (GCVO), Knight Commander (KCVO), Commander (CVO), Member (fourth class) and Member (fifth class), the last two of which were abbreviated to MVO. The two highest conferred the status of knighthood on holders; in 1984, the grade of Member (fourth class) was renamed Lieutenant (LVO), and holders of the fifth grade became Members. Women were not admitted until 1936; those receiving the highest two awards were styled Dames and those grades, when conferred on women, are Dame Grand Cross and Dame Commander (DCVO). The order could also be conferred on foreigners, who were typically appointed to honorary grades and were thus not entitled to the styles, such as Sir and Dame, associated with ordinary grades.

No limit was placed on the number of appointments which could be made. The first two appointments were to Queen Victoria's sons, Albert, Prince of Wales, and Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, who both received the highest grade on 6 May 1896. The first honorary GCVO to be appointed was Arsène Henry, the Prefect of the Alpes Maritimes, France, two days later. Queen Victoria appointed 19 Knights Grand Cross, plus an additional 28 honorary Knights Grand Cross, between the order's institution and her death on 22 January 1901; of those 19, six were to Princes of the United Kingdom—her own children, grandchildren or other close relatives—and a further seven to those already holding a peerage.The foreign appointments included 14 Germans, six Russians, two Frenchmen, and one Austro-Hungarian, Chinese, Dane, Egyptian, Montenegrin and Spanish citizens. The King of Spain, Emperor of Germany and Prince of Montenegro were among them, along with several German princes and courtiers from Russia and Germany. Five honorary appointments were made to mark the Coronation of Nicholas II of Russia in 1896 and four to mark the occasion of the German Emperor's visit to England in 1899.

List of heirs to Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

In the redistribution of land among the Ernestine duchies that followed the death of the last Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg on 11 February 1825, the late Duke's nephew-in-law, Duke Ernst III of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, received Gotha, while he ceded Saalfeld to the Duke of Saxe-Meiningen. On 12 November 1826 he thus became Ernst I of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. The duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha remained in personal union until 1852, when a political union was effected.

This article is a list of those men who were heir-apparent or heir-presumptive to Saxe-Coburg and Gotha from 1826 until the abolition of the monarchy on 14 November 1918.

List of titles and honours of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn

This is a list of the titles and honours held by Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, a senior officer of the British Army, Governor General of Canada, and member of the British Royal Family as third son of Queen Victoria.

Prince Arthur

Prince Arthur may refer to:

Arthur I, Duke of Brittany (1187-1203), nephew and possible heir of Richard I of England

Arthur, Prince of Wales (1486–1502), eldest son Henry VII of England

Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (1850–1942), third son of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom

Prince Arthur of Connaught (1883–1938), the only son of the above Prince Arthur

King Arthur also features as "Prince Arthur" in some works, as in Richard Blackmore's epic Prince Arthur, an Heroick Poem in X Books and Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queen

PS Prince Arthur, a paddle steamer in service 1867–1885

Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia

Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia (Louise Margaret Alexandra Victoria Agnes; later Duchess of Connaught and Strathearn; 25 July 1860 – 14 March 1917) was a German princess, and later a member of the British Royal Family, the wife of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn. She also served as the Viceregal Consort of Canada, when her husband served as the Governor General of Canada from 1911 to 1916. King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden and Queens Margrethe II of Denmark and Anne-Marie of Greece are among her great-grandchildren.

St. Bartholomew's Anglican Church (Ottawa)

St. Bartholomew's Anglican Church is a place of worship in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The building was constructed in the latter half of the 19th century and serves the surrounding neighbourhoods. Additionally, St. Bartholomew's is, due to its location next to Rideau Hall, the place of worship for various Governors General of Canada (whether or not of the Anglican faith) and some members of the Canadian Royal Family. It is also the regimental chapel of the Governor General's Foot Guards.

TSS Duke of Connaught

TSS Duke of Connaught was a passenger vessel operated jointly by the London and North Western Railway and the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway from 1902 to 1922. In the LYR-LNWR naming system, she was named for Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (1850-1942), a younger son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.

Thomas G. Rae

Lieutenant Thomas Gillies Rae was a World War I flying ace credited with six aerial victories.

He served with the Royal Flying Corps during World War I and was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross. He served in Flanders and in Europe. After the war he went to South West Africa and worked in the Administration, Public Works Department, where he later became senior inspector of works in Windhoek until 1945 when he retired to his farm in Grootfontein district. He died in Volka hospital in Cape Town on 22 June 1957 at the age of 72 years. Tribute has been paid to Mr Rae as having contributed a great deal to the development of the Territory. He was a capable officer and did much pioneer work in the South West. He was a great hunter, and in 1928 accompanied HRH Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (third son of Queen Victoria and at the time the Governor General) on a three-week hunting trip covering 1,600 miles, and in 1926/7 accompanied the Governor General Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone (third son of Francis, Duke of Teck, brother of Queen Mary of Teck, who was married to Princess Alice of Albany in 1904) on an elephant hunt in South Kaokoveld.

Mention must be made that "Tommy" was one of the finest all-round sportsmen that his country ever produced. He started competitive swimming at the age of 11 years, being the youngest to obtain the honour of holding the Western Province Diving Championships for several years undefeated. For five years he competed in the Currie Cup (inter provincial) with the Water Polo Teams (Johannesburg) and represented South Africa many times. He was an outstanding diver and swimmer and used to dive off the cranes at the Cape Town Docks. An outstanding football player, he played in the Currie Cup, Western Province Mother Country vs Colonial born and England vs Scotland. He was an undefeated featherweight boxing champion for four years ending in 1907 and was selected to go to England for trials but was unable due to work commitments and insufficient time to train. "Tommy" won countless other medals and prizes for running, walking, cricket, tennis, golf, billiards, horse riding and lifesaving (actual and theoretical)

Thomas Gillies Rae enlisted at the age of 16, served in the South African War with the Imperial Light Horse Campaign Regiment and then the Royal Flying Corps where he was awarded the D.F.C in France as a lone fighter pilot, being "cool, calm and fearless"

Victor Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire

Victor Christian William Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire (31 May 1868 – 6 May 1938), known as Victor Cavendish until 1908, was a British peer and politician who served as Governor General of Canada.

A member of the Cavendish family, he was educated at Eton College and the University of Cambridge. After the death of his father in 1891, he entered politics, winning his father's constituency unopposed. He held that seat until he inherited his uncle's dukedom in 1908. Thereafter, he took his place in the House of Lords, while, for a period at the same time, acting as mayor of Eastbourne and Chesterfield. He held various government posts both prior to and after his rise to the peerage. In 1916 he was appointed governor general of Canada by King George V, on the recommendation of Prime Minister H. H. Asquith, to replace Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, as viceroy. He occupied that post until succeeded by Lord Byng of Vimy in 1921. The appointment was initially controversial but, by the time of his return to England, the Duke had earned praise for the way in which he carried out his official duties.

Following his tenure as governor general, he returned to political and diplomatic life, serving as Secretary of State for the Colonies between 1922 and 1924, before retiring to his estate in Derbyshire, where he died on 6 May 1938.

Wedding dress of Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia

The wedding dress of Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia was worn by her at her wedding to Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, at St. George's Chapel, Windsor, on 13 March 1879. Prince Arthur was the seventh child and third son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

The bride wore a heavy white satin dress, a band of lace ten centimeters long encircling the waist. The skirt was sewn with lace 30 centimeters wide and decorated with a bunch of myrtle-leaves, the emblem in Germany of the bridal state. The train was four meters long and surmounted by a lace flounce one meter in width made in Silesia, in which a sprig of myrtle was fixed. The bridal veil was about three meters square, made of point d'Alençon lace, the design representing orange blossoms, roses, and myrtle-leaves intertwined.The veil was fastened to her hair with five diamond stars, the gift of the bridegroom. The handkerchief was made of the same material as the veil and showed the same design, one corner being embellished with the princess's monogram, the other with a Prussian eagle. The Princess carried a bouquet of white flowers.

The bridesmaids wore dresses of white satin duchess faille and mousseline de soie embroidered with wild rosebuds and foliage: the flowers representing England, Scotland, Ireland and Germany.

Coat of arms of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
Coat of Arms of Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
Notes
Prince Arthur was granted a coat of arms with his dukedom, consisting of the escutcheon of the arms of the sovereign in right of the United Kingdom, with a difference of a label argent, of three points, the first and third bearing fleurs-de-lys azure, and the central a cross gules and an inescutcheon of Saxony. In 1917, the inescutcheon was dropped by royal warrant from King George V.[39]
Adopted
1874
Escutcheon
Quarterly 1st and 4th gules three lions passant guardant in pale or 2nd or a lion rampant gules within a double tressure flory counterflory gules 3rd azure a harp or stringed argent. Overall differenced by a label of three points argent, the central point charged with a St George's Cross, the points dexter and sinister charged with a Fleur-de-Lis azure. Until 1917, an inescutcheon of Saxony (for his father).
Supporters
Dexter a lion rampant gardant or imperially crowned proper, sinister a unicorn argent, armed, crined and unguled or, gorged with a coronet or composed of crosses patée and fleurs de lis a chain affixed thereto passing between the forelegs and reflexed over the back also or.
Banner
Royal Standard of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (1917-1942).svg Arthur's banner of arms between 1917 and 1942.

Royal Standard of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (1868-1917).svg (The previous version with the coat of arms of the Royal House of Saxony superimposed on it.)

Symbolism
As with the Royal Arms of the United Kingdom. The first and fourth quarters are the arms of England, the second of Scotland, the third of Ireland.
Ancestors of Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn[40]
8. Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (= 14)
4. Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
9. Countess Augusta of Reuss-Ebersdorf (= 15)
2. Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
10. Augustus, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
5. Princess Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
11. Duchess Louise Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
1. Prince Arthur,
Duke of Connaught and Strathearn
12. George III of the United Kingdom
6. Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn
13. Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
3. Victoria of the United Kingdom
14. Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (= 8)
7. Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
15. Countess Augusta of Reuss-Ebersdorf (= 9)
1st generation
2nd generation
3rd generation
4th generation
5th generation
6th generation
7th generation
8th generation
9th generation
10th generation
11th generation
12th generation
Forefather
1st generation
2nd generation
3rd generation
4th generation
5th generation
6th generation
7th generation
8th generation
Governors General of Canada
Grand Masters
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