Prince Andrew, Duke of York

Prince Andrew, Duke of York, KG, GCVO, CD, ADC(P) (Andrew Albert Christian Edward, born 19 February 1960) is a member of the British royal family. He is the third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. At the time of his birth, he was second in the line of succession to the British throne; as of December 2018 he is seventh in line.

He holds the rank of commander and the honorary rank of Vice Admiral (as of February 2015) in the Royal Navy, in which he served as an active-duty helicopter pilot and instructor and as the captain of a warship. He saw active service during the Falklands War, flying on multiple missions including anti-surface warfare, Exocet missile decoy, and casualty evacuation.

In 1986, Prince Andrew married Sarah Ferguson; the couple's marriage, subsequent separation and eventual divorce in 1996 attracted a high level of media coverage. As well as carrying out various official engagements, he served as Britain's Special Representative for International Trade and Investment until July 2011.

Prince Andrew
Duke of York (more)
Prince Andrew August 2014 (cropped)
The Duke of York in August 2014
Born19 February 1960 (age 58)
Buckingham Palace, London, England
Sarah Ferguson
(m. 1986; div. 1996)
Full name
Andrew Albert Christian Edward[a]
FatherPrince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
MotherQueen Elizabeth II
Military career
Service/branchRoyal Navy
Years of service1978–2001 (active service)
RankVice Admiral
Battles/warsFalklands War

Early life and education

Prince Andrew was born in the Belgian Suite of Buckingham Palace on 19 February 1960,[2] the third child and second son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. He was baptised in the Palace's Music Room on 8 April 1960 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Geoffrey Fisher.[b] He is the namesake of his paternal grandfather, Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark, who died 16 years before he was born.

G House from the South Lawn on an Autumn Afternoon

Prince Andrew was the first child born to a reigning monarch since the birth in 1857 of Queen Victoria's youngest child, Princess Beatrice.[4] As with his older siblings, Andrew was looked after by a governess, who was responsible for his early education at Buckingham Palace.[5] He was sent to Heatherdown School near Ascot in Berkshire.[6] In September 1973, he entered Gordonstoun, in northern Scotland, which his father and elder brother had attended before him.[7] While there, he spent six months—from January to June 1977—participating in an exchange programme to Lakefield College School in Canada.[6][8] He left Gordonstoun in July two years later with A-Levels[8] in English, history, economics, and political science. He did not go to university but instead entered the Britannia Royal Naval College at Dartmouth.[9]

Military service

Royal Navy

The Royal Household announced in November 1978 that Prince Andrew would join the Royal Navy the following year. In December he underwent various sporting tests and examinations at the Aircrew Selection Centre, at RAF Biggin Hill, along with further tests and interviews at HMS Daedalus, and interviews at the Admiralty Interview Board, HMS Sultan. During March and April 1979, the prince was enrolled at the Royal Naval College Flight, undergoing pilot training, until he was accepted as a trainee helicopter pilot and signed on for 12 years from 11 May 1979. On 1 September of the same year, Prince Andrew was appointed as a midshipman, and entered Britannia Royal Naval College, Dartmouth.[10] During 1980 he also took the Royal Marines All Arms Commando Course.

After passing out from Dartmouth, the prince went on to elementary flying training with the Royal Air Force at RAF Leeming, and later, basic flying training with the navy at HMS Seahawk, where he learned to fly the Gazelle helicopter.[10] After being awarded his wings, he moved onto more advanced training on the Sea King helicopter, and conducted operational flying training until 1982. He joined carrier-based squadron, 820 Naval Air Squadron, serving aboard the aircraft carrier, HMS Invincible.[10]

Falklands War

The Falkland Islands, which are a British overseas territory claimed by Argentina,[11] were invaded by Argentina on 2 April 1982, an event that instigated the Falklands War. Invincible was one of the two operational aircraft carriers available at the time, and, as such, was to play a major role in the Royal Navy task force assembled to sail south to retake the islands.

Prince Andrew's place on board and the possibility of the Queen's son being killed in action made the British Government apprehensive, and the Cabinet desired that Prince Andrew be moved to a desk job for the duration of the conflict. The Queen, though, insisted that her son be allowed to remain with his ship.[12] Prince Andrew remained on board Invincible to serve as a Sea King helicopter co-pilot, flying on missions that included anti-submarine warfare and anti-surface warfare, Exocet missile decoy, casualty evacuation, transport, and search and air rescue.[13][14][15] He witnessed the Argentinian attack on the SS Atlantic Conveyor.[16]

At the cessation of the war, Invincible returned to Portsmouth, where the Queen and Prince Philip joined other families of the crew in welcoming the vessel home. The Argentine military government reportedly planned, but did not attempt, to assassinate the prince on Mustique in July 1982.[17] Though he had brief assignments to HMS Illustrious, RNAS Culdrose, and the Joint Services School of Intelligence, Prince Andrew remained with Invincible until 1983. Commander Nigel Ward's memoir, Sea Harrier Over the Falklands, described Prince Andrew as "an excellent pilot and a very promising officer."[18]

Following his return from the Falklands War and until his marriage to Sarah Ferguson, Prince Andrew dated actress Koo Stark.[19]

Career naval officer

Prince Andrew and Leon E. Panetta
The Duke of York with the US Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta commemorating the 100th anniversary of Naval Aviation at the National Building Museum in 2011

In late 1983, Prince Andrew transferred to RNAS Portland, was trained to fly the Lynx helicopter, and was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant on 1 February 1984, whereupon the Queen appointed him as her personal aide-de-Camp.[10] Prince Andrew served aboard HMS Brazen as a flight pilot until 1986,[10] including deployment to the Mediterranean Sea as part of Standing NRF Maritime Group 2. He undertook the Lieutenants' Greenwich Staff course. On 23 October 1986, the Duke of York (as he was by then) transferred to the General List, enrolled in a four-month helicopter warfare instructor's course at RNAS Yeovilton, and, upon graduation, served from February 1987 to April 1988 as a helicopter warfare officer in 702 Naval Air Squadron, RNAS Portland. He also served on HMS Edinburgh as an Officer of the Watch and Assistant Navigating Officer until 1989, including a six-month deployment as part of exercise Outback 88 to the Far East.[10]

The Duke of York served as flight commander and pilot of the Lynx HAS3 on HMS Campbeltown from 1989 to 1991, during which he also acted as Force Aviation Officer to Standing NRF Maritime Group 1 while Campbeltown was flagship of the NATO force in the North Atlantic from 1990 to 1991.[10] He passed the squadron command examination on 16 July 1991, attended the Staff College, Camberley, the following year, and completed the Army Staff course. He was promoted to Lieutenant-Commander on 1 February and passed the ship command examination on 12 March 1992. From 1993 to 1994, Prince Andrew commanded the Hunt-class minehunter HMS Cottesmore.[10]

From 1995 to 1996, the Duke was posted as Senior Pilot of 815 Naval Air Squadron, then the largest flying unit in the Fleet Air Arm. His main responsibility was to supervise flying standards and to guarantee an effective operational capability.[10] He was promoted to Commander on 27 April 1999,[10] finishing his active naval career at the British Ministry of Defence in 2001, as an officer of the Diplomatic Directorate of the Naval Staff. In July of that year, the Duke of York was retired from the Active List of the Navy.[10] Three years later, he was made an Honorary Captain, rather than the substantive rank of Captain, as would be customary. On 19 February 2010, his 50th birthday, he was promoted to Honorary Rear Admiral. Five years later, he was promoted to Honorary Vice Admiral.[20]

Personal life

Relationship with Koo Stark

Prince Andrew met Koo Stark in February 1981, and they were close for some two years, before and after his active service in the Falklands War.[21][22] Tina Brown has claimed that this was Andrew's only serious love affair.[23] In October 1982, they took a holiday together on the island of Mustique.[24] According to Lady Colin Campbell, Andrew was in love, and the Queen was "much taken with the elegant, intelligent, and discreet Koo".[25] However, in 1983, they split up, under pressure from press, paparazzi, and palace.[21][23] In 1997, Andrew became the godfather of Stark's daughter,[26] and in 2015, when Andrew was facing accusations from Virginia Roberts over the Jeffrey Epstein connection, Stark came to his defence, stating that he was a good man and she could help to rebut the claims.[21]

Marriage to Sarah Ferguson

Prince Andrew married Sarah Ferguson at Westminster Abbey on 23 July 1986. The same day, the Queen created him Duke of York, Earl of Inverness, and Baron Killyleagh.[27] The first two of these titles were previously held by both his maternal great-grandfather and grandfather. Prince Andrew had known Ferguson since childhood; they had met occasionally at polo matches, and became re-acquainted with each other at Royal Ascot in 1985.[28]

The couple appeared to have a happy marriage and had two daughters together, presenting a united outward appearance during the late 1980s. His wife's personal qualities were seen as refreshing in the context of the formal protocol surrounding the Royal Family. However, the Duke of York's frequent travel due to his military career, as well as relentless, often critical, media attention focused on the Duchess of York, led to fractures in the marriage. On 19 March 1992, the couple announced plans to separate and did so in an amicable way.[29] Some months later, pictures appeared in the tabloid media of the Duchess in intimate association with John Bryan, her financial advisor at the time, which effectively ended any hopes of a reconciliation between the Duke and Duchess. The marriage was ended in divorce on 30 May 1996. The Duke of York spoke fondly of his former wife: "We have managed to work together to bring our children up in a way that few others have been able to and I am extremely grateful to be able to do that."[30]

The couple agreed to share custody of their two daughters, and the Duchess continued to live at the Duke's home, Sunninghill Park, until 2004, when he moved to the Royal Lodge. In 2003, Richard Kay, in his first gossip column for the Daily Mail, asserted that the Duke was about to marry the businesswoman Amanda Staveley. She was reported in The Sunday Telegraph as saying, "I will not be marrying Andrew now or in the future." In 2007, Sarah, Duchess of York, purchased Dolphin House, a mansion directly beside the Royal Lodge. In 2008, a fire at Dolphin House resulted in Sarah moving into the Royal Lodge, again sharing a house with the Duke of York. Prince Andrew's lease of Royal Lodge is for 75 years, with the Crown Estate as landlord, and there is no annual tenancy charge.[31]

In May 2010, Sarah, Duchess of York, was filmed by a News of the World reporter claiming that her former husband had agreed that if she were to receive £500,000, he would meet the donor and pass on useful top-level business contacts. She was filmed receiving, in cash, $40,000 as a down payment. The Duke's entourage emphatically denied he knew of the situation.[32] In July 2011, Sarah stated that her multi-million pound debts had been cleared due to the intervention of her former husband, whom she compared to a "knight on a white charger".[33]

Trade, business, activities, and charitable work

Duke of York - World Economic Forum on the Middle East 2008
The Duke of York in his role as the UK's Special Representative for International Trade and Investment at the World Economic Forum on the Middle East, 2008.

Prince Andrew has been the chairman of the Outward Bound Trust since 1999, succeeding his father the Duke of Edinburgh. The charity tries to instil leadership qualities among young people.[34] From 2001 until July 2011, the Duke of York worked with UK Trade & Investment, part of the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, as the United Kingdom's Special Representative for International Trade and Investment.[35] The post, previously held by Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, involved representing and promoting the UK at various trade fairs and conferences around the world.[5] His suitability for the role was challenged in the House of Commons by Shadow Justice Minister Chris Bryant in February 2011, at the time of the 2011 Libyan civil war, on the grounds that he was "not only a very close friend of Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, but also ... a close friend of the convicted Libyan gun smuggler Tarek Kaituni".[36] The Duke is Patron of the Middle East Association (MEA), the UK's premier organisation for promoting trade and good relations with the Middle East, North Africa, Turkey and Iran.[37] Since that ended the Duke continued to support UK enterprise without a special role. Robert Jobson claims he does this work well and wrote, "He is particularly passionate when dealing with young start-up entrepreneurs and bringing them together with successful businesses at networking and showcasing events. Andrew is direct and to the point, and his methods seem to work." [38]

The Duke is also Patron of Fight for Sight, a charity dedicated to research into the prevention and treatment of blindness and eye disease,[39] and was a member of the Scout Association.[40] He tours Canada frequently to undertake duties related to his Canadian military role. Rick Peters, the former Commanding Officer of the Royal Highland Fusiliers of Canada stated that Prince Andrew is "very well informed on Canadian military methods."[41]

The Duke of York in Belfast
The Duke of York in Titanic Belfast on 29 January 2013

The Duke of York receives a £249,000 annuity from the Queen.[42] The Sunday Times reported in July 2008 that for "the Duke of York's public role,... he last year received £436,000 to cover his expenses."[43] On 8 March 2011, The Daily Telegraph reported: "In 2010, the Prince spent £620,000 as a trade envoy, including £154,000 on hotels, food and hospitality and £465,000 on travel."[44]

While touring India as a part of the Queen's Diamond Jubilee in 2012,[45] Andrew became interested in the work of Women's Interlink Foundation (WIF), a charity which helps women acquire skills to earn income. He and his family later initiated Key to Freedom, a project which tries to "find a route to market for products made by WIF."[46][47] On 3 September 2012, the Duke of York was among a team of 40 people who abseiled down The Shard (tallest building in Europe) to raise money for educational charities the Outward Bound Trust and the Royal Marines Charitable Trust Fund.[48][49]

In 2013, it was announced that the Duke was becoming the Patron of London Metropolitan University [50] and the University of Huddersfield.[51][52] In July 2015 he was installed as Chancellor of the University of Huddersfield.[53] In recognition of the Duke's promotion of entrepreneurship he was elected to an Honorary Fellowship at Hughes Hall in the University of Cambridge on 1 May 2018.[54] He became the Patron of the charity Attend[55] in 2003, and is a member of the International Advisory Board of the Royal United Services Institute.

In 2014, the Duke of York founded the Pitch@Palace initiative[56] to support entrepreneurs with the amplification and acceleration of their business ideas. Entrepreneurs selected for Pitch@Palace Bootcamp are officially invited by the Duke[57] to attend St. James Palace in order to pitch their ideas and to be connected with potential investors, mentors and business contacts.[58] The Duke has also founded The Prince Andrew Charitable Trust which aims to support young people in different areas such as education and training.[59] He has also founded a number of awards including Inspiring Digital Enterprise Award (iDEA), a programme to develop the digital and enterprise skills,[60][61] the Duke of York Award for Technical Education, given to talented young people in technical education,[62][63] and the Duke of York Young Entrepreneur Award, which recognises talents of young people in entrepreneurship.[64] The Duke of York has lent his support to organisations that focus on science and technology by becoming the patron of Catalyst Inc and TeenTech.[65][66][67] In 2014, Andrew visited Geneva, Switzerland, to promote British science at CERN's 60th anniversary celebrations.[68] In May 2018, he visited China and opened the Pitch@Palace China Bootcamp 2.0 at Peking University.[69]


Alleged comments on corruption and Kazakhstan

As the United Kingdom's Special Trade Representative, the Duke of York travelled the world to promote British businesses. It was revealed in the United States diplomatic cables leak that the Duke had been reported on by Tatiana Gfoeller, the United States Ambassador to Kyrgyzstan, discussing bribery in Kyrgyzstan and the investigation into the Al-Yamamah arms deal. The Duke, she explained, "was referencing an investigation, subsequently closed, into alleged kickbacks a senior Saudi royal had received in exchange for the multi-year, lucrative BAE Systems contract to provide equipment and training to Saudi security forces." The dispatch continued: "His mother's subjects seated around the table roared their approval. He then went on to 'these (expletive) journalists, especially from the National Guardian [sic], who poke their noses everywhere' and (presumably) make it harder for British businessmen to do business. The crowd practically clapped!"

Earlier in 2010, it was revealed that the Kazakhstan President's billionaire son-in-law Timur Kulibayev paid the Duke of York's representatives £15 million – £3 million over the asking price – via offshore companies, for the Duke's Surrey mansion, Sunninghill Park. Kulibayev frequently appears in US dispatches as one of the men who have accumulated millions in gas-rich Kazakhstan.[70]

In May 2012, it was reported that Swiss and Italian police investigating "a network of personal and business relationships" allegedly used for "international corruption" were looking at the activities of Enviro Pacific Investments which charges "multi-million pound fees" to energy companies wishing to deal with Kazakhstan.[71] The trust is believed to have paid £6 million towards the purchase of Sunninghill which now appears derelict.[71] In response, a Palace spokesman said "This was a private sale between two trusts. There was never any impropriety on the part of The Duke of York".[71]

Libby Purves wrote in The Times in January 2015: "Prince Andrew dazzles easily when confronted with immense wealth and apparent power. He has fallen for 'friendships' with bad, corrupt and clever men, not only in the US but in Libya, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tunisia, wherever."[72]

In May 2016, a fresh controversy broke out when the Daily Mail alleged that the Duke had brokered a deal to assist a Greek and Swiss consortium secure a £385 million contract to build water and sewerage networks in two of Kazakhstan's largest cities, while working as British trade envoy, and had stood to gain a £4 million payment in commission.[73] The newspaper published an email from the Duke to Kazakh oligarch Kenges Rakishev, (who had allegedly brokered sale of the Prince's Berkshire mansion Sunninghill Park), and claimed that Rakishev had arranged meetings for the consortium. After initially claiming the email was a forgery, Buckingham Palace sought to block its publication as a privacy breach.[74] The Palace strongly denied the allegation that the Duke had acted as a "fixer" calling the article "untrue, defamatory and a breach of the editor's code of conduct."[74]

A former Foreign Office minister, MP Chris Bryant stated: "When I was at the Foreign Office it was very difficult to see in whose interests he [the Duke] was acting. He doesn't exactly add lustre to the Royal diadem."[74] There were calls for an official enquiry, the head of campaign group Republic saying "this appears to represent abuse of Andrew's position as trade envoy."[75]

Friendship with Jeffrey Epstein

The Duke of York
The Duke of York riding in the carriage procession at Trooping the Colour, 16 June 2012

In March 2011, it was reported that the Duke's friendship with Jeffrey Epstein, a convicted paedophile, was producing "a steady stream of criticism". Sarah, Duchess of York, disclosed that the Duke helped arrange for Epstein to pay off some of her debts.[76] The Duke strolled publicly with Epstein after the latter's release from prison, allegedly while negotiating this financial help.[77] In July 2011, the Duke was reported to have cut all ties with Epstein,[78] but in July 2011 the Duke's role as Trade Envoy was terminated.[79]

In January 2015, there was renewed media pressure for Buckingham Palace to explain the Duke's connection with Epstein.[80] Peter Oborne, writing in The Daily Telegraph in January 2015, stated that "the proven facts are grim enough. What was the prince doing, in the first place, with Epstein, a paedophile who was jailed in 2008 for soliciting young girls for under-age prostitution?"[81]

Election to Royal Society

Andrew's election to the Royal Society prompted "Britain's leading scientists" to "revolt" due to Andrew's lack of scientific background, with some noting he had only a secondary school level education.[82] In an op-ed in The Sunday Times, Humboldt Prize recipient David Colquhoun opined, in references to Andrew's qualifications, that "if I wanted a tip for the winner of the 14.30 at Newmarket, I’d ask a royal. For most other questions, I wouldn’t."[82][83]

Sex abuse allegations

In January 2015, Virginia Roberts made allegations of sexual impropriety against the Duke in court papers related to a civil action in Florida arising from the Epstein affair, but to which the Duke was not a party. Roberts claimed that the Duke was among men, including "a former prime minister" and Alan Dershowitz, who had sex with her while she was a teenager. She alleged she was first introduced to and, for £10,000,[84] had sex with the Duke on a trip to London in 2001, when she was 17[85] (which is above the age of consent in the United Kingdom[86]), and again in New York (where the age of consent is 17). Flight logs show the Duke and Virginia Roberts were in the same places when she alleges sex happened.[87] The Duke and Roberts were also photographed together with the Duke's arm round Roberts' waist.[88] Roberts said she was pressured to have sex with the Duke and "wouldn't have dared object" and feared leaving, as she felt Epstein, through contacts, could have got her "killed or abducted". The allegations have, as of early 2015, not been tested in any court,[72] but Roberts repeated allegations against the Duke and against Epstein in a sworn legal statement under penalty of perjury.[89]

Buckingham Palace stated that "any suggestion of impropriety with underage minors is categorically untrue", later repeating the denials.[90][91] Lawyers for Roberts claim a request to the Duke for a statement under oath about the allegations was returned unanswered.[92][93] Further, when the Duke was asked if he planned to reply under oath, he refused to answer and left the room.[94] The American government may also be trying to prevent the Duke having to testify under oath.[95]

Dershowitz said, "she's lied about me ... she should not be believed about anyone else ... it must be presumed all her allegations against Prince Andrew were false as well."[96] Dershowitz initiated legal proceedings contesting the allegations and he and Epstein are suing the lawyers representing Roberts.[80][97] In response Virginia Roberts stated she would not "be bullied back into silence."[98]

On 7 April 2015, Judge Kenneth Marra ruled that the "sex allegations made against Prince Andrew in court papers filed in Florida must be struck from the public record".[99][100] Marra made no ruling as to whether claims by Roberts are true or false, specifically stating that Roberts may later give evidence when the case comes to court.[101]

Meetings with Ilham Aliyev

As of November 2014, the Duke had met Ilham Aliyev, the president of Azerbaijan, on 12 separate occasions.[102] He had to stand down as a trade envoy for the UK in 2011 following controversy over his friendship with Aliyev, who has been criticised for corruption and for abuses of human rights by Amnesty International, but he has continued to visit him in Azerbaijan since standing down.[102]

Arms sales

In March 2011 Kaye Stearman of the Campaign Against the Arms Trade told Channel 4 News CAAT sees Prince Andrew as part of a bigger problem, "He is the front man for UKTI. Our concerns are not just Prince Andrew, it's the whole UKTI set up. They see arms as just another commodity but it has completely disproportionate resources. At the London office of UKTI the arms sector has more staff than all the others put together. We are concerned that Prince Andrew is used to sell arms, and where you sell arms it is likely to be to despotic regimes. He is the cheerleader in chief for the arms industry, shaking hands and paving the way for the salesmen."[103]

In January 2014 Prince Andrew took part in a delegation to Bahrain. Spokesman for CAAT, Andrew Smith said, "We are calling on Prince Andrew and the UK government to stop selling arms to Bahrain. By endorsing the Bahraini dictatorship Prince Andrew is giving his implicit support to their oppressive practices. When our government sells arms it is giving moral and practical support to an illegitimate and authoritarian regime and directly supporting their systematic crackdown on opposition groups. (...) We shouldn't allow our international image to be used as a PR tool for the violent and oppressive dictatorship in Bahrain."[104]

Andrew Smith has also said, "The prince has consistently used his position to promote arms sales and boost some of the most unpleasant governments in the world, his arms sales haven’t just given military support to corrupt and repressive regimes. They've lent those regimes political and international legitimacy."[105]

Personal interests

The Duke is a capable golfer, playing off a low single-figure handicap.[106] He was Captain of the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews between 2003 and 2004—during the club's 250th anniversary season—is patron of a number of royal golf clubs, and has been elected as an honorary member of many others. The Duke is also a keen skier and has bought an exclusive skiing chalet in Verbier, Switzerland, for between £8 million and £13 million jointly with Sarah Ferguson.[107]

The Duke is a Liveryman of the Worshipful Company of Shipwrights, the senior maritime City livery company.[108] In recent years, he has developed strong links with Kazakhstan and is a regular goose hunting companion of the country's President Nursultan Nazarbayev.[109]

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

  • 1960–1986: His Royal Highness The Prince Andrew
  • 1986–Present: His Royal Highness The Duke of York[110]

Andrew is currently the seventh in the line of succession to the throne.[111] He has been a British prince from birth. His present style and title in full is: His Royal Highness The Prince Andrew Albert Christian Edward, Duke of York, Earl of Inverness, Baron Killyleagh.[112]

For May 2007 only, Andrew became entitled to be called (albeit academically) His Grace The Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland.

Naval ranks


Royal Victorian Order UK ribbon
South Atlantic Medal w rosette BAR
QEII Silver Jubilee Medal ribbon

Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal ribbon
QEII Diamond Jubilee Medal ribbon
Ribbon - Naval Long Service and Good Conduct Medal v3

CD-ribbon and bar
New Zealand 1990 Commemoration Medal ribbon
St Olavs Orden storkors stripe

Royal Victorian Order UK ribbon
South Atlantic Medal w rosette BAR
QEII Silver Jubilee Medal ribbon
Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal ribbon
QEII Diamond Jubilee Medal ribbon
Ribbon - Naval Long Service and Good Conduct Medal v3
CD-ribbon and bar
New Zealand 1990 Commemoration Medal ribbon
St Olavs Orden storkors stripe




Honorary military appointments

Canada Canada
New Zealand New Zealand
United Kingdom United Kingdom


Coat of arms of the Duke of York
Coat of Arms of Andrew, Duke of York
The Duke's personal coat of arms are the Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom differenced by a label of three points Argent, the central point charged with an anchor Azure.
The coronet of a son of the sovereign Proper, thereon a lion statant guardant Or crowned of the same coronet charged with a label as in the arms.
Quarterly 1st and 4th Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or 2nd Or a lion rampant Gules within a double tressure flory counterflory Gules 3rd Azure a harp Or stringed Argent
Dexter a lion rampant guardant Or imperially crowned proper, sinister a unicorn Argent, armed, crined and unguled Or, gorged with a coronet Or composed of crosses patée and fleurs de lis a chain affixed thereto passing between the forelegs and reflexed over the back also Or.
The Order of the Garter ribbon.
Honi soit qui mal y pense
(Shame be to him who thinks evil of it)
Other elements
The whole differenced by a label of three points Argent, the central point charged with an anchor Azure.
Royal Standard of Prince Andrew, Duke of York.svg The Royal Standard of the United Kingdom, labelled for difference as in his arms. (In Scotland: Royal Standard of Prince Andrew, Earl of Inverness.svg)
As with the Royal Arms of the United Kingdom. The first and fourth quarters are the arms of England, the second of Scotland, the third of Ireland. The anchor has been a brisure for Dukes of York since 1892.

Personal flag for Canada

Royal Standard of Prince Andrew, Duke of York (in Canada)
Flag of the Duke of York for use in Canada

Since 2014, the Duke of York has a personal heraldic flag for use in Canada. It is the Royal Arms of Canada in banner form defaced with a blue roundel surrounded by a wreath of gold maple leaves, within which is a depiction of an "A" surmounted by a coronet. Above the roundel is a white label of three points, the centre one charged with an anchor.[125][126]

Postage stamps

Appears on two stamps with HMS Herald, issued by Saint Helena.[127]


Name Birth Marriage
Date Spouse
Princess Beatrice of York 8 August 1988
Princess Eugenie of York 23 March 1990 12 October 2018 Jack Brooksbank


Ancestors of Prince Andrew, Duke of York[128]
16. Christian IX of Denmark
8. George I of Greece
17. Princess Louise of Hesse-Kassel
4. Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark
18. Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich of Russia
9. Grand Duchess Olga Constantinovna of Russia
19. Princess Alexandra of Saxe-Altenburg
2. Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark
20. Prince Alexander of Hesse and by Rhine
10. Prince Louis of Battenberg
21. Countess Julia Hauke
5. Princess Alice of Battenberg
22. Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine
11. Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine
23. Princess Alice of the United Kingdom
1. Prince Andrew, Duke of York
24. Edward VII of the United Kingdom
12. George V of the United Kingdom
25. Princess Alexandra of Denmark
6. George VI of the United Kingdom
26. Francis, Duke of Teck
13. Princess Mary of Teck
27. Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge
3. Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom
28. Claude Bowes-Lyon, 13th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne
14. Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne
29. Frances Dora Smith
7. Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
30. Charles Cavendish-Bentinck
15. Cecilia Cavendish-Bentinck
31. Caroline Louisa Burnaby



  1. ^ Andrew does not usually use a surname but when one is needed, it is Mountbatten-Windsor.[1]
  2. ^ His godparents were: the Duke of Gloucester (his maternal great-uncle); Princess Alexandra of Kent (his first cousin once removed); Hugh Fitzroy, Earl Euston, as he then was; the Lord Elphinstone (his first cousin once removed); and Mrs Harold Phillips (later Lady Kennard).[3]


  1. ^ "The Royal Family name". Official website of the British monarchy. Archived from the original on 15 February 2009. Retrieved 3 February 2009.
  2. ^ "No. 41961". The London Gazette. 20 February 1960. p. 1377.
  3. ^ "Yvonne's Royalty Home Page: Royal Christenings".
  4. ^ "Royal Family tree and line of succession". BBC. 4 September 2017. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  5. ^ a b "Prince Andrew: Envoy career plagued with controversy". BBC. 21 July 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2018. Educated by a governess, then at Heatherdown Prep School, Surrey, and Gordonstoun in Scotland
  6. ^ a b Barkham, Patrick (9 July 2004). "The Guardian profile: Prince Andrew". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  7. ^ "Gordonstoun turns back clock to a golden age of cold showers (but would Prince Charles agree?)". The Scotsman. 28 April 2009. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  8. ^ a b "Early Life & Education". The Duke of York. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  9. ^ "Naval career". The Duke of York. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "The Duke of York – Naval Career". The Duke of York official website. Retrieved 25 April 2015.
  11. ^ Cahill, Kevin (2010). Who Owns the World: The Surprising Truth About Every Piece of Land on the Planet. New York: Grand Central Publishing. ISBN 978-0-446-55139-7.
  12. ^ Publishing, DK (15 September 2015). Queen Elizabeth II and the Royal Family: A Glorious Illustrated History. DK Publishing. p. 217. ISBN 9781465438003.
  13. ^ "Prince Andrew Talks of His Dangerous Falklands Experiences". MercoPress. 12 June 2001.
  14. ^ "Prince Andrew, a hero of the Falklands war". UPI. 19 June 1982.
  15. ^ "Helicopter pilot Prince Andrew is flying anti-submarine patrols in..." UPI. 3 June 1982.
  16. ^ "Prince Andrew talks of Falklands horror". Glasgow Herald. 14 November 1983. p. 2.
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  • Photographs (1985) by HRH Prince Andrew, a book of photographs taken by Andrew

External links

Prince Andrew, Duke of York
Born: 19 February 1960
Lines of succession
Preceded by
The Duke of Sussex
Succession to the British throne
7th in line
Followed by
Princess Beatrice of York
Orders of precedence in the United Kingdom
Preceded by
The Prince of Wales
& Duke of Rothesay
The Duke of York
Succeeded by
The Earl of Wessex
Preceded by
The Duke of Cambridge
in current practice
Academic offices
Preceded by
Sir Patrick Stewart
Chancellor of the University of Huddersfield
Sporting positions
Preceded by
The Duke of Kent
President of The Football Association
Succeeded by
The Duke of Cambridge
Other offices
Preceded by
The Duke of Kent
Special Representative for International Trade and Investment
Baron Killyleagh

Baron Killyleagh is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created on 23 July 1986 by Queen Elizabeth II as a substantive title for her son Prince Andrew, Duke of York, for the occasion of his marriage to Sarah Ferguson. The couple were married at Westminster Abbey.

It is named after the village and civil parish of Killyleagh, County Down, Northern Ireland. It is best known for its 12th century Killyleagh Castle. On the same day, he was also created Duke of York and Earl of Inverness.Traditionally, male members of the Royal family are granted at least one title on their wedding day by the Monarch.

Castle series stamps

The Castle series or Castle High Value series are two definitive stamp series issued in the United Kingdom during Queen Elizabeth II's reign. The common aspects of the two series are the four chosen castles, one for each country of the United Kingdom.

The first series, designed by Lynton Lamb was issued in September 1955. The second, created from pictures taken by Prince Andrew, Duke of York, the Queen's second son, was issued in October 1988.

The stamps bore the highest denominations completing the Wilding and Machin definitive series. Each Castle series was replaced by Machin stamps, respectively in 1969 and 1999.

Connah's Quay High School

Connah's Quay High School is a comprehensive secondary school in Connah's Quay, North Wales. It is a non-selective, coeducational state school. Pupils are aged from 11 to 18, and in 2005 it had an enrollment of 893.

The school is part of the Deeside Consortium which shares sixth form education and its Local Education Authority is Flintshire LEA.

A £2.3 million science, English and music wing was completed in October 2002, after a two-year project also involving extensions and redevelopment of the existing buildings. When Prince Andrew, Duke of York visited the school to declare the new block officially open, the opening ceremony was interrupted by a fire alarm caused by a hot tea urn.

Earl of Inverness

The title of Earl of Inverness (Scottish Gaelic: Iarla Inbhir Nis) was first created in 1718 in the Jacobite Peerage of Scotland, together with the titles Viscount of Innerpaphrie and Lord Cromlix and Erne, by James Francis Edward Stuart ("James III & VIII") for the Honourable John Hay of Cromlix, third son of the 7th Earl of Kinnoull. He was created Duke of Inverness in 1727, but both titles became extinct upon the death of the grantee in 1740.

It has been created several times in of the Peerage of the United Kingdom, each time as a subsidiary title for a member of the royal family. It was created first in 1801 as a subsidiary title of Prince Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, sixth son of George III, becoming extinct in 1843. Sussex's second wife (whom he married in contravention of the Royal Marriages Act of 1772 making the marriage legally void) was given the title of Duchess of Inverness in her own right, which became extinct upon her death in 1873.

The next creation was for Prince George (later George V), second son of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (later Edward VII) and grandson of Queen Victoria, as a subsidiary title along with the Dukedom of York. As the Prince became King in 1910, succeeding his father, his titles merged in the crown.

The title was created again in 1920 as a subsidiary title of the Prince Albert (second son of George V), who was also created Duke of York at the same time. The title merged in the crown when Albert succeeded his brother in 1936 to become King George VI.

The title was created a fourth time in 1986 as a subsidiary title for Queen Elizabeth II's second son, Prince Andrew, Duke of York, along with the title of Baron Killyleagh.

Georgina Kennard

Georgina, Lady Kennard (née Wernher; 17 October 1919 – 28 April 2011) was a member of the British aristocracy who has been described as "one of the best connected women in the country" and "a distant cousin of the Queen and one of her closest friends". Lady Kennard was the mother of Alexandra Hamilton, Duchess of Abercorn, and Natalia Grosvenor, Duchess of Westminster. She was also an aunt of Maralyn Ramsay, Countess of Dalhousie, the sister of Myra Alice Wernher, Lady Butter, and a first cousin once removed of George Mountbatten, 4th Marquess of Milford Haven. She was the godmother to the Queen's second son, Prince Andrew, Duke of York, who attended her funeral in person.

HMS Cottesmore (M32)

HMS Cottesmore was a Hunt-class mine countermeasures vessel of the British Royal Navy, launched in 1982 and converted in 1997 into a patrol vessel. The ship was declared surplus to requirement and put on the MoD list for disposal in 2004. In 2008 she was bought by Lithuania, along with Dulverton.

Lieutenant Commander Prince Andrew, Duke of York commanded Cottesmore from April 1993 until November 1994. She was decommissioned by the Royal Navy in September 2005. The ship's bell and other memorabilia were presented to the village of Cottesmore, Rutland.

The ship entered service with the Lithuanian Navy as M53 Skalvis. Thales was the prime contractor to upgrade the vessels with a technologically advanced minehunting system including the hull-mounted Sonar 2193 system, propulsion, command and control systems, and mine disposal systems.

Langland Bay Golf Club

Langland Bay Golf Club is an 18-hole golf course known in an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty overlooking Langland Bay near Swansea, Wales, UK.The first evidence of a golf club at Langland Bay is a minute book dating from 1901. The golf course was officially opened on 10 September 1904. The centenary in 2004 was marked by special events and a visit from Prince Andrew, Duke of York.The club's members claim Hole 6 is the most difficult in Wales, while Hole 16 is known as "Death Or Glory" with the sea on one side and a 100 feet steep drop on the other. The other holes typically have small greens and plenty of rough grass and sand traps. The sea can be easily seen from 15 of its 18 holes.The club hosts the Gwalia PGA Pro-Am tournament each year, raising money for the Gwalia Housing Trust.

List of Canadian organizations with royal patronage

This is a list of Canadian organizations with royal patronage. The practice of members of the Canadian Royal Family giving their patronage to Canadian organizations stems from that which started in the United Kingdom in pre-industrial times, when all development of the sciences and arts were under the direct control of the monarch and exercised by the foundation of colleges that today form the basis of modern universities. Today, royal patronage is a ceremonial function wherein the royal person will either volunteer their time for service or make charitable donations, in order to help bring recognition to the group's achievements and to the contributions of different sectors of public life.Any organization may apply for royal patronage, via the Office of the Governor General; however, to receive the honour, an organization must prove to be long lasting and have aims and objectives that will earn the approval of the person from whom patronage is requested. Also, patronage is typically granted to athletic, artistic, cultural, or charitable organizations; rarely to corporate or for-profit companies. Some charities and volunteer organizations have been founded as gifts to, or in honour of, some of Canada's monarchs or members of the Royal Family, such as the Victorian Order of Nurses (a gift to Queen Victoria for her Diamond Jubilee in 1897), the Canadian Cancer Fund (set up in honour of King George V's Silver Jubilee in 1935), and the Queen Elizabeth II Fund to Aid in Research on the Diseases of Children.

List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 2013

This page lists Fellows of the Royal Society who were elected in 2013.

Macquarie University Incubator

The Macquarie University Incubator is a space to research and develop ideas that can be commercialised. It was established in 2017 as a part of the Macquarie Park Innovation District (MPID) project. Macquarie University received $1 million grant from the New South Wales government to build the incubator. The University has also committed about $7 million to the incubator with financial support of the big businesses and the New South Wales government.

It was officially opened by Prince Andrew, Duke of York on 25 September 2017.


Mountbatten-Windsor is the personal surname used by some of the male-line descendants of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Under a declaration made in Privy Council in 1960, the name Mountbatten-Windsor applies to male-line descendants of the Queen without royal styles and titles. Individuals with royal styles do not usually use a surname, but some descendants of the Queen with royal styles have used Mountbatten-Windsor when a surname was required.

Philip Yea

Philip Edward Yea (born 11 December 1954) is a British businessman and private equity investor who currently serves as chairman of the British Heart Foundation and of Equiniti Plc.

Prior to this, he was chief executive of 3i Group plc, from 2005 to January 2009. Yea is an executive director of Vodafone Group plc and senior business adviser to Prince Andrew, Duke of York. In 2008, he was ranked 41st in The Times Power 100 list, a list which rates the most powerful people in British business

Princess Beatrice of York

Princess Beatrice of York (Beatrice Elizabeth Mary; born 8 August 1988) is a member of the British royal family. She is the elder daughter of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, and Sarah, Duchess of York. She is eighth in line to succeed her grandmother Queen Elizabeth II.

Princess Eugenie of York

Princess Eugenie of York ( YOO-zhə-nee; Eugenie Victoria Helena; born 23 March 1990) is a member of the British royal family, and the younger daughter of Prince Andrew, Duke of York, and Sarah, Duchess of York. She is ninth in line of succession to the British throne, after her elder sister, Princess Beatrice of York.

Royal Lodge

The Royal Lodge is a Grade II listed house in Windsor Great Park in Berkshire, England, half a mile north of Cumberland Lodge and 3 miles (4.8 km) south of Windsor Castle. It was the Windsor residence of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother from 1952 until her death there in 2002. Since 2004, it has been the official country residence of Prince Andrew, Duke of York.

The Duke of York, Fitzrovia

The Duke of York is a public house at 47 Rathbone Street, Fitzrovia, London, W1. It is located in the north of the street on the corner with Charlotte Place and bears the year 1791.In 1943 Anthony Burgess and his wife were drinking in the pub when they witnessed it invaded by a "razor gang". It has been speculated that this influenced the content of his later novel A Clockwork Orange.The current landlords are Debbie Sickelmore and Alan Monks.

In 2012, the pub's licence was reviewed, after it was wrongly accused of failure to control customers outside the pub. The owners won their court case against Westminster council allowing customers to drink outside. In 2014, Prince Andrew, Duke of York gave permission for his image to be used on the new pub sign, making it the only known pub to bear the current Duke of York's image on its sign.

Two Jane Does v US

Jane Doe #1 and Jane Doe #2 vs United States of America is a civil action in the US District Court in Florida, which has led to allegations of inappropriate behavior being made against Alan Dershowitz and Prince Andrew, Duke of York.

Dershowitz has made a legal declaration denying allegations against him made by a woman referred to as "Jane Doe #3".

Wedding dress of Sarah Ferguson

Sarah Ferguson wore a dress made from ivory duchesse satin and featuring heavy beading for her wedding to Prince Andrew, Duke of York on 23 July 1986 at Westminster Abbey. Designed by Lindka Cierach, the beadwork incorporated various symbols including hearts representing romance, anchors and waves representing Prince Andrew's sailing background and bumblebees and thistles, which were taken from Sarah Ferguson's family heraldry. Copies of the dress, including the motifs specific to the royal family, went on sale in stores just hours after the end of the wedding. Influenced by the wedding dress of Lady Diana Spencer, a notable feature of Sarah Ferguson's 17 foot long train was the intertwined initials A and S sewn in silver beads. The head-dress and bouquet, fabric rosettes or artificial silk flowers were used to adorn the gown itself. Ferguson was pleased with the dress, describing it in her 1997 memoir, My Story, as "an exquisite creation I'd lost twenty-six pounds to fit into. Lindka was a genius; I knew she could make the most flattering gown ever, and she had. It was amazingly boned, like a corset." Hair stylist Denise McAdam and make-up artist Teresa Fairminer attended to the bride, while florist Jane Packer designed the bouquet. The ivory silk wedding dress became the season's most sought-after style.

Wedding of Prince Andrew and Sarah Ferguson

The wedding of Prince Andrew and Sarah Ferguson was held on 23 July 1986, at Westminster Abbey in London, England.

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